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Lecturer  on  Veterinary  Science  at  the  Aspatria  Agricultural  College,  England 




851  AND  853  Sixth  Avenue 




1.  "  Rush" ; Frontspiece. 

2.  Ppints  of  the  Horse 8 

3.  Points  of  the  Cow 12 

4.  Points  of  the  Sheep    16 

5.  Skeleton  of  the  Horse    18 

6.  Skeleton  of  the  Cow 22 

7.  Diseased  Bones 34 

8.  Superficial  Muscles  of  the  Horse     38 

9.  Points  of  Disease  of  the  Horse — External 46 

10.  Dislocation  of  the  Patella 55 

11.  Tendons  and  Ligaments  of  the 'Fore-leg   and  Feet 56 

12.  Sections  of  Feet  showing  Blood  Vessels  and  Lamina     61 

1 3.  Sections  of  Overgrown  and  Laminitic  Feet 63 

14.  Sections  of  Feet  showing  direction  of  Nails  in  Hoof , 65 

15.  Horse  Shoes 73 

16.  Horse  with  Laminitis y^ 

17.  Digestive   Organs  of  the  Horse 83 

18.  Horse  laid  open  showing  Internal  Organs    88 

19.  A. — Horse  in  Colic    ,  „ 102 

B. — Horse  with   Calculi  in  Bowels 102 

20.  Telescopic    Gut — Elephantiasis 104 

21.  Digestive  Organs  of  the  Cow 114 

22.  Appearance  of  Cow's  Stomach — Internal  and  External    ij6 

23.  Various  Stages  of  Liver  Fluke — Egg,  Embryo,  Sporocyst,  and  Redia 128 

24.  Various  Stages  of  Liver  Fluke— Redia,  Cercaria,  and  Full  Grown 130 

25.  Horse's  Teeth  at  Different  Ages 147 

26.  Horse's  Teeth  at  Different  Ages 148 

27.  Lower  Jaw  of  Horse — Shells . .  . ; 151 

28.  Horse's  Teeth — Molars — Growths  on  Teeth 153 

Permanent  Pre-molars  and  Molars  of  the  Cow   153 

Permanent  Incisors  of  the  Cow 156 

29.  Lower  Jaw  of  Cow.  and  Shells 157 

30.  Instruments — Tooth 161 

f  A. — Right  Side  of  Heart  showing  Vessels   172 

31.  Heart    \  .  ,  ^       ^ 

[  B. — Right  Side  of  Heart  laid  open    172 

32.  Circulation  of  the  Blood 174 

33.  Respiratory  System  of  the  Horse 199 

34.  Nervous  System  of  the  Horse 233 


35.  Brain  of  the  Horse,  Section  of  Spinal  Cord ; . .  234 

36.  The  Eye,  Section  of  the  Eye 260 

37.  Section  of  the    Skin — Parasites 280 

38.  Urinary  Organs  (Male) — Generative  Organs  (Female) 285 

39.  Calf  in  Utero  and  Membranes   307 

40.  A. — Cow  in  Parturition : 311 

B. — Imperforated  Hymen    311 

Various  Presentations  in  Parturition 312 

n  Parturition 313 

n  Parturition 314 

in  Parturition 315 

n  Parturition 316 

in  Parturition 317 

in  Parturition 318 

n  Parturition 319 

on 320 

50.  Calf  with  Two   Heads 322 

51 .  Instruments — General   332 


42.  Various  Presentations 

43.  Various  Presentations 

44.  Various  Presentations 

45.  Various  Presentations 

46.  Various  Presentations 

47.  Various  Presentations 

48.  Various  Presentations 

49.  Instruments — Parturit 

FIRST   LECTURE.       • 



The  Vital  Stimulus  of  Organic  Life — Influence  of  Electricity  on  Inorganic  and 
Organic  Material —Action  of  the  X  Rays — Definition  of  Life — Death,  the 
Cessation  of  the  Powers  of  Absorption,  Assimilation,  Secretion,  Excretion, 
and  Reproduction — Composition  of  the  Tissues  of  the  Body — Composition 
of  Cells — Character  of  Simple  Cell — What  the  Microscope  Reveals — The 
Province  of  Histology,  Anatomy,  Physiology,  and  Pathology — Arrangements 
of  Lectures — Order  of  Subjects — What  is  a  State  of  Health — The  Process 
of  Nutrition — Conditions  for  Healthy  Nutrition — How  Disorder  and  Disease 
arise — Definition  of  Pathology,  Etiology,  Symptomatology,  Prognosis, 
Therapeutics,  Hygiene,  Epizootic,  Enzootic,  Specific,  Sporadic — Inflamma- 
tion, Reparative  and  Destructive — The  Action  of  Inflammation,  Irritation, 
Contraction,  Dilatation,  and  Congestion — The  Local  Signs  of  Inflammation, 
Heat,  Pain,  Redness,  Swelling — Various  kinds  of  Inflammation,  Acute, 
Sub-Acute,  and  Chronic — Character  of  Attacks,  Sthenic  or  Asthenic — 
Terminations,  Results  or  Effects  of  Inflammation — Resolution — Exudation 
and  Adhesion — Effusion — Suppuration,  Acute  and  Chronic,  Dift'used  and 
Superficial — Kinds  of  Pus,  Laudable,  Putrid,  Sanious,  Scrofulous  and 
Specific — Ulceration  and  Kinds  of  Ulcers.  Healthy,  Inflamed,  Indolent, 
Weak,  Sloughing,  and  Specific  —Mortification — Moist  and  Dry  Gangrene- 
Senile  Gangrene — Sloughs  and  Sloughing — Treatment  for  Inflammation — 
Septicaemia  or  Blood  Poisoning — The  Causes  of  Inflammation,  Vital, 
Chemical,  and  Mechanical — Local  and  Constitutional  Treatment — Local 
Treatment  for  Founder,  Weed,  and  A  bscesses—  Sympathetic  and  Symptomatic 
Fever -Treatment  for  Sympathetic  Fever — Difference  in  Town  and 
Country  Practice — Simple  Fever  and  its  Treatment — Abuse  and  Judicioiis 
Use  of  Bleeding—  Fever  arising  from  Specific  or  Germic  Causes — Treatment 
for  Septic  Fever  — Use  of  Clinical  Thermometer — Normal  Temperature  of 
Animals — The  Use  of  Wonderful  Patent  Nostrums — The  Assistance  of  the 
Professional  Qualified  Veterinary  Practitioner — First  Aid  to  Animals- 
Nature's  Recuperative  Power — Vis  Mcdicatrix  Natitm—The  Use  of  Common 
Salt      ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..         I— 16 


Osteology,  the  Study  of  Bones — Three  Classes  of  Bones,  Long,  Flat,  Short  and 
Irregular  -The  Periosteum  and  Endosteum--The  Skeleton  divided  into 
Head,  Trunk,  and  Extremities— The  Cranium  and  Face — Bones  of  the 
Head,  Cranium,  Ear  and  Face  of  the  Horse,  Ox,  Dog,  and  Pig— Bones  of 
the  Trunk,  Spine,  Thorax,  and  Pelvis  of  the  Horse,  Ox,  Dog,  and  Pig — 
The  Sternum  Sacrum  and  Ribs — Bones  of  the  Extremities,  Fore-legs  and 
Hind-legs,  Right  and  Left— The  Pelvic  Bone— Arthrology,  the  Study  of 
Joints  and  Ligaments— Three  Classes  of  Joints  -Synarthrosis,  Amphiar- 
throsis  and  Diarthrosis— Composition  of  Ligaments — Capsular,  Binding, 
Lateral,  Interosseous  and  Annular  Ligaments— Synovial  Membrane  and 
Synovia  or  Joint  Oil — Cartilage  or  Gristle,  Temporary  and  Permanent — 
Hyaline-Cartilage  and  Fibro-Cartilage -Articular,  Interarticular,  Costal, 
Cariniform,  Ensiform  and  Lateral  Cartilages— The  Cartilage  of  Pro- 
longation— Healthy  Bone  is  Non-sensitive— BonesSubject  to  Inflammation — 
Periostitis  or  Inflammation  of  the  Covering  of  the  Bone — Necrosis  or  Death 
of  the  Bone— Treatment  of  Periostitis— Ostitis  or  Inflammation  of  the 
Bone— Cause  of  Splint,  Ringbone,  and  Spavin— Exostosis — Treatment  for 
Intiammation  of  the  Bone- -Tub  and  Tube  Irrigation— Caries  or  Ulceration 
of  the  Bone— Treatment  for  Caries — Anchylosis— The  Formation  of 
Sinuses— Treatment  for  Necrosis — Rickets,  Cause  and  Treatment— 
Mollities  Ossium— Osteo-PorosiS — Osteo-Sarcoma  or  Bone  Tumour — 
Scrofulous  or  Tubercular  Disease  of  the  Bone  — Enchondroma — Fractures- 
Treatment  for  Fractures-Simple,  Compound,  Compound  Comminuted, 
Complicated,  Green  Stick  and  Impacted  Fractures— The  Cervical  Vertebras 
and  Fractures— Broken  Back— Fractures  of  the  Haunch  Hook,  Ilium, 
Pelvic  Bones,  Ischium,  Femur,  Tibia,  Scapula,  Humerus,  Ulna,  Radius 
and  Shank  Bones---Fracture  of  the  Knee  Joint,  Sesamoids,  Large  and  Small 
Pastern,  Coffin  and  Navicular  Bones  — Special  Diseases  of  the  Bone— Splint — 
Treatment  for  Splint — Sore  Shins— Ringbone,  High  and  Low — Treatment 
of  Ringbone — Sidebone  and  Navicular  Disease— Stifle  Joint  Disease — Bone 
Spavin— Occult  Spavin — Treatment  of  Bone  Spavin— Illustrations  and 
Explanatory  Text  of  Diseases  of  the  Bones  ..  ..  ..      17 — 37 



Structure  of  Muscle,  Flesh  or  Beef -Striped  orVoluiUary  Muscles— Non-striped 
or   Involuntary    Muscles — Tendons  or   Sinews — Cellular,    White    Fibrous, 

Yellow  Elastic  and  Adipose  Tissues — Injuries  and  Diseases  of  Muscles  and 
Tendons — Local  Treatment  of  Incised  Wounds — Bruised  and  Contused 
Wounds— Lacerated  Wounds— Punctured  Wounds — Gun-shot  Wounds- 
Poisoned  Wounds —Lacerated  Muscles  and  Treatment— Treatment  for 
Lameness  of  the  Shoulder  and  Shoulder  Joint — Rheumatism  in  Shoulder 
and  its  Treatment — Cripples  or  Crockles,  Cause,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Kennel  Lameness  — Poll  Evil,  Cause,  Symptoms,  and  Treatment — Fistulous 
Withers — Elbow  Joint,  Injuries  and  Treatment — Broken  Knee,  Injuries  and 
Treatment — Speedy  Cut — Brushing  and  Cutting — Sprain  of  the  Tendons — 
Operation  of  Tenotomy — Breakdown — Sesamoiditis — Treatment  for  Hip 
Joint  Lameness  and  Windgall — Cause,  Symptoms,  and  Treatment  of  Bog 
Spavin,  Thorough  Pin,  Serous  Capped  Hock,  Synovial  Capped  Hock,  False 
Curb,  True  Curb,  and  Spring  Hock — Open  Joint— Stifle  Joint — Luxation 
of  the  Patella — Dislocation  of  the  Patella — Symptoms  and  Treatment  of 
Diseased  and  Injured  Joints  and  Patella — Hip  Joint  Dislocation         . .       38 — 55 


THE    horse's    foot — SHOEING,    ETC. 

Structure  of  Horse's  Foot — Sensitive  and  Non-sensitive — The  Hoof  made  up  of 
Wall  or  Crust,  Bars,  Sole,  Frog,  and  Frog  Band — The  Toe,  Quarters,  Heels 
and  Bars — The  Coronary  Band — The  Perioplic  Ring -The  "White  Line" 
Bulbs,  Commissures,  Cleft  and  Frog-stay — The  Sensitive  Structures  of  the 
Foot— The  Coronary  Band,  Sensitive  Laminje,  Sensitive  Sole,  and  Fatty 
B'rog—  Cofifin  or  Pedal  Bone — Short  Pastern  Bone— Shuttle  Bone-^Lateral 
Cartilages  and  Side  Bones — Historical  Resume — Art  of  Horse-shoeing — 
Varieties  of  Feet,  Sound  Narrow,  Flat,  Dished,  and  Odd — Kinds  of  Shoes — 
For  Racehorses,  Hunters,  Hackneys,  and  Carriage  Horses,  Cart  and  Waggon 
Horses — Bar  Shoes,  Round  or  Rocker  Shoes,  Three-quarter  Shoes,  Diamond- 
toed  Shoes  and  Feather-edged  Shoes — Preparing  the  Foot  for  the  Shoe — 
Fitting  the  Shoe  —Nails  and  Nail-holes — Dressing  the  Hoof — Stopping  for 
the  Feet— Leather  Soles— India-rubber  Pads — Injuries  to  and  Disease  of  the 
Foot  of  the  Horse — Pricks  and  Treatment — Corns — Quittor — Sidebones, 
Cause  and  Treatment — Sandcrack,  Definition  and  Treatment- -Seedy  Toe — 
False  Quarter — Thrush,  Cause  and  Treatment — Canker,  How  Produced  and 
Treatment— Treads  and  Over-reaches — Groggy  Lameness  — Laminitis  or 
Founder,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Injuries  to  and  Diseases  of  the  Feet 
of  the  Cow,  Sheep,  Dog  and  Pig- Cloven  Hoof  of  the  Cow — Foot  has  no 
Prog — Foul  in  the  Foot  and  its  Treatment — Foot  and  Mouth  Disease — 
Laminitis — Sore  Feet— Interdigital  Growths  — Overgrown  Hoofs — Foot  of 
the  Sheep— Foot  Rot  and  its  Treatment — The  Dog's  Foot — Dew  Claws — 

In-growing  of  Claws— Injured  Pads  of  the  Foot — Excoriated  and  Inflamed 
Interdigital  Space — Sore  Feet — Treatment  for  Injuries  to  Dog's  Feet — Pigs 
Feet,  Injuries,  Diseases  and  Treatment.      . .  . .  . .  ...    56 — S 



Organs  of  Digestion  of  Non-Ruminants  and  Ruminants— Marked  Differences — 
Digestive  Organs  of  the  Horse — The  Mouth,  comprising  Lips,  Cheeks,  Hard 
Palate,  Soft  Palate,  Tongue  and  Teeth  The  SaHvary  Glands,  Parotid, 
Sub-Lingual  and  Sub-Maxillary — The  Pharynx  or  Throat — The  CEsophagus 
or  Gullet — The  Stomach — Coats  of  the  Stomach,  Serous,  Muscular,  and 
Mucous— The  Cardiac  Orifice— The  Pyloric  Orifice — The  Small  Intestine, 
comprising  the  Duodenum,  Jejunum  and  Ileum — The  Large  Intestine, 
comprising  the  Caecum,  the  Colons,  and  the  Rectum — Coats  of  the 
Intestines — Accessory  Digestive  Organs — The  Liver,  Spleen,  Pancreas  and 
Portal  Vein — The  Processes  of  Digestion — Mastication — Use  of  Saliva — 
Formation  of  a  Bolus — Swallowing — Action  of  Gastric  Juice — Formation  of 
Chyme — Action  of  Bile,  Pancreatic  Juice,  and  Intestinal  Fluids — Conversion 
of  Chyme  into  Chyle — Villi  in  Intestinal  Track — The  Receptaculum  Chyli — 
Faeces — Watering  Horses  before  and  after  Feeding  —Injuries  to  the  Digestive 
Organs — Derangements  and  Diseases  of  the  Digestive  Organs  — Injuries  to 
the  Lips  and  Treatment — Injuries  to  the  Roof  of  the  Mouth  and  Treatment — 
Lampas — Injury  of  the  Soft  Palate — Method  of  Giving  Balls — Injury  to  the 
Lower  Jaw  and  Tongue — Glossitis  and  its  Treatment — Treatment  of  an 
Injured  Fraenum — Treatment  of  Ulcers  on  the  Tongue — Injuries  common 
to  the  Tongues  of  Horses  and  Cattle,  Dogs  and  Cats — Actinomycosis  or 
Wooden  Tongue — Treatment  of  Actinomycosis — Stomatitis  Pustulosa  and 
its  Treatment — The  Blebs  of  Aptha  or  Thrush^Injuries  of  the  Pharynx — 
Tracheotomy — Choking  and  Treatment — Use  of  Trocar  and  Canula — 
Abscesses  and  Tumours  in  Pharynx — Injuries  and  Diseases  of  the 
CEsophagus — The  Use  of  the  Probang — Derangement  of  the  Stomach  of  the 
Horse,  Causes,  Symptoms  and.  Treatment  —  Rupture  of  the  Stomach,  its 
Symptoms— Stomach  Staggers  in  the  Horse,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Indigestion  and  Treatment — Crib-biting — Wind-sucking — Ulceration  of  the 
Stomach  and  its  Treatment — Gastritis,  Cause,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Mineral  and  Vegetable  Poisoning,  Post-mortem  Appearance — Treatment  for 
Poisoning — Bots — Methods  of  Infection,  Means  of  Prevention — Round 
Worms  and  Tape  Worms,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Spasmodic  and 
Flatulent  Colic— Enteritis — Lesions  of  the  Horse's  Bowels — Treatment  for 
Enteritis  and  Lesions — Inflammation  of  Large  Intestine — Weed — Concre- 

tions  or  Calculi— Analysis  of  a  Calculus — Phosphatic,  Oathair  and  Mixed 
Calculi — Constipation  and  its  Treatment — Diarrhoea,  Acute,  Sub-Acute  and 
Intermittent — Superpurgation — Dysentery — Hernia  or  Rupture—  Scrotal 
and  Umbilical  Hernia — Injuries  to  the  Rectum — Eversion  of  the  Rectum — 
Paralysis  of  the  Rectum — Arrangement  of  the  Alimentary  Canal  of  the 
Dog — Derangements  and  Diseases  of  the  Dog's  Stomach  and  Bowels — 
Indigestion,  Costiveness  and  Diarrhoea  in  Dogs— Impaction  of  the  Rectum — 
Worms  in  Dogs — Liver  Disorders  in  the  Dog — The  Pig's  Digestive  Organs — 
Ailments  most  Commonly  Met  With — Gastritis,  Constipation,  Scour  and 
Worms — Treatment  Necessary — Protrusion  or  Eversion  of  the  Rectum — 
Imperforate  Anus  and  its  Treatment         ..  ..  ..  ..       82—114 



Organs  of  Digestion  in  Ruminants^ — The  Stomach  of  Ruminants — The 
Rumen — The  Honeycomb — The  Manyplies — The  Abomasum — Rumination 
or  Chewing  the  Cud — Rumenotomy — The  Small  Intestine,  the  Caecum, 
Colon  and  Rectum — Alimentary  Canal  in  Sheep — Derangements  and  Diseases 
of  the  Alimentary  Canal  and  Accessory  Organs — Hoven  or  Tympanitis, 
Causes  and  Treatment — Impaction  of  the  Rumen,  Symptoms  and  Treat- 
ment— Vomition  and  its  Treatment^ — Derangement  of  the  Second  Stomach — 
Impaction  of  the  Third  Stomach — Fardel  Bound,  its  Symptoms  and 
Treatment — Gastritis  in  Fourth  Stomach — Lead  Poisoning — Plants  of  a 
Poisonous  Nature — Stomach  Staggers,  its  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Spasmodic  Colic — Enteritis — Gut-tie  and  its  Treatment — Horning  in  of 
Nutriment — Diarrhoea — Derangement  and  Disease  of  the  Liver — The  Liver 
Fluke — Life  History  of  the  Fluke — Dressing  Land  with  Salt  for  Fluke — 
Bloody  Flux  and  its  Treatment — Peritonitis — Dropsy  or  Ascites — 
Description  of  the  Liver — Glisson's  Capsule — Bloodvessels  of  the  Liver — 
The  Gall  Bladder — Hypertrophied  Liver- — Fatty  Degeneration  and  Fatty 
Infiltration  of  the  Liver- Symptoms  and  Treatment- Ruptured  Liver — 
Jaundice — Congestion  of  the  Liver,  Symptoms  and  Treatment— Gall 
Stones — Liver  Complications  in  the  Dog — The  Pancreas — Description  of 
the  Spleen — The  Coeliac  Axis — Lymphadenoma,  its  Symptoms  and 
Treatment — Splenic  Apoplexy  or  Anthrax— The  Anthrax  Bacillus — Cause  of 
Anthrax — Treatment  for  Anthrax— Red  Water — Braxy,  Dry  and  Wet — 
Mesenteric  Disease — Fourth  Stomach  in  Calves — Rennet — White  Scour, 
Treatment  and  Prevention — Hair  and  Wool  Balls — Navel-Ill — Joint  Felon — 
Digestive  Organs  of  Sheep — Diminution  in  Quantity  of  Medicine  to  be 
administered — Verminous  or  Parasitic  Bronchitis,  or  Hoose — How  Lambs 
are  Infected — Treatment  of  Infected  Land  and  Animals      ..  ..      115 — 146 


THE     DENTITION      OF      HORSES,     CATTLE,      SHEEP,     PIGS,      AND     DOGS, 

Development  of  Teeth— Parts  of  a  Tooth — Crown,  Neck,  and  Root — 
Composition  of  Teeth — Dentine  Enamel  and  Crusta  Petrosa — Temporary 
or  Milk  Teeth —Permanent  Teeth — Dentition  of  the  Horse — Teeth  as 
Indicators  of  a  Horse's  Age--Bishoping — Number  of  Teeth  in  Domestic 
Animals — Dentition  of  a  Foal  and  Horse  at  Various  Ages— Dentition  and 
its  Influence  on  Various  Diseases— Dampers — Retarded  Dentition — Feeding 
and  Dentition  —  Operating  on  Elongated  Teeth — Teeth  becoming  Carious — 
Extracting  Teeth  -Wolf  Teeth — Parrot-mouthed  Animals — The  Dentition 
of  Cattle— Teething  Causing  Constitutional  Disturbance — The  Dentition  of 
Sheep — The  Dentition  of  the  Pig — The  Dentition  of  the  Dog— Dental 
Derangement  in  Cattle,  Sheep,  Pig  and  Dog— Feeding  Stuffs  in  connection 
with  Dentition — The  Use  of  Wheat  for  Horses  and  Cattle — The  Use  of 
Barley  for  Feeding  Horses,  Cattle,  and  Calves — The  Use  and  Value  of  Oats 
and  Maize — The  Use  of  Beans  and  Peas — The  Dog  Tooth  Pea  or  Gram — 
Linseed — Linseed  Cake,  its  Composition  and  Value— Decorticated  and 
Undecorticated  Cotton  Cake  —Composition  and  Use — The  Value  of  Palm- 
Nut  Cake  and  Meal,  Rice  Meal,  and  Cocoanut  Cake  and  Meal  — Compound 
Cakes  and  Meals — The  Use  and  Value  of  Bran  . .  . .      147 — 171 



The  Circulatory  System — The  Heart,  its  Shape  and  Situation — The 
Pericardium  and  Epicardium— The  Coronary  Arteries  and  Veins — The 
Cavities  of  the  Heart — The  Auricles — The  Tricuspid  and  Bicuspid 
Valves — The  Foramen  Ovale — The  Ventricles^The  Chordae  Tendineae  — 
The  Venae  Cavae — The  Pulmonary  Artery  and  Veins—  Venous  and  Arterial 
Blood — The  Aorta  -The  Coats  of  Arteries —Capillaries — Veins — The  Portal 
Vein— The  Circulation  of  the  Blood— The  Pulse— The  Pulse  Beats  of 
Animals-  The  Character  of  the  Pulse,  Varieties  of  Beats-  Where  the  Pulse 
is  Felt  in  Horse,  Cow,  Sheep,  Pig,  and  Dog— Two  Kinds  of  Blood — The 
Plasma— The  Red  Corpuscles — The  White  Corpuscles — Haemoglobin, 
Leucocytes  and  Phagocytes — The  Action  of  Disease-producing  Germs  in 
Blood— The  Proteids,  Extractives  and  Mineral  Matter  of  Blood— The 
Clotting  of  Blood — Crassamentum,  Fibrin  and  Serum — The  Lymphatic  or 
Absorbent  System — Glands— Afferent  and  Efferent  Vessels — Lymph  and 
Chyle — Lacteals — Right    Lymphatic   Vessel — Heart   Diseases,    Functional 

and  Organic — Hypertrophy  or  Enlargement  of  the  Heart  — Atrophied 
Heart — Symptoms  of  Diseased  Heart — Examination  for  Soundness — 
Diseases  of  the  Pericardium — Grease  at  the  Heart  — Heart  Diseases  in  the 
Cow — Thrombi  and  its  Treatment — Phlebitis — Azoturia  or  Nitrogenous 
Urine,  Symptoms  and  Treatment  — Purple  Bleeding,  Symptoms  and 
Treatment — Influenza  and  Pink  Eye — Urticaria  in  Horse  and  Cow — 
Lymphangitis — Symptoms  and  Treatment  of  Weed — Elephantiasis — 
Inflammation  of  the  Lymphatics — Swelled  Legs  and  Sheath — Epidemic  or 
Epizootic  Diseases — Anthrax  -  Black  Quarter — Symptomatic  Anthrax — 
Symptoms  and  Treatment  of  Quarter-ill — Preventive  Measures — Rinderpest 
or  Cattle  Plague — Foot  and  Mouth  Disease  or  Murrain — Red  Water — Lands 
Affected  with  Red  Water — Analysis  of  Red  Water— Symptoms,  Treatment 
and  Prevention  of  Red  Water — Swine  Fever,  its  Character,  Symptoms  and 
Treatment — Symptoms  of  Indigestion  in  Pigs  and  Treatment  . .      172 — 



The  Nose  and  Nasal  Chambers — Turbinated  Bones  in  Horse  and  Cow — 
Jacobson's  Canal — The  Larynx — Cartilages  composing  the  Larynx — The 
Trachea— The  Thyroid  Gland — The  Thymus  Gland — The  Bronchi — The 
Lungs  or  Lights — The  Thorax  or  Chest — The  Diaphragm — The  ^Pleura — 
Movements  in  Respiration — Inspiration  and  Expiration — Tidal  Air,  Reserve 
Air;  Complemental  Air,  and  Residual  Air — Cubic  Air  Space  for  the  Horse — 
Cubic  Air  Space  for  the  Cow — Diseases  of  the  Respiratory  Organs,  How 
Caused — Polypi  in  the  Nose — Warts  on  the  Nose  — Broken  Nose  — 
Haemorrhage  and  its  Treatment — Gadfly  in  Nasal  Chambers  of  the  Sheep — 
Symptoms,  Treatment  and  Prevention — Catarrh  or  Cold,  Symptoms  and 
Treatment — Nasal  Gleet — Use  of  the  Trephine — Cause  and  Forms  of 
Glanders — Farcy — The  Use  of  Mallein — Coughs — Laryngitis,  its  Symptoms 
and  Treatment — Giving  of  Draughts  Dangerous  in  Throat  Affections — 
Inhalation — Washing  of  Nostrils — Use  of  Electuaries^ — Strangles,  Symptoms 
and  Treatment — Bastard  Strangles,  its  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Roaring — Cause  of  Roaring — Wasting  of  Muscles  due  to  Loss  of  Nerve 
Power — Side  of  Larynx  Affected  in  Roaring — Operations  for  Roaring — 
Testing  the  Wind  in  Examining  for  Soundness — Whistlers  and 
Highblowers — Bronchocele  or  Goitre — Treatment  with  Iodine  Prepara- 
tions— Bronchitis,  Cause  and  Symptoms — Treatment  for  Bronchitis — 
Danger  in  the  Use  of  Purgatives — Food  to  be  Given — Congestion  of  the 
Lungs — Difference  between  Congestion  and  Inflammation — How  Congestion 
is  Induced — Treatment  for  Congestion — Pneumonia,  Symptoms  and 
Treatment — Pleuro-pneumonia — Pleurisy,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Hydro-thorax,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Set  of  Breastbone  in  Horses  and 

Cattle — Two  Forms  of  Asthma  or  Broken  Wind,  Symptoms  and  Treatment^ — 
Emphysema,  Causes  and  Treatment — Tricks  in  Selling  Animals  Affected — 
Four  Different  Forms  of  Influenza — Symptoms  of  Simple  Catarrhal  Fever — 
Catarrh  with  Chest  Complications — Catarrh  and  Bilious  Fever,  Symptoms 
and  Treatment — Pink  Eye,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Professional  Advice 
for  Affections  of  the  Respiratory  Organs — Derangement  of  the  Respiratory 
Organs  of  the  Pig — Treatment  of  Dogs  when  suffering  from  Disease  of  the 
Respiratory  Organs — Treatment  for  Asthma — Breeding  Distemper,  its 
Treatment — Chorea,  its  Treatment — Cause  of  Affection  of  the  Respiratory 
Organs  in  Cattle — Acute  Catarrh  in  Cow,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Bronchitis  and  Pneumonia — Parturient  Bronchitis  and  Parturient 
Pneumonia,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Pleuro-Pneumonia,  Simple  and 
Contagious — Post-Mortem  Appearances — Simple  Pleuro-Pneumonia,  Treat- 
ment— Contagious  Pleuro-Pneumonia,  Forms  and  Symptoms — Contagious 
Diseases  (Animals)  Act — Tuberculosis,  Consumption,  or  Scrofula — 
Generalized  Tuberculosis — Acute  and  Chronic,  and  Symptoms — Piners — 
Tubercular  Bacilli — Methods  of  Infection — Tuberculin — Action  of 
Tuberculin — Professor  Koch's  Statement  as  to  Transmission  of  Human 
and  Bovine  Tuberculosis — Hereditary  Nature  of  the  Disease — Experience 
of  Animals  Affected — Hoose  or  Husk — Caused  by  Worms — Symptoms  and 
Treatment — Bronchitis,  Cause,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Acute  Conges- 
tion of  the  Lungs  in  an  Enzootic  form — Symptoms  and  Treatment — Open 
Air  Life  makes  Treatment  of  Sheep  Difficult — Verminous  or  Parasitic 
Bronchitis — Hoose  or  Paper  Skiii  ,.  ..  ..  ..      199 — 231 



The  Nervous  System — Cerebro-Spinal  and  the  Ganglionic— The  Cerebro-Spinal 
System — The  Sympathetic  System — The  Nerve  Tissue — The  Four  Parts  of 
the  Brain — The  Three  Coats  of  the  Brain — The  Cerebrum  Described — The 
Cerebellum  Described — The  Medulla  Oblongata  Described — The  Spinal 
Cord  Described — The  Cranial  Nerves  and  their  Arrangement — Bram,  the 
Seat  of  Emotion,  Reason  and  Sensation — Brain  Non-sensitive — Diseases  of 
the  Brain  and  Nervous  System — Functional  Derangement  and  Diseases  of  the 
Brain — Functional  Disturbance  due  to  Reflex  Action — Cause  to  be  Found 
before  Suitable  Treatment  can  be  Adopted — Diseases  of  the  Brain — 
Professor  Williams'  Tabulated  Form  for  Difference  in  Symptoms — Phrenitis 
or  Inflammation  of  the  Brain  and  its  Coverings,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Abscesses  in  the  Brain,  Symptoms  and  Post-Mortem  Appearances — 
Hydrocephalus  or  Water  on  the  Brain — Its  Treatment — Ectopia  Cerebralis 

a  Congenital  Malformation — Tumours  and  their  Treatment — Tubercular, 
Bony  and  Melanotic  Tumours — Sturdy,  Gid  or  Turnsick — Brain  Tumours 
caused  by  Cystic  Stage  of  Dog  Tapeworm — Its  Life  Cycle — Symptoms  of 
Sturdy,  its  Treatment  and  Prevention — Concussion  of  the  Brain,  How 
Caused,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Apoplexy  or  Congestion  of  the  Brain — 
Occurring  in  Two  Forms  and  How  Caused — Functional  Apoplexy — 
Derangements  and  Diseases  of  the  Nervous  System — Parturient  Apoplexy, 
Milk  Fever,  or  Dropping  after  Calving — Breeds  pre-disposed  to  it — How  it  may 
Originate — Symptoms — Treatment,  Old  Methods  and  New — Terminations — 
Points  as  to  Prevention  of  Milk  Fever — Hysteria,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Epilepsy,  its  Symptoms — How  Caused  in  Dog  and  Pig — Treatment  of  Fits — 
Puerperal  Eclampsia,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Sunstroke — Louping  111, 
Trotter  111,  Trembling  or  Sheep  Staggers — Difference  of  Opinion  as  to 
Cause — Symptoms  and  Preventative  Treatment — Chorea,  Shivering 
Stringhalt  or  Clicking — Symptoms  and  Treatment  of  Chorea — Shivering — 
Stringhalt,  when  Noticed — Unsoundness — Treatment  for  Distemper — Forms 
of  Spinitis  or  Inflammation  of  the  Spinal  Cord,  Symptoms,  and  Treatment — 
Paralysis  or  Stroke — Hemiplegia  and  Paraplegia — Complete,  Partial,  Local 
and  Reflex  Paralysis — Lightning  Shock,  Symptoms  and  Marks — Rabies, 
Symptoms  and  Treatment — Pasteur  Treatment — Inoculating  with  Virus — 
Tetanus  or  Lockjaw — The  Tetanus  or  Drum  Stick  Bacillus— Idiopathic  and 
Traumatic  Tetanus— Use  of  Fine,  Dry  Soil— Varieties  of  Tetanus— 
Opisthotonos — Emprosthotonos — Pleurosthotonos — Appearance  of  Tetanus 
in  a  Wound — Conditions  for  Action  of  Disease-producing  Germs — Symptoms 
and  Treatment  of  Tetanus— The  Eye— The  Eyelids— Parts  of  the  Eyelids, 
Skin.  Muscular  Fibres,  Tarsal  Cartilage,  Conjunctiva,  Meibomian  Glands 
and  Eyelashes — The  Lachrymal  Gland — The  Membrana  Nictitans  or  Haw — 
The  Eyeball— The  Sclerotic  Coat— The  Cornea— The  Choroid  Coat— The 
Iris — The  Pupil— Albinos — The  Corpora  Nigra — The  Humours  of  the 
Eye — Aqueous,  Crystalline  and  Vitreous — The  Retina — The  Optic  Nerve — 
The  Opthalmic  Artery — The  Muscles  of  the  Eye — Injuries  and  Diseases  of 
the  Eye — Injuries  to  Eyelids  and  Treatment — Injuries,  &c.,  of  the  Haw,  and 
Treatment — Howks — Symptoms  and  Treatment  of  Conjunctivitis  or  Simple 
Opthalmia — Moon  Blindness — Periodic  Opthalmia,  Symptoms  and  Treat- 
ment— Cataract,  Lenticular,  Capsular,  and  Capsulo-Lenticular — Examina- 
nation  for  Cataract — Amaurosis,  Symptoms  and  Detection — Filaria  Oculi— 
Strongylus  Filaria,  Worm  in  the  Eye — Rare  Diseases  of  the  Eye,  Nebula, 
Glaucoma,  Staphyloma,  &c, — Dislocation  of  the  Eyeball,  its  Treatment — The 
Ear — Parts  of  the  External  Ear— Conchal,  Annular,  Scutiform — Parts  of 
the  Middle  Ear — The  Tympanum  Cavity — The  Eustachian  Tube  — Bony 
and  Membranous  Parts  of  the  Internal  Ear — Phenomena  of  Hearing  and 
Sight— Canker  of  the  Ear,  Appearance,  and  Treatment  ..  ..     232  —  269 



The  Non-sensitive  Cuticle  or  Epidermis — The  Rete  Mucosum — The  Cutis 
Vera,  Dermis,  or  True  Skin — The  Sebaceous,  or  Oil  Glands — The  Sudori- 
parous or  Sweat  Glands— Action  of  Perspiration  -  Hair  and  Hair  Follicles — 
Clipping  in  Winter — Hoofs,  Horns  and  Claws,  Appendages  pertaining  to 
the  Skin — Skin  Diseases,  Inflammatory,  Non-Inflammatory,  and  Parasitic — 
Inflammatory  Diseases  of  the  Skin — Variola-Equina,  or  Horse-Pox, 
Symptoms  and  Treatment — Variola- Vaccina,  or  Cow-Pox — Jenner's 
Recognition  of  Properties — Protective  Agent  against  Human  Small-Pox — 
Treatment — Variola-Ovina,  or  Sheep-Pox — Symptoms — Classed  under 
Contagious  Diseases  (Animals)  Act — Simple  Ecz-ema — Inoculative  to  other 
Animals — Treatment — Mallenders,  Appearance  and  Treatment — Sallenders — ' 
Difference  in  Situation — Lichen,  a  similar  Complaint — Treatment  for  Both — 
Grease,  Causes,  Symptoms,  and  Treatment — Grapes — Mud  Fever,  a  Form  of 
Erythema — Causes,  Symptoms,  and  Treatment — Cracked  Heels,  a  Form  of 
Eczema — Causes,  Symptoms,  and  Treatment — Mechanical  Injuries  to  the 
Skin — Sore  Shoulders,  Saddle  Galls — Treatment — Scratches  and  Pricks — 
Treatment — Burns  and  Scalds — Treatment — Non-Inflammatory  Diseases  of 
the  Skin — Warts,  Wens  or  Angle- Berries,  Appearance  and  Treatment — 
Amputation — Horn  Overgrowths  and  Injuries — Treatment — Dishorning — 
Abscesses  in  the  Cavities  of  the  Horn — Symptoms,  and  Treatment — Parasitic 
Diseases  of  the  Skin — Mange  or  Scab — Caused  by  Parasites — Three  Families 
Symbiotes  Dermatodectes  and  Sarcoptes — Superficial,  Middle,  and  Deep- 
seated  Mange — Symptoms  and  Treatment — Warbles — Tumours  contain 
Female  Bot  Fly — Miss  Ormerod's  Description  of  Ox  Warble  Fly — 
Treatment — Ringworm,  Appearance,  and  Treatment — Fly  Maggots.  When^ 
and  Where  Seen — Treatment — Dressing  for  Ticks  and  Fleas — Three  Kinds 
of  Lice — Parts  Attacked — Treatment        . .  -    .  . .  . .     270 — 284 



Organs  of  Urinary  System — Kidneys,  Position  and  Appearance — Structure  of 
Kidney — The  Cortex — The  Medulla — The  Malpighian  Bodies — Supra-Renal 
Capsules — The  Ureters — The  Structure  of  the  Bladder — The  Urethra — 
Urine — Varying  Reaction — Quantity  Secreted  by  Horse — Male  Organs  of 
Generation — The  Testicles — The  Spermatic  Cords  and  Vas  Deferens — The 
Accessory  Organs — The  Penis — The  Urethra — The  Inguinal  Canals — The 
Scrotum — -I'he  Sheath — Female  Organs  of  Generation — The  Ovaries — The 

Fallopian  Tubes— The  Structure  of  the  Uterus  or  Womb — The  Vagina — 
The  Vulva — The  Hymen — Urinary  Diseases — Three  Forms  of  Nephritis  or 
Inflammation  of  the  Kidneys — Symptoms — Formation  of  Abscesses — 
Hypertrophied  Kidneys — Causes  of  Inflammation  of  the  Kidneys — Treat- 
ment— Hypertrophy  found  on  Making  Post-Morteiiis — Atrophied  Kidney — 
Calculi  or  Stones — ^Melanotic  Tumours — Haemorrhage — Polyuria,  Diuresis, 
Diabetes  Insipidus  or  Profuse  Staling — Causes,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — 
Suppression  of  Urine — Symptoms  and  Treatment — Retention  of  Urine — 
Causes,  Symptoms,  Treatment — Cystitis  or  Inflammation  of  the  Bladder — 
Symptoms  and  Treatment  Externally  and  Internally — Abscess  in  the 
Bladder — Symptoms  and  Treatment — Calculi  or  Stones,  Symptoms  and 
Treatment — The  Operation  of  Lithotomy — Accumulation  of  White  Crystals 
in  Bladder  and  Urethral  Passage  of  Bulls,  Rams,  and  Wethers — Treatment — 
Incontinence  of  Urine — Paralysis  of  the  Bladder — Treatment — Diseases,  etc., 
of  the  Male  Generative  Organs — Orchitis  or  Inflammation  of  the  Testicle — 
Causes  and  Treatment — Hydrocele  or  Dropsy  of  the  Scrotum — Injuries  to 
the  Penis — Causes — Paraphymosis — Treatment — Excoriation  of  the  Penis — 
Treatment — Sebaceous  Accumulations  in  the  Urethal  Sinus — Symptoms  and 
Treatment — Castration,  Time  for  Operation — How  to  Casti"ate  the  Horse — 
Instruments  Used — Methods — Crushing  the  Testicle — The  Operation  of 
Castrating  the  Bull,  Pig,  Lamb^  and  Aged  Ram — After  Treatment  for 
Castration — Precautions — Complications — Treatment  for  Bleeding — Treat- 
ment for  Protrusion  of  the  Omentum  or  Net — Treatment  for  Escape 
of  the  Bowels — Treatment  for  Septicaemia — Treatment  for  Abscesses — 
Treatment  for  Scirrhous  Cord — Diseases,  &c.,  of  the  Female  Generative 
Organs — Ovarian  Diseases  difficult  to  Diagnose — Ovariotomy  or  Spaying — 
Leucorrhoea  or  Whites,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Pustulant  Irritation 
of  the  Vagina,  Symptoms  and  Treatment — Genital  Exanthema  or  Disorder, 
Symptoms  and  Treatment — Obstructions  in  the  Vagina — False  Membranes — 
Long-Necked  Tumours — Abscesses — Symptoms  and  Treatment — Protrusion 
of  the  Vagina — Treatment  and  Prevention — Gestation, Abortion,  etc. — 
The  Average  Periods  of  Gestation — The  Process  of  Impregnation — 
Segmentation  of  the  Ovum — Development  of  the  Foetus — The  Fcetal 
Membranes,  Placenta,  or  Cleansing — The  Amnion  or  Slime  Bag — The 
Allantois  or  Water  Bag — The  Chorion — Difterences  in  Attachment — 
Umbilical  Cord  or  Naval  String,  its  Parts — Nourishment  of  Foetus — 
Abortion,  Slinking,  Slipping  or  Casting  the  Calf — Biblical  Reference — Cause 
of  the  Complaint  in  the  Epizootic  Form — Action  of  Ergot  of  Rye — Abortion 
due  to  a  Micro-Organism — Abolition  of  Abortion — Prevention — The  Use  of 
Germicidal  Mixtures — Imperforate,  Hymen  or  Impervious  Os-Uteri — 
Symptoms,  Examination,  and  Treatment — Parturition  in  the  Mare,  Cow,  etc.. 

and  its  After  Effects — Treatment  for  a  Natural  Presentation — Treatment  in 
a  Case  of  Dropsy  of  the  Belly — Treatment  when  the  Head  is  Presented  with 
the  Feet  Back  and  Down — Treatment  when  Both  Forelegs  Protrude  and 
Head  is  Bent  Back,  with  the  Nose  Pointing  Forward  Behind  the  Elbow — 
Treatment  with  a  Similar  Presentation,  but  Nose  Pointed  Backward  towards 
the  Flank — Treatment  when  Forelegs  are  Presented,  but  Head  is  Turned 
Over  on  to  the  Back  of  the  Foetus — Treatment  when  both  Forelegs  are 
presented  and  the  Head  is  Thrown  Back — Treatment  when  the  Foetus  is  on 
its  Back,  with  the  Ears  and  Back  of  the  Head  presented  and  the  Feet 
Back — Treatment  when  Hind  Legs  are  presented  in  Proper  Position  for 
Delivery — Treatment  when  Points  of  the  Hocks  are  presented  at  the  Brim 
of  the  Pelvis — Treatment  when  Tail  and  Breech  are  presented  Pressed 
Tight  on  to  the  Breech  of  the  Pelvis — Treatment  when  all  Four  Feet  are 
presented,  and  the  Head  turned  back  on  the  Side  or  Quarter — Treatment 
when  the  Neck  and  Back  are  presented,  the  Forelegs  bent  back,  and  the 
Pastern  Joints  doubled  round  the  Thighs,  while  the  Hind  Pasterns  are 
pressed  against  the  Brim  ot  the  Pelvis — Treatment  for  a  Transverse 
Presentation  where  the  Foetus  is  lying  crosswise  in  the  Womb — Treatment 
for  Twins— Treatment  in  case  of  a  Monstrosity — Torsion  of  the  Vagina  or 
Twist  in  the  Neck  of  the  Womb — Symptoms  and  Treatment — Constriction 
of  the  Os-Uteri  and  its  Treatment — The  Csesarean  Section — Retention  of 
the  Foetus — Eversion  of  the  Vagina  with  the  Os  Constricted — Treatment — 
Treatment  for  Inertia  of  the  Uterus— Placenta  Prasvia- Treatment  for 
Hydrops-Uteri  or  Dropsy  of  the  Womb— Abnormal  Conceptions— Extra 
Uterine  Conception — Qualities  desirable  in  Cases  of  Difficult  Labour- 
Professor  Williams'  Opinion — Lord  Bacon's  Aphorism — Retention  of  the 
Placenta  or  After-Birth— Treatment  in  case  of  the  Cow— Dropping  from 
Retention  of  the  Second  Cleansing,  Symptoms  and  Treatment— Septic 
Fever,  Symptoms  and  Treatment— Post-Partum  Haemorrhage,  or  Flooding 
after  Calving— Treatment— Rupture  of  the  Womb,  how  Caused— Eversion 
of  the  Uterus  in  the  Mare  and  Cow  and  its  Treatment— Eversion  of  the 
Bladder,  Examination  and  Treatment— Rupture  of  the  Bladder— Vaginitis 
or  Inflammation  of  the  Vagina,  Causes  and  Treatment— Metritis  or  Simple 
Inflammation  of  the  Womb,  Symptoms  and  Treatment— Septic  Metritis  in 
the  Mare,!  Symptoms  and  Treatment— Simple  Metritis  in  the  Cow, 
Symptoms  and  Treatment— Simple  and  Septic  Metritis  in  the  Sheep, 
Symptoms  and  Treatment— Pelvic  Haematomata  or  Blood  Tumours- 
Symptoms  and  Treatment— Mammitis  or  Inflammation  of  the  Mammary 
Glands,  or  Garget— Symptoms  in  the  Mare  and  Treatment— Symptoms  in 
the  Cow  Dried  off  to  Fatten,  and  Ti;eatment— Symptoms  and  Treatment 
when    the    Dairy    Cow    is    Affected— Treatment    for    Induration    of    the 

Udder — Gangrene  or  Mortification  of  the  Udder — Blind  Teats,  Cause  and 
Treatment — Paralysis  of  the  Milk-secreting  Cells — Relaxed  Teats  and 
Treatment — Inflammation  of  the  Udder  of  Sheep,  Cause,  Symptoms  and 
Treatment        . .  . .  . .  , .  . .  . .  . .     285 — 332 


Appendix    A. — Synopsis    of    Diseases,    their    Recognition    and  "  First  Aid" 

Treatment        ..              ..              ..              ..              ..              ..  ..  333—350 

Appendix  B. — Medicines:  Terms,  Actions,  Formulas  and  Doses  ..  351 — 370 

Appendix  C. — Various  Forms  of  Manual  Aid               ..              .«  ..  371 — 378 







I.  ALL  the  functions  and  actions  of  a  living  body  are,  more  or 
less,  due  to  a  stimulus  or  irritant  of  a  vital  character,  directly  or 
indirectly  applied  ;  and  from  the  peculiarity  of  the  magnetism  which 
surrounds  our  globe,  and  its  influence  on  inorganic  and  organic 
material,  Electricity  may  be  looked  upon  as  the  vital  stimulus  of 
organic  life.  From  electricity  we  have  light,  heat,  motion,  &c.,  and  by 
its  agency  the  two  great  important  gases — Oxygen  and  Hydrogen — 
are  combined  to  form  water,  and  water  decomposed  into  its  elements — 
Electrolysis.  Thus,  then,  we  derive  from  eiectricty  light,  heat, 
moisture,  and  motion,  the  essentials  of  vitality.  By  the  aid  of  electricity 
also,  sensation  and  motion  can  be  restored  to  a  partially  paralysed 
limb,  and,  when  the  electric  current  is  made  too  powerful  life  is 
destroyed.  There  is  also  to  be  considered  the  extraordinary  action  of 
the  X  rays,  of  which  nothing  finite  is  yet  known. 


2.  Life  may  be  defined  as  an  Electro-Vital  Phenomenon,  peculiar 
to  an  organism,  which  includes  the  powers  of  absorption,  assimilation, 
secretion,  execretion,  and  reprodndion  ;  and  Death  is  the  cessation  of  all 
these  functions,  with  the  return  of  the  organic  tissues  to  their  ultimate 

3.  All  the  different  tissues  of  the  body  are  built  up  of  minute  cells, 
varying  in  form  according  to  the  structure  in  which  they  are  found. 
Yet,  strange  to  say,  Chemistry  shows  that  these  cehs  are  made  up  of 
inorganic  bodies,  which  are  not  themselves  alive;  but  from  their 
peculiar  chemical  affinity  and  vital  combinations  all  the  gases,  fluids, 
and  soUds  of  the  living  body  are  produced. 

4.  A  simple  Cell,  whether  vegetable  or  animal,  seems  to  have  an 
innate  power  of  a  vital  character,  to  multiply  or  reproduce,  and  by 
the  multiplying  of  these  cells,  where  surroundings  are  replete  with 
every  necessary,  tissues  and  organs  of  different  kinds  are  formed,  and 
when  all  are  in  a  normal  condition,  healthy  functions  are  carried  on. 

5.  By  the  aid  of  the  Microscope,  the  cells  of  the  various  tissues 
are  revealed  and  recognised,  and  they  are  almost  innumerable. 
Meinert  estimated  the  grey  matter  of  the  brain  alone  to  contain  no 
less  than  600,000,000  cells,  and  again  each  cell  was  divided  and  sub- 
divided into  molecules  and  atoms  respectively,  while  between  two  and 
three  hundreds  of  trilUons  of  red  and  white  corpuseles  were  found  in 
the  blood  of  the  adult  horse.  The  living  body  is  strange,  and 
wonderfully  made. 

'■  It  is  strange  that  a  harp  of  a  thousand  strings  should  keep  in  tune  so  long." 

6.  A  description  of  the  minute  structures  of  the  body,  i.e.  Histology, 
is  not  the  province  of  this  work.  Yet,  before  we  can  undertake 
the  treatment  of  the  various  afflictions  which  domestic  animals  are 
prone  to,  and  studied  under  pathology,  a  knowledge  of  anatomy  and 
physiology  is  necessary.  But  this  will  be  of  a  very  brief  and  practical 
charact^er,  the  object  being  that  when  describing  the  different  ailments, 
some  little  idea  of  the  parts  of  the  body  alluded  to,  may  have  already 
been  gained. 

7-  Anatomy  treats  of  the  various  portions  and  structures  of  the 
body,  and  is  both  General  and  Descriptive,  Comparative  and  Morbid. 
General,  or  Regional  Anatomy  deals  merely  with  the  name  and 
situation  of  the  different  organs  and  parts  of  the  body.  Descriptive 
Anatomy  enters  into  a  minute  detail  of  their  forms  and  structures, 
and  gives  a  systematic  description  of  the  parts  ;  while  Morbid 
Anatomy  is  the  study  of  diseased  or  morbid  structures,  and  under 
Comparative  Anatomy,  a  comparison  of  the  structures  of  various 
animals  are  made. 

8.  Physiology  is  an  extensive  subject,  and  under  this  term  is  studied 
the  functions,  or  the  work  that  the  different  organs  of  the  body  perform 
in  health.  Thus,  the  functiop  of  the  liver  is  to  secrete  bile  ;  the 
kidneys,  urine  ;  and  the  mammary  glands,  miik,  &c.,  &c. 

g.  Pathology  treats  of  the  derangements  and  diseases  of  these 
structures  and  functions.  To  make  the  subject  better  understood,  it 
is  here  divided  into  various  sections,  the  General  Anatomy  and 
Physiology  of  the  different  parts  being  at  the  same  time  briefly 
touched  upon. 


lo.  The  various  subjects  to  be  dealt  with  in  these  lectures  will  be 
taken  up  in  the  following  order. 

1.  Introductory — Inflammation — -Terminations —  Causes — Fever 


2.  Bones — Ligaments  and  Joints — Injuries  and  Diseases. 

3.  Muscles  (Flesh) — Tendons — Sinews — Injuries  and  Diseases. 

4.  Feet — Horny  Hoof  and  Shoeing — Injuries  and  Diseases. 

5.  Digestive    Organs    (Horse) — Mouth    and    Stomach — Injuries, 

Derangements  and  Diseases. 

6.  Digestive    Organs  (Cow) — Stomach,   &c. — Injuries,  Derange- 

ments and  Diseases. 

7.  Dentition  and  the  use  of  Artificial  Foods. 

8.     Circulation — Heart,  Arteries,  Capillaries,  and  Veins — 
Diseases,  &c. 

g.  Respiration — Lungs — Bronchial  Tubes — Diseases. 

10.  Nerves — Brain,  Eye,  and  Ear — Diseases. 

11.  Skin — Hair  Follicles,  Sweat  Glands,  &c. — Affections — Diseases. 

12.  Urinary  and  Generative  Organs — Parturition  and  Diseases. 

II.  When  all  these  various  structures  are  in  a  normal  condition,  the 
body  may  be  said  to  be  in  a  state  of  health,  to  maintain  which, 
certain  materials,  commonly  called  food,  are  necessary  so  as  to  replace 
the  changes  of  matter  (more  or  less  accelerated)  that  is  ever  going 
on,  as  there  is  not  a  thought  or  a  movement  of  the  body  without 
some  expenditure  of  tissue.  This  tissue  must  be  renewed,  and  this 
is  done  by  the  process  of  Nutrition,  which  process  belongs  to  all 
organised  structures.  Nutrition  is  upheld  and  carried  on  by  means 
of  the  food  eaten,  which,  when  digested,  passes  into  the  blood,  and 
is  carried  by  it  to  the  various  parts  of  the  body.  (Sec  Digestive 
Oygans  A.)  In  the  animal  kingdom,  before  healthy  nutrition  can  be 
successfully  maintained,  certain  conditions  are  required,  viz.  : 

(i)  The  part  to  be  nourished  must  be  in  proper  state  of  health. 

(2)  The   blood   must   be   pure,  and   not  too  far  distant.     (There  are 

some  structures  into  which  the  blood  does  not  go,  it  only  flows 
7ieay ;  for  instance,  the  cartilage  covering  the  ends  of  bones 
in  the  formation  of  joints.  In  such  cases  nutrition  is  carried 
on  by  "imbibition,"  or  sucking  up.) 

(3)  The  temperature  or  heat  of  the  part  must  be  normal.     (If  the  part 

shows  a  temperature  higher  than  the  normal  and  natural, 
then  healthy  assimilation  is  interfered  with.  On  the  other 
hand,  everyone  has  read  of  a  man's  toes  being  frozen  off,  in 
the  arctic  regions,  through  extreme  cold,  thus  showing  the 
necessity  of  normal  heat.) 

(4)  All  parts  must  be  under  the  control  or  influence  of  the  nervous 


12.  Circumstances  are,  however,  constantly  arising  which  interfere 
with  the  equihbrium  of  these  functions,  and  then  a  perverted  nutritive 
process  is  estabhshed,  disorder  and  disease  being  the  result  ;  hence, 
health  and  disease  are  so  intimately  blended,  like  daylight  and 
darkness,  that  we  cannot  tell  when  one  ends  and  the  other  begins. 


13.  Before  proceeding  further,  it  will  be  necessary  to  note  and  define 
certain  terms  which  are  in  general  use  in  the  veterinary  profession. 

1.  Pathology — Is  the  study  of  disease  and  its  locality — the  science  of 

the  nature,  causes,  and  remedies  of  diseases. 

2.  Etiology — Shews    the    various    causes     of    disease  —  external, 

internal,     mechanical,      chemical,     climatic,     predisposing, 

predisposition,  hereditary,  exciting,  age,  sex,  &c.,  &c. 

3.  Symptomatology — Gives  the  various  symptoms.  Negative  and 

Positive.  In  some  cases  there  are  very  definite  symptoms, 
whicli  indicate  clearly  the  nature  of  an  ailment  ;  in  others 
the  indications  are  few,  and  lead  to  no  definite  conclusion. 
In  such  a  case  the  practitioner  resorts  to  the  negative  method  ; 
the  absence  of  certain  symptoms  shows  that  the  malady  is 
not  so-and-so.  Thus  he  can  exckide  certain  complaints  from 
being  the  actual  one,  until  the  choice  is  brought  down  to  a 
few  possible  diseases  only.  The  thermometer  is  of  great 
utilit}'  in  this  department. 

4.  Prognosis — Means  the  prediction  of  probable  progress  and  result 

of  a  malady. 

5.  Therapeutics — Is    the    branch    of    Medicine    concerned    in    the 

treatment  and  cure  of  disease. 

6.  Hygiene — Treats  of  Ventilation,  Sanitation,  Clothing,    Dieting, 

Nursing,  &c.,  &c. — in  fact  all  items  for  the  maintenance  of 
health  and  its  preservation. 

7-  Epizootic,  or  Epidemic. — Is  a  term  used  when  a  disease  is  very 
prevalent,  attacking  many  people  or  animals  at  the  same  time, 
e.g.,  Influenza,  Pieuro-Pneumonia,  and  Foot  and  Mouth. 

8.  Enzootic — Refers  to  Diseases  confined  to  certain  localities.    Ague 

in  man,  Red  Water  in  cows,  Louping-ill  in  sheep,  &c. 

9.  Specific — Is  a  term   used   when  the   disease    arises  from  some 

specific  germ,  i.e.,  Glanders,  Pleuro-Pneumonia,  Anthrax,  &c, 

ID.   Sporadic — Refers   to    ordinary    diseases    daily    occurring,    e.g., 
Simple  Inflammation  of  the  Bowels,  Lungs,  and  Feet,  &c.,  &c. 

There  are   other   terms   used,  but  the  foregoing  are   quite   sufficient 
for  our  purpose. 

14.  Before  reviewing  some  of  the  injuries,  derangements,  and 
diseases  of  the  different  organs  of  the  body,  I  shall  first  refer  briefly 
to  that  extensive,  and  most  important  subject,  inflammation. 

15.  Inflammation  is  the  most  common  disturbance  affecting 
the  organs  of  the  animal  creation  ;  and  yet,  Inflammation,  like  fire  or 
water,  is  a  good  servant  as  well  as  a  bad  master,  and  may  be  looked 
upon  both  as  Reparative  and  Destructive.  Without  its  aid,  the  ends 
of  fractured  bones  would  not  unite,  nor  would  surgical  operations  result 
successfully,  if  it  was  not  for  the  inflammatory  adhesive  exudate  that 
favoured  the  formation  of  a  neAv  connective  tissue.  The  practitioner 
performs  the  operation,  and  trusts  to  Nature  and  Reparative 
Inflammation  to  accomplish  the  rest.  Wounds,  however  simple,  in 
horses  and  cattle,  seldom,  or  never,  heal  without  inflammatory  action. 
If,  however,  the  practitioner  cannot  keep  the  inflammation  under 
control,  instead  of  the  reparative  process,  destructive  inflammation 
may  be  set  up.  Therefore,  inflammation  may  be  defined  to  be  an 
increased  nutritive  action  in  the  first  stage  ;  secondly,  perverted 
atomic  change  in  the  tissues  of  a  part,  with  lieat,  pain,  redness,  and 
swelling.  When  a  part  is  irritated,  the  small  blood  vessels,  called 
capillaries,  first  contract,  then  dilate — and  this,  by  some,  is  said  to  be 
the  first  action  of  inflammation.    But  about  this  point  there  is  difference 

of  opinion,  as  others  say  the  vessels  dilate  first.  That  contraction  of 
the  blood  vessels,  is  the  first  process  is  well  exemplified,  when  the  end 
of  a  finger  is  suddenly  snapped  off  by  machinery,  or  a  gash  is  quickly 
made  in  the  flesh,  for  then  the  neigbouring  parts  become  perfectly  pale, 
and  no  blood  is  seen  for  a  few  moments,  owing  to  the  sudden  contraction 
of  the  vessels  from  the  shock.  Dilatation  next  takes  place  when  the 
blood  flows  freely.  If  the  irritation,  or  cause,  be  not  removed,  the 
blood  vessels  become  distended,  and,  finally,  paralyzed.  The  corpuscles 
crowd  into  the  part,  and  becoming  adhesive — sticking  together,  as  it 
were — induce  further  expansion  of  the  vessels. 

i6.  Congestion  next  takes  place  with  the  exudation,  or  oozing,  of 
the  fluid  portions  of  the  blood  through  the  sides  of  the  vessels  into  the 
surrounding  tissues  ;  or  the  vessels  may  ultimately  give  way  with 
extravasation  of  blood  into  the  parts,  and  from  the  consequent  pressure 
the  nerve  filaments  lose  their  controlling  power,  and  the  structure 
becomes  changed.  That  the  minute  tissues  play  an  important  part 
in  inflammation  cannot  be  doubted,  because  the  blood,  before  it 
reaches,  and  after  it  leaves,  the  inflamed  portion,  is  the  same  as  that 
in  the  uninflamed  parts  of  the  body. 

17.  The  noted  external  local  signs  of  inflammation  are  Heat,  Pain, 
Redness,  and  Sivelling. 

18.  Heat  is  caused  by  the  large  amount  of  blood  sent  to  the  affected 
part,  and  the  consequent  increased  chemical  action  that  follows.  The 
heat  is  not,  however,  so  great  as  is  thought,  for  the  temperature  does 
not  increase  more  than  two  or  three  degrees ;  and  yet  in  an  inflamed 
foot  there  is  a  perceptible  increase  of  heat.  We  can,  however,  have 
heat  without  inflammation,  as  the  body  often  becomes  heated  from 
exercise  or  hard  work. 

ig.  Pain  is  owing  to  the  irritation  of  nerve  fibres,  from  the  pressure 
caused  by  the  distension  of  the  effused  blood  materials.  Pain, 
however,  varies  in  different  portions  of  the  body  ;  it  may  be  reflex  and 
far  distant  from  the  affected  part ;  in  some  places  it  is  dull,  as  when 
the  mucous  membranes  are  inflamed  ;  but  when  fibro-serous  or  serous 

membranes  are  affected,  as  in  rheumatism  and  pleurisy,  the  pain  is 
most  acute  and  at  times  throbbing.  Bone,  in  health,  is  almost  non- 
sensitive,  but  when  under  inflammation,  from  its  unyielding  nature, 
the  pain  is  excruciating.  But  we  can  have  pain  without  inflammation  ; 
for  instance,  as  in  cramp  or  spasm. 

20.  Redness  is  due  to  the  accumulation  of  blood,  coupled  with  a 
distension  of  the  vessels  and  a  crowding  of  red  corpuscles  in  the  part, 
and,  finally,  extravasation  into  the  structures  ;  yet  we  can  have  redness 
without  Inflammation. 

21.  Swelling  arises  from  many  causes,  but  in  inflammation  it  is 
occasioned  by  the  congestion  and  exudation  of  the  serous  portions  of  the 
blood,  and  extravasation  of  the  blood  itself,  owing  to  the  coats  of  the 
distended  vessels  giving  way.  Still,  we  have  swelling  in  various 
parts  of  the  body  without  inflammation  ;  as  in  dropsy,  from  debility, 
swelling  of  the  legs,  from  plugging  of  blood  vessels  or  want  of  tone  in 
the  tissues,  or  the  swellings  of  Blains  or  "  Howkes"  (nettle-rash)  in 

22.  Yet,  when  all  these  signs  are  found  combined — i.e.,  Heat,  Pain, 
Redness,  and  Swelling — they  are  characteristic  of  inflammation,  and 
cause  more  or  less  constitutional  disturbance  in  the  body,  with  a 
certain  amount  of  fever,  according  to  the  situation  and  nature  of  the 

23.  Inflammation  is  of  various  kinds,  such  as  Acute  (sharp  and 
quick).  Sub-acute  (not  quite  so  active),  and  Chronic  (of  a  slow 
character).  Again,  the  temperament  and  condition  of  different  animals 
influence  the  nature  and  degree  of  the  inflammation.  In  strong,  robust, 
and  well-fed  animals  the  attack  may  be  of  a  sthenic  or  high  order, 
marked  by  morbid  over-action  ;  whilst  in  old,  ill-fed,  and  weakly 
constitutioned  subjects,  the  nature  of  the  attack  is  likely  to  be  of  an 
asthenic  or  low  character,  marked  by  weakness  ;  thus  showing  how 
important  the  study  of  all  these  variations  is  to  the  trained  practitioner, 
as  they  require  entirely  different  modes  of  treatment.  No  one  would 
think    of  treating  a  strong,  robust,  well-fed  animal  in  the  same  way 




Nape  of  the  Neck  or  Poll. 


Point  of  Shoulder. 




True  Arm. 








Fore  Arm. 








Shank  or  Cannon  Bone. 




Fetlock  Joint. 


Upper  Lip. 




Under  Lip. 




Lower  Jaw. 




Zygomatic  Ridge. 




Hollow  above  the  Eye. 




Maxillary  Joint. 




Mane  or  Crest. 


Point  of  Hip  Bone. 






Throat  or  Windpipe. 






Root  of  Tail  or  Dock. 




Hip  Joint. 


Girth  or  Chest  Measurement. 


Upper  Thigh. 


Shoulder  Blade. 




The  Loins. 


Lower  Buttocks. 


Side  of  Chest. 


Hair  of  the  Tail. 


The  Chest  or  Breast. 

43-50-     Quarter. 


Floor  of  Chest. 


Lower  Thigh. 


Barrel,  Front  Ribs  and  Short  Ribs. 






Point  of  Hock  or  Hough. 




Back  Sinew  or  Tendon. 




Growth  of  Hair— Feathering 





A.     Side  Bone. 

E.    Spavin. 

B.     Ring  Bone. 

F.     Thorough  Pin. 

c.    Windgall. 

0.     Curb. 

D.     Splint. 

H.     Capped  Hock. 

as  he  would  a  weak,  debilitated  one,  although  both  may  be  suffering 
from  the  same  complaint,  and  show  the  same  temperature.  Our 
great  object  and  aim  is  to  bring  the  inflammation  to  its  most 
favourable  termination  with  the  least  destruction  of  tissue  or  life. 
The  terminations  of  inflammation  are  said  to  be — (i)  Resolution, 
(2)  Exudation  and  Adhesion,  (3)  Effusion,  (4)  Suppuration,  (5)  Ulceration, 
and  (6)  Gangrene,  or  Mortification  (death  of  a  part).  Some  writers  object 
to  the  phrase  terminations  of  inflammation,  and  use  instead  the 
words — results  or  effects. 

24.  Resolution  :  Resolution  means  the  subsidence  of  a  morbid 
process.  Our  greatest  endeavour  should  be  to  get  the  inflammatory 
action  to  this  termination,  as  being  the  most  satisfactory.  If  possible, 
find  the  cause  and  remove  it,  when  the  effect  will  cease,  and  the 
inflamed  structures  will  return  to  their  normal  condition.  For 
instance,  when  a  pin  is  inserted  into  the  hand,  it  causes  pain, 
swelHng,  heat,  and  redness  ;  but  if  the  pin  or  irritant  be  removed  in 
time,  and  suitable  treatment  adopted,  the  parts  resume  their  natural 
healthy  condition,  and  any  exudation  that  may  have  taken  place  is 
absorbed.     This  termination  may  take  place  suddenly  or  gradually. 

25.  Exudation  and  Adhesion  :  By  exudation  is  meant  the  oozing 
out  of  adventitious  matter,  and  adhesion  is  the  force  by  which  certain 
dissimilar  bodies  stick  together.  Reparative  results  are  obtained  by 
the  organization  of  the  exuded  lymph,  the  formation  of  new  blood 
vessels,  the  absorption  of  the  serous  fluid,  and  the  closing  of 
wounds,  by  adhesion  of  the  cut  surfaces,  &c. ;  but  at  times  the  result 
of  exudation  and  adhesion  is  most  formidable,  particularly  when 
adhesive  bands  are  formed  in  serous  cavities,  such  as  the  pleura,  jomts, 
and  the  sheaths  of  tendons. 

26.  Effusion,  or  oozing  of  the  serum  of  the  blood  into  the  areolar 
tissue,  results  in  the  formation  of  large  serous  swellings  or  watery 
tumours,  with  small  pellets  and  fibnnous  strings  floating  amono-st  it  ; 
for  instance,  the  swelling  that  arises  on  a  young  horse's  shoulder  from 
a  nip  with  a  collar,  or  those  on  the  front  of  a  cow's  knees,  which  at 
times  become  very  large,  are  due  to  bruises,  and  effusion. 

27.  Suppuration  is  perliaps  the  most  common  result  of  inflamma- 
tion. Suppuration  is  the  formation  or  discharge  oi pus  (matter  which  is 
of  two  parts,  soHd  or  corpuscular,  and  watery).  Suppuration  is  both 
acute  and  chronic,  and  can  go  on  in  different  parts  of  the  body,  forming 
what  are  called  abscesses  (gatherings).  A  good  example  is  seen  in 
strangles  in  young  horses.  At  first  the  abscesses  are  hard  and 
unyielding,  but,  as  they  ripen,  or  come  forward,  they  begin  to  soften 
and  point  in  the  middle,  always  aiming  towards  the  external  surface, 
and  having  a  well  defined  marginal  ring.  Some  burst  of  themselves, 
others  require  to  be  opened',  but  this  should  never  be  done  unless  the 
parts  fluctuate  well  under  the  fingers,  and  in  such  cases  the  opening 
should  always  be  at  the  bottom.  We  also  have  defused  and  superficial 
suppuration  ;  the  latter  being  seen  on  mucous  surfaces,  such  as  the 
bronchial  tubes,  nostrils,  and  generative  organs. 

28.  There  are  various  kinds  of  pus,  viz.  :— (i)  Laudable,  (2)  Putrid, 
(3)  Sanioiis,  (4)  Scrofulous,  and  (5)  Specific.     Of  these  different  kinds  of 

matter or  pus — Laudable  is  looked  upon  as  the  most  healthy  ;  it  is 

thick,  or  creamy.  Specific  resembles  it  in  colour  and  thickness,  but 
is  most  dangerous,  as  in  the  case  of  glanders.  The  others  have  their 
peculiar  characters,  and  need  the  eye  and  attention  of  the  professional 
man  to  deal  with  them. 

29.  Ulceration  is  another  effect  of  inflammation  generally  found  in 
parts  of  low  organisation,  short  of  vitality,  and  where  there  seems  to  be 
an  excess  of  absorption  over  deposition.  A  good  example  is  the  front 
of  the  shin  bone  of  an  aged  human  subject.  When  ulceration  of  this 
part  sets  in,  it  seldom,  or  never,  heals— there  seems  to  be  a  dissolution, 
or  death  of  the  minute  structures,  which  the  natural  body  has  not 
tone  enough  to  reproduce. 

30.  Ulcers  are  of  various  kinds,  viz..  Healthy,  Inflamed,  Indolent, 
Weak,  Sloughing,  and  Specific.  They  are  not  very  common  in  domestic 
animals,  though  sheep  occasionally  suffer  from  them,  as  the  ulcers 
seen  on  the  face  in  Stomatiiis  PustuloscB,  and  in  Foot  Rot.  Owing  to 
the  great  difference  in  the  nature  of  the  various  ulcers,  their  treatment 

should  be  under  the  eye  of  the  professional  practitioner.  Stimulating 
applications  are  required  for  dressing  the  sores,  while  a  generous, 
easily  digestible  diet  is  necessary,  with  tonic  and  alterative  medicine. 
Ulceration  heals  by  granulations.     (See  Appendix.) 

31.  Mortification,  or  death  of  a  part,  arises  from  a  variety  of 
causes,  independently  of  being  one  of  the  results  of  inflammation  ; 
such  as  a  loss  of  nerve  power,  the  plugging  of  a  blood  vessel,  and  the 
want  of  blood  in  the  part,  &c.  We  have  both  moist  and  dry  gangrene. 
Gangrene  is  moist  when  the  tissues  undergo  softening  or  liquifaction. 
It  is  dry  from  obstruction  of  the  circulation,  when  the  parts  contain 
little  fluid  ;  for  example,  senile  gangrene  in  old  people— affecting 
the  big  toe. 

32.  In  Sloughs,  mortification  may  be  complete  or  partial.  The 
tissues  may  be  involved  to  a  greater  ot  lesser  extent,  when  the  morbid 
process  is  arrested  and  a  line  of  demarcation  is  then  formed  betwen  the 
living  and  dead  structures  ;  the  dead  portion  sloughing  off,  as  is  seen 
in  mares  and  cows  when  the  passage  has  been  damaged  in  difficult 
parturition  ;  or  the  sloughing  off  of  one  or  more  quarters  of  the  udder 
in  mares,  cows,  and  sheep  from  extensive  inflammation  of  the 
mammary  gland. 

33.  When  an  extensive  injury  has  been  done  to  any  portion  of  the 
body,  more  particularly  the  thick  muscular  part  of  the  hips  and 
quarters — being  torn  and  lacerated  by  some  foreign  body,  such  as  a 
cart  or  a  gig  shaft — the  neigbouring  tissues  are  so  much  damaged 
(the  blood  vessels  being  destroyed  and  nerve  fibre  shattered)  that  the 
part  is  very  liable  to  mortification,  owing  to  the  inflammation  set  up 
being  generally  so  intense.  Our  object,  and  greatest  endeavour, 
should  be  to  keep  the  mflammation  in  check,  and  to  give  tone  to  the 
neighbouring  parts,  and  to  assist  them  to  throw  off  the  damaged  and 
dead  portions.  The  best  treatment  I  have  found  is  to  plug  or  cover 
the  external  wound  with  antiseptic  dressings  so  as  to  exclude  the  air, 
combined  with  a  continuous  application  of  blankets,  6  or  8  ply  thick, 
wrung  out  of  cold  water  every  four  or  five  hours,  or  when  they  become 

hot  and  dry,  until  a  fine,  thick,  yellowish-white  matter  is  seen  coming 
from  the  wound,  which  generally  takes  place  in  from  48  to  60  hours. 
In  my  opinion  the  cold  water  application  seems  to  extract,  and  keep 
in  check,  the  excessive  heat  usually  present ;  in  fact,  a  sort  of 
endosmotic  and  exosmotic  current  is  set  up — the  cold  from  the  wet 
blanket  passing  into  the  part  of  the  body,  as  it  were,  to  which  it  is 
appHed,  the  heat  being  extracted  from  the  part  to  the  blanket,  which 
becomes  hot — the  action  equalising  the  temperature,  and  giving  tone 
to  the  undamaged  tissues,  at  the  same  time  assisting  nature  in  her 
physiological  efforts,  and  also  the  pathological  action  to  throw  off  the 
damaged  or  dead  portions. 

34.  Septicaemia,  or  Blood-poisoning, — Hot  applications,  to  be  of 
any  good,  must  be  continuous  ;  they  are  generally  badly  applied,  and, 
in  my  opinion,  relax  the  tissues,  and  favour  the  process  of  gangrene. 
When  the  part  dies,  and  is  not  thrown  offby  sloughing,  the  surrounding 
tissues  swell,  and  have  a  bladder-hke  sound,  as  found  in  gangrene  of 
the  udder  in  cows  and  sheep  ;  at  times  seen  also  in  the  latter  stages 
of  milk  fever,  in  the  hind  quarters  of  a  cow,  and  from  an  injury  with 
an  external  wound,  when  it  is  accompanied  with  a  dirty  brownish, 
foetid,  watery  discharge.  There  are  rigors  and  tremblings  of  the 
body  ;  pulse  small  and  quick  ;  respiration  hurried  ;  cold,  clammy 
patches  of  perspiration  all  over  the  body,  with  head  hanging  down. 
We  may  then  rest  assured  that  the  case  is  hopeless,  Septicaemia  or 
blood-poisoning  having  set  in.  Owing  to  the  extensive  swelling,  we 
are  often  tempted  to  scarify  the  distended  parts  by  plunging  in  the 
lancet,  thus  admittmg  the  air  and  hurrying  on  that  process  we  wished 
most  to  avoid,  viz.,  mortification,  or  death  of  the  part,  and  also  of  the 
patient  as  well.  All  the  formidable  effects  of  blood-poisoning  can, 
however,  be  induced  by  a  very  small  punctured  wound  or  scratch 
with  a  sharp  instrument. 

35.  The  Causes  of  Inflammation  are  various,  and  are  termed 
Vital,  Cheviical,  and  Mechanical.  Vital  causes  may  arise  through  some 
occult  changes  taking  place  within  the  body  itself ;  Chemical,  from  the 
application   or  use   of  stong  acids,   alkalies,   &c.  ;    Mechanical,   from 




















Back  of  the  Head. 
Frontal  Crest  or  Protuberance- 
Bridge  of  the  Nose. 
Mouth,   with    Upper  and  Lower 


Eyes  and  Eyelids. 

Nape  of  Neck. 
Shoulder  Point. 
The  Breast. 
Walls  of  the  Chest. 

Barrel  or  Side. 

Loin  or  Kidney  Region. 
.    Fore  Ribs. 
.    Mid  Ribs. 








Back  Ribs. 

Upper  Part  of  Flank. 

Fore- Flank. 

Hip  Bone,  Hooks. 




Tail  Head,  Root  of  Tail. 


Tuft  or  Switch. 

Pin  Bones. 


Fore  Arm. 



Shin  or  Shank. 

Fetlock  Joint  with  Dew  Claws. 




Dew  Claw. 

Hip  Joint. 

Upper  Thigh. 

Stifle  Joint. 


Lower  Thigh. 

Hock  or  Hough. 

Point  of  Hock. 

Milk  Vein. 

Fore  Udder. 

Hind  Udder. 


Pelvic  Arch. 

Purse  in  Ox. 

Sheath  in  Ox. 


blows,  wounds,  pressure,  burns,  &c  ,  and  inhalation  of  noxious  gases 
and  irritants.  All  the  living  tissues  of  the  body  are  prone  to  the 
influence  of  inflammation  ;  and  whenever  we  have  inflammation  of 
any  one  organ  or  part  of  the  body,  it  is  always  accompanied,  more  or 
less,  by  general  or  constitutional  fever,  which  necessitates  both  local 
and  constitutional  treatment. 

36.  Local  Treatment  is  when  we  can  apply  remedies,  directly,  to 
the  affected  parts,  as  by  removing  the  shoes,  and  putting  on  cold 
water  bran  poultices,  in  founder  or  inflammation  of  the  feet.  Weed, 
or  inflammation  of  the  absorbents  or  lymphatic  vessels  of  the  hind  or 
fore  leg,  is  another  good  case  for  local  treatment,  and  no  treatment  is 
better  than  to  put  meadow  hay  bandages,  saturated  well  with  cold 
water,  wound  round  the  affected  limb.  Abscess  forming  in  any 
superficial  part  of  the  body  is  another  illustration  of  the  application  of 
local  treatment,  which  may  be  by  hot  or  cold  poultices,  cooling 
lotions,  salt  and  saltpetre  dissolved  in  water,  ice,  sal  ammoniac,  vinegar 
and  water,  or  stimulating  liniments  and  blisters,  and  in  a  case  of 
Inflammation  of  the  lungs  hot  blankets  applied  to  the  sides. 

37.  Constitutional  Treatment  has  to  be  adopted  when  there  is 
a  general  disturbance  set  up — Sympathetic  Fever — in  addition  to  the 
local  disturbance.  When  the  fever  arises  from  some  extensive 
external  injury  or  wound,  it  is  known  as  Traumatic  or  Symptomatic  Fever. 

38.  Sympathetic  Fever. — A  few  years  ago,  the  treatment  of 
sympathetic  fever,  in  country  practice  generally,  took  the  form  of 
blood-letting,  purgatives,  &c.,  which  then  seemed  to  give  satisfaction, 
but  now  a  more  rational  mode  of  treatment  is  adopted.  The  personal 
comfort  of  the  patient  is  now  looked  after  by  putting  the  animal  into 
a  well-ventilated  loose  box,  free  from  draughts,  but  with  plenty  of  air  ; 
clothing  the  body  and  bandaging  the  legs,  and  administering  medicines 
of  a  saline  aperient  character,  such  as  i  to  2  ounces  of  Epsom  or 
Glauber's  Salts,  2  to  4  drachms  each  of  Nitrate  of  Potash  and  Cream 
of  Tartar,  with  10  to  15  drops  of  Fleming's  Tincture  of  Aconite, 
given  either  as  a  draught  in  one  pint  of  cold  water,  or  in  the  drinking 


water,  two  or  three  times  a  day,  until  the  bowels  respond,  along  with 
a  suitable  cooling  diet.  (See  Appendix.)  But  I  will  go  more  into  detail 
when  considering  inflammation  affecting  the  different  organs  and  parts 
of  the  body. 

39.  Town  practice,  I  may  say,  is  different  to  that  in  the  country. 
For  instance,  4  drs.  of  aloes  would  purge  a  town  horse,  whereas  it 
would  take  6  to  7  drs.  to  have  the  same  effect  on  one  in  the  country. 
The  same  thing  holds  good  in  pit  horses,  which  have  to  be  treated 
similarly  to  town  horses.  In  all  cases,  whether  horse  or  cow,  it  is  of 
the  greatest  importance  to  have  the  bowels  attended  to  (as  there  is 
no  complaint -however  slight — that  does  not  affect  the  bowels  more 
or  less),  but  greater  care  is  needed  with  horses,  as  they  cannot  stand 
strong  purgatives  like  cattle. 

40.  Simple  Fever  may  arise  without  any  obvious  cause.  This  may 
be  brought  about  through  changing  from  field  to  stable,  change  of  food, 
drinking  cold  water  when  the  animal  is  heated,  standing  in  a  draught, 
&c.,  and  is  generally  ushered  in  by  a  shivering  fit,  that  is  seldom  seen  ; 
but,  if  observed,  it  is  advisable  to  at  once  put  on  plenty  of  clothing 
and  give  a  good  stimulant,  say  from  -|  to  i  pint  of  whisky,  with  the 
same  quantity  of  water,  or  a  quart  of  hot  ale  and  i  oz.  ginger 
[See  Appendix),  when  resolution  may  be  brought  about  and  the 
animal  ail  nothing  further.  But,  as  generally  happens,  the 
shivering  fit  has  not  been  seen,  the  first  thing  to  be  noticed  is  the 
patient  hanging  its  head,  breathing  heavily  and  hurriedly,  with 
nostrils  distended,  eye  bright,  and  temperature  increased  to 
about  104°  or  106°.  Endeavour  must  then  be  made  to  find 
the  cause  and  remove  it  ;  if  this  cannot  be  done  treat  the 
symptoms  thus  : — Place  the  animal  in  a  roomy,  well  aired  loose 
box,  clothe  the  body,  bandage  the  legs,  and  give  the  saline  medicine 
named  under  Sympathetic  Fever.  If  not  better,  or  relieved,  in  a  few 
hours,  get  other  advice.  Sometimes  when  the  pulse  is  very  full  and 
strong,  and  the  eyelid  injected  and  red,  the  taking  of  4  to  6  quarts  of 
blood  from  the  neck  may  relieve  the  animal  so  much,  that  no  further 


treatment  will  be  needed,  except  giving  nitre  water  and  soft  cooling 
food  for  a  few  days  (this  I  have  seen  done  in  scores  of  cases) ;  but 
the  bleeding  should  only  be  done  by  a  Veterinary  Surgeon.  The 
advantage  of  blood-letting  is,  that  it  relieves  the  overloaded  system 
quickly.  To  depend  upon  purgatives  for  this  purpose,  either  for  horses 
or  cattle,  would  be  loss  of  time,  because  it  takes  from  24  to  30  hours 
in  the  horse,  and  frequently  longer  in  cattle,  to  act  on  the  bowels, 
while  it  is  very  difficult  to  unload  the  system  by  perspiration  ; 
therefore,  early  blood-letting,  in  many  cases,  is  advantageous,  at  least, 
it  is  so  in  country  practice.  Bleeding  in  the  past  was  abused  ;  in  the 
present,  as  a  remedy,  it  needs  to  he  judiciously  used. 

41.  Septic  Fever. — Again,  we  have  fever  arising  from  specific  or 
germic  causes,  such  as  Influenza,  Pink  Eye — Exudative  Cellulitis, 
— Septicaemia,  and  Pyaemia.  Such  cases  are  of  a  more  formidable 
character  than  simple  fever,  and  should  at  once  be  put  under  the  care 
of  a  qualified  practitioner,  as  the  treatment  is  quite  different  to  that 
of  simple  fever,  requiring  antiseptics  and  nourishing  diet  to  keep  up 
the  strength.  Quinine  in  these  cases  stands  well  to  the  front,  and 
may  be  given  three  or  four  times  a  day  ;  Hyposulphate  of  Soda  in 
2  oz.  doses,  and  Chlorate  of  Potash  in  3  dr.  doses,  are  also  given 
alternately  every  six  or  eight  hours,  with  nourishing  gruels,  linseed 
jellies,  green  food,  carrots,  hay  tea,  &c.     (See  Appendix.) 

42.  From  these  remarks  it  will  be  seen  that  from  the  various 
constitutions  and  the  different  forms  of  disease  which  are  met  with, 
and  the  great  differences  in  their  treatment,  it  is  quite  unsafe  to  start 
and  tinker  with  them  unless  the  nature  of  the  complaint  is  thoroughl}^ 
understood.  My  advice  is  this :  In  the  first  place,  get  a  clinical 
thermometer,  which  can  be  had  from  3/6  to  10/-  each  ;  and,  if  you 
have  an  animal  ailing,  take  its  temperature,  by  passing  the  thermometer 
into  the  rectum.  If  it  rises  to  103°  or  104°  (normal  temperature  of  the 
horse  being  100°  to  loi";  cow,  101°  to  102°;  sheep,  103°  to  104°)  (See 
Appendix),  you  should  lose  no  time  in  calling  in  a  qualified  veterinary 
practitioner  ;   as  the  case  may  be  looked  upon  as  tending  to  be  serious. 


Don't  think,  because  your  neighbour  had  a  horse  or  cow  in  just  the 
same  state  ~ apparently — last  week,  and  some  wonderful  patent  nostrum 
cured  it,  that  yours  will  be  set  all  right  with  the  same  treatment. 
Your  neighbour's  animal  may  have  had  one  or  tivo  of  the  symptoms 
similar  to  those  exhibited  in  your  case,  but  yours  may  have  others, 
accompanying  these,  which  can  only  be  detected  by  the  professional 
eye.  Don't  waste  time,  money,  and,  perhaps,  the  animal  as  well,  by 
delay  in  such  a  case,  but  send  at  once  for  your  \eterinary  attendant, 
and,  in  the  meantime,  do  as  much  to  relieve  the  animal  as  possible, 
such  as  putting  it  in  an  airy  box,  clothing  well,  bandaging  the  legs,  &c. 
This  of  itself  will  often,  both  in  the  case  of  horses  and  cattle,  set 
them  right,  and  the  temperature  will  come  down  2  or  3  degrees  by 
simply  putting  them  alone  in  a  loose  box.  Animals,  as  a  rule,  when 
ailing  in  the  fields,  get  away  by  themselves  to  a  quiet  corner.  Follow 
their  example,  I  say  then  ;  but  whatever  you  do,  don't  start  and  tamper 
with  quack  medicines,  of  the  composition  of  which  you  know  nothing, 
and  which  may  be  exactly  the  reverse  of  what  is  required.  Try  and 
find  out  which  way  nature  is  working,  and  then  do  what  you  can  to 
assist  her.  If  you  fail  in  this,  send  for  your  professional  veterinary 

43.  It  is,  however,  a  well-known  fact  that  in  many  cases,  nature 
has  within  the  body  the  power — Vis  Medicatyix  Natui'cB — to  repair  and 
cure  herself  without  the  aid  of  medicine.  And  in  respect  of  this,  I 
have,  on  many  occasions,  attributed  beneficial  changes  to  the  simple 
action  of  common  salt,  owing  to  the  patients  licking  the  lump  rock 
salt  placed  before  them,  and  therefrom  obtaining  a  desire  to  take 
water  and  food  when  nothing  else  would  induce  them  to  do  so.  In  all 
ailments,  therefore,  affecting  horses  and  cattle,  it  will  be  found  of  great 
service  to  have  a  good  sized  piece  of  lump  rock  salt  placed  in  the 
manger  or  trough  for  the  animal  to  lick  at  leisure,  particularly  in 
febrile  affections. 


I.     Back  of  the  Head. 


Hip  Joint. 

2.     Horny  Protuberance. 


Upper  Thigh. 

3.     Horns. 


Stifle  Joint. 

4.     Ears. 


Lower  Thigh. 

5      Forehead. 



6.     Bridge  of  Nose. 



7.     Nostrils. 



8.     Mouth,  with  Cleft  Upper  Lip  and 


Point  of  Discharge  from  Sheath 

Lower  Lip. 



9.  Chin. 



10.  Cheeks. 


Walls  of  the  Chest. 

II.  Throat. 


Lower  Breast. 

12.  Eyes  and  Eyelids. 



13.  Lachrymal  Pit. 


Point  of  Shoulder. 

14.  Nape  of  the  Neck. 


Fore  Part  of  Breast. 

15.  Crest. 



16.  Dewlap. 



17.  Withers. 


Front  Knee. 

18.  Back. 


Shin  Bone. 

19.  Loin  or  Kidney  Region. 



20.  Rump. 



21.  Haunches. 



22.  Croup. 



23.  Tail. 



44.  THE  study  of  Bones  is  termed  Osteology.  Before  entering, 
however  into  the  details  of  the  diseases  and  accidents  pecuUar  to  the 
bones  of  domestic  animals,  I  will  first  briefly  run  over  the  general 

45.  What  is  Bone  ?  It  is  a  yellowish-white,  hard,  ordinarily 
insensitive  substance,  made  up  of  two  tissues,  one  of  which  is 
hard  or  compact,  the  other  being  porous  or  cancellated ;  while  it  is 
composed  of  one-third  animal  and  two-thirds  earthy  matter,  and  is 
covered  by  a  tough  membrane  called  pei'iosteum,  and  lined  internally 
with  a  fine  membrane  called  endosteum.  Bone  is  the  basis  of  the 
animal  frame  or  skeleton — giving  attachment  to  the  soft  parts,  and 
shielding  the  delicate  organs.  For  descriptive  purposes  bones  are 
divided  into  three  classes,  as  long,  flat,   short  and  irregular. 

46.  Periosteum,  or  the  outer  covering  of  bone  is  a  dense  fibro- 
vascular  membrane,  consisting  of  two  layers,  an  outer  fibrous  one,  and 
an  inner  one  of  fine  connective  tissue  which  is  contituied  into  the 
Heversian  Canals,  by  which  means  the  bone  is  nourished.  The 
periosteum  varies  in  thickness  according  to  the  position  of  the  bone, 
being  thickest  where  the  bone  is  most  exposed  to  injury,  for  instance, 
on  the  Tibia  and  Shank  Bone. 

47.  Endosteum  is  a  very  fine  vascular  membrane,  lining  the 
internal  or  medullary  cavities  of  the  bones,  wherein  the  marrow  (a 
fatty  substance)  is  contained,  and  by  its  means  the  internal  arteries 


are  distributed  through  the  internal  parts  of  the  bones.  The 
Endosteum  (unlike  the  Periosteum)  cannot  be  detached  as  a 
continuous  membrane.  In  most  birds,  however,  the  medullary 
cavities  of  the  long  bones  contain  air. 

48.  Long  bones  are  the  weight  bearers,  and  are  found  in  the 
extremities  or  legs,  and  have  a  shaft  and  two  ends.  The  compact  or 
hard  structure,  exists  on  the  outside,  being  thickest  at  the  middle  and 
inner  side  of  the  shaft,  or  wherever  most  weight  falls,  there  covering 
the  cancellated  or  porous  and  light  portions.  The  latter  structure  is 
most  abundant  at  the  ends  of  the  bone,  so  as  to  give  a  large,  yet  light 
surface  for  joints,  and  it  is  there  further  covered  by  articular  cartilage. 

49.  Flat  bones  are  found  where  important  organs  have  to  be 
shielded.  Thus,  the  bones  of  the  head  encase  the  brain  ;  the 
shoulder-blade  and  ribs  protect  the  heart  and  lungs,  Hver,  &c.  ;  while 
the  hip  or  pelvic  bones  cover  the  organs  of  generation.  Flat  bones 
are  made  up  of  two  layers  of  compact  tissue,  with  a  layer  of 
cancellated  or  porous  tissue  in  the  middle. 

50.  Short  and  Irregular  bones  are  found  in  the  back-bone  or 
vertebral  column,  knee,  hock,  and  lower  portions  of  the  limbs.  These 
bones  are  principally  composed  of  cancellated  tissue,  covered  with  a 
thin  layer  of  the  compact  or  hard  structure,  and  are  so  arranged  as  to 
bear  weight,  yet  allow  of  movement,  more  particularly  of  a  gliding 
nature,  and  an  "  open  and  shut  "  motion. 

51.  The  Skeleton  of  the  horse  is  said  to  be  composed  of  about  253 
bones  (including  the  teeth),  and  is  divided  into  Head,  Trunk,  and 
Extremities.  These  divisions  will,  perhaps,  be  better  understood  by 
the  following  tables.     (See  Plate  V.) 

52.  The  Head  is  sub-Jivided  into  Cranium  and  Face.  The  former 
consists  of  20  separate  bones,  including  4  pairs,  and  4  small  bones  in 
in  each  ear  ;  while  61  bones  are  found  in  the  face — nine  pairs,  three 
single,  and  40  teeth  in  the  horse,  and  36  in  the  mare. 




Upper  Jaw. 



Lower  or  Under  Jaw. 


Occipital  Bone. 


Parietal  Bone. 


Frontal  Bone. 


Temporal  Bone. 


Superior  Maxillary  Bone. 


The  Upper  Molars. 


Infra-Orbital  Foramen. 


Pre-Maxillary  Bone. 


The  Upper  Incisors. 


The  Upper  Canine  Tooth  or  Tusk. 


Nasal  Bone. 


Lachrymal  Bone. 


Orbital  Cavity. 


Zygomatic  Bone. 


Inferior  Molars. 


Inferior  Canine  Tooth. 


Inferior  Incisors. 


The    Cervical    Vertebra;    (7),    the 
first    being    the    Atlas    and     the 
second  the  Dentata  or  Axis. 


The  Dorsal  Vertebrae  (18). 


Eight  True  Ribs  on  the  Breast  Bone. 


10  False  Ribs. 


Breast  Bone  (Sternum). 


Lumbar  Vertebrze  (6). 


Sacrum,  which  consist  of  five  ver- 
tebrae grown  together,  at  the  sides 
of  which  are  four  openings  through 
which  the  sacral  nerves  pass. 


Coccygeal  vertebrae  (20). 


The  Ilium.       ,, 


The  Haunch. 



Bones  of  the 


Hip  Joint. 


.     The  Hip  Joint  < 














Bones  of  the 

Upper  Thigh  Bone  or  Femur. 

Stifle-joint   and  Patella,    or   Knee 

Tibia,  large  lower  Thigh  Bone. 
Fibula  or  small  lower  Thigh  bone. 
Calcis   or  Heel 

Cuboid  Bone. 
Large  Scaphoid 

Small  Scaphoid 

Cuneiform  Bone. 
The  Shank  or  large  Metatarsal  Bone. 
Outer  or  Splint  Bone. 
Inner  Splint  Bone. 
Sesamoid  Bones  (2). 
Large   Pastern   Bone    (Os    Suffra- 

Small  Pastern  Bone  (Os  Corona). 
Coffin  Bone  (Os  Pedis). 
Shoulder  Blade. 

Shoulder  Joint. 

Humerus — Upper  Arm  Bone,  arti- 
culates at  the  elbow  joint. 

Elbow  Joint. 

Fore  Arm  or  Radius. 



Cuneiform  Bone. 

Lunar  Bone. 

Unciform  Bone. 

Scaphoid  Bone. 

Os  Magnum. 

Trapezoid  Bone. 

Pea-shaped  or 
Pisiform  Bone. 

Bones  of  the 

Bones  below  the  Knee  same  as  below  the  Hock,  except  the  Shank  Bone  is 
called  Metacarpal. 




53.  Bones  of  the  Cranium — 





Frontal  (pair) 





Parietal  (pair) 





Temporal  (two  pairs,  in  horses  only) 

••       4 
























54.   Bones  of  the  Ear- 



-  (4  pairs)     ... 

..       8 







55.  Bones  of  the  Face — 

Nasal  \ 

Superior  Maxillary 






Superior  Turbinated 

Inferior  ,,  / 


Lower  Jaw 


Os  Hyoides^ 

7  or  more  I  bones  of  the  Tongue      ...       i  i  i  i 

sections     j 
In  the  Pig,  there  is  an  additional  single  bone,  the  Os  Rostri,  or 
snout  bone. 














56.  The  Trunk  is  also  divided  into  Spine,  Thorax,  and  Pelvis. 

Cervical  (Neck) 
Dorsal  (Back) 
Lumbar  (Loins) 
Sacrum  (Croup) 
Coccyx  (Tail) 

Ribs  (pairs) 






















3   18 




8  true    8  true    9  true    7  true 
10  false  5  false  4  false  7  false 

57.  The  Sternum,  or  Breast  Bone,  is  in  seven  sections,  and  in  the 
horse  is  placed  edgevv'ay  up,  while  that  of  the  cow  lies  flat. 

58.  The  Sacrum  in  the  Horse,  Ox,  and  Sheep  is  composed  of  5 
segments  each  ;  in  the  Dog,  3  ;  and  in  the  Pig,  4.  The  Tail  Bones  are 
variable  in  different  animals. 

59.  The  Ribs  of  the  Ox  are  straighter,  broader,  and  more  uniform 
than  those  of  the  horse  ;  they'  expand  at  their  lower  end,  and 
the  true  ribs  (excepting  the  first)  articulate  with  their  cartilages  by 
true  joints.  The  Ox  has  also  a  small  bone  (sometimes  two)  in  the 
heart,  and  the  Dog  has  one  in  the  penis.     {See  Plate  VI. J 


60.  Bones  of  the  Fore  Legs  (Right  and  Left) — 

Horse.  Ox. 

Scapula  (Shoulder-blade)       ...  ...       2  2 

Humerus  (Upper  Arm)  ...  ...       2  2 

Radius  (Fore-arm)  ...  ...       2  2 

[Much    larger  in' 
Ulna  (Elbow-bone)  j  the  Ox  than  the 
(  Horse. 









Carpus  (Knee) 
Upper  Row  : 

Scaphoid,  Lunar, 
Cuneiform,  Pisiform 
Lower  Row  : 

Trapezium,  Trapezoid, 
Magnum,  Unciform. 

,,  ...  ... 


Os  Suffraginis  (Large  Pastern) 

Os  Coronae  (Small  do.) 

Os  Pedis  (Coffin  Bone)    ... 

Os  Navicular  (Shuttle  do.) 

Horse.  Ox.  Dog.  Pig. 

8  pairs     6  pairs    7  pairs   8  pairs 

(In  the  Ox  the  Trapezium  is 
wanting,  and  the  Magnuni 
and  Trapezoid  are  represent- 
ed by  a  single  bone.) 

2  large  2  large 

4  small  2  small 

4  8 

2  4 

2  4 

2  4 

2  4 

>  See  Par.  6/. 

61.  The  arrangement  of  the  bones  under  the  knee  of  the  dog 
resembles  that  of  the  human  hand.  They  number  34  in  each  limb  ; 
whilst  those  under  the  knee  of  the  pig  are  about  28  in  each. 

62.  Os  Innominatum,  or  pelvic  (hip)  bone,  is  composed  of  three 

sections.  Ilium,  Ischium,  and  Pubis  (right  and  left),  and 
these  form  the  side,  floor,  and  part  of  the  roof  of  the  pelvic 

63.  Bones  of  the  Hind  Legs  (Right  and  Left) — 

Femur  (Thigh  bone) 
Patella  (Stifle) 
Tibia  (Leg) 
Fibula  (Leg) 
Tarsus  (Hock) 

Astragalus,    Calcis,      \ 

Cuboid,     Scaphoid,      \ 

and  two  Cuneiforms.     ) 
Large  Metatarsal    ...  ...  ...  2  ...  2 

SmaU  ,,  ...  ...  ...  4         •••         2 











6  pairs... 

.5  P 


64.  The  pastern  bones  correspond  with  those  of  the  fore  extremities, 
both  in  name  and  number.  The  bones  above  the  hock  are  the  same 
in  the  pig  and  dog  ;  the  hock,  however,  consists  of  7  pairs  of  bones  in 
these  animals  ;  while  each  have  29  pairs  of  bones  under  the  hock.  The 
skeleton  of  the  Sheep  is  analogous  to  that  of  the  Ox,  both  in  number 
and  names  of  bones.     (See  Plate  VII.) 

65.  Having  now  briefly  run  over  the  skeleton,  naming  and  classifying 
the  bones,  and  noting  their  situation,  structure,  and  use,  I  shall  next 
refer  to  the  study  of  joints  and  ligaments,  or  Arthrology.  The 
various  bones  of  the  body  are  held  together  by  means  of  dense  fibrous 
structures  called  Ligaments,  to  form  Joints,  which  are  of  three 
classes;  but,  in  descriptive  anatomy,  these  are  subdivided. 

66.  We  will  only  deal  here  with  the  three  primary  classes,  viz. : — 
Synarthrosis — immovable — such  as  the  union  of  the  bones  in  the 
head.  Amphiarthrosis — slightly  movable — as  between  the  bones 
of  the  vertebrae.  Diarthrosis — movable  in  any  direction — as  in  the 
hip,  shoulder,  knee,  &c. 

67.  Ligaments  are  composed  mainly  of  white  fibrous  tissue, 
some  ligaments,  however,  are  mostly  of  yellow  elastic  tissue.  The 
Ligamentum  Nuchae,  which  supports  the  head  and  neck,  is  V 
shaped,  and  extends  from  the  top  of  the  shoulder,  or  withers,  to  the 
crown  of  the  head,  and  consists  of  two  layers,  or  plates.  Ligaments 
which  hold  the  ends  of  bones  together  are  termed  capsular  and 
binding.  The  capsular  ligaments  are  fibro-membranous  bags  or 
sacks,  which  envelop  both  ends  of  the  bones,  and  are  lined  by  a 
fine  synovial  membrane  which  secretes  the  Synovia,  or  Joint  Oil, 
by  which  the  articulation  is  lubricated.  The  binding  ligaments  are 
flattened  or  rounded  bands  running  from  the  lower  end  of  one  bone 
to  the  top  of  the  succeeding  bone,  and  when  present  at  the  sides  of  the 
joint  are  called  lateral  ligaments  ;  but  when  found  between  the  ends  of 
the  bones  in  the  joint  they  are  called  interosseous,  and  when  they  bind 
down  tendons  passing  over  the  joints,  are  named  annular  ligaments. 

68.  Cartilage,  or  gristle,  is  a  pale  bluish-white,  firm,  elastic,  glistening 
substance,    which   is    found    adhering  to  the    surface   of   bones,    and 



1.  Upper  Jaw. 

2.  Lower  or  Under  Jaw. 

3.  Occipital  Bone. 

4.  Frontal  Protuberance. 

5.  Horn  Cores. 

6.  Frontal  Bone. 

7.  Lachrymal  Bone. 

8.  Malar  Bone. 

9.  Zygomatic  Bone, 
10.  Nasal  Bone. 

ir.  Great  Maxillary  Bone. 

12.  Six  Upper  Molars. 

13.  Great  Maxillary  Bone. 

14.  Temporal  Bone. 

15.  Orbital  Cavity. 

16.  Six  Lower  Molars. 

17.  Eight  Incisors. 

18.  Seven  Cervical  Vertebrae.     The  first 

bone  being  the  Atlas. 

ig.  Thirteen  Dorsal  Vertebras. 

20.  Eight  True  Ribs. 

21.  Five  False  Ribs. 

22.  Sternum,  or  Breast  Bone. 
Six  Lumbar  Vertebrae. 



Eighteen  to  Twenty  Coccygeal  Ver- 

Ilium.       \ 

Ischium.   I  Bones  of  the  Pelvis. 


Point  of  Shoulder. 


Upper  Arm  Bone. 


Elbow  Bone.     (Ulna). 


Forearm  Bone  or  Radius. 


Elbow  Joint. 


Fore  Knee  Joint. 


Unciform  Bone. 


Polygonal  Bone. 






Semi-lunar  Bone. 






Rudimentary  Metacarpal    or  Splint 



Sesamoid  Bones. 


Pastern  Bones. 


Coronet  Bones. 


Hoof  Bones. 


Navicular  Bone. 


Thighbone  (femur). 






Stifle  Joint. 




Calcis  (heel  bone). 




Scaphoid  and  Cuboid. 


First  Cuneiform  Bone. 


The  Second  Cuneiform  Bone. 


28.  Os  Pubis.  I 

29.  Hip  Joint. 

30.  Shoulder  Boae. 

From  the  hock  downwards  the  bones  are  the  same  as  in  the  fore  limbs,  except 
the  Shank  is  called  Metatarsal. 


forming  parts  of  the  skeleton,  and  is  of  two  kinds— temporary  and 
permanent.  The  temporary  cartilage  forms  the  original  basis  of 
bone,  which  in  adult  life  becomes  ossified.  Permanent  cartilage 
consists  of  two  varieties,  viz.;  Hyaline-Cartilage  and  Fibro- 
Cartilage,  and  these  again  are  named  according  to  the  purpose  they 
serve  :  such  as  Articular,  when  at  the  ends  of  bones  to  form  joints  ; 
or  Interarticular,  when  it  forms  a  pad  in  the  middle  of  a  joint,  as 
between  the  bones  of  the  vertebrae  and  in  the  stifle.  We  also  have 
the  Costal  Cartilages,  prolonging  ribs  anteriorly;  the  Cariniform 
cartilage,  keel-shaped,  at  the  front  of  sternmn  ;  the  Ensiform  cartilage, 
heart-shaped,  at  the  posterior  end  of  the  sternum  ;  and  the  cartilage 
of  Prolongation  attached  to  the  top  of  the  scapula.  Lateral 
cartilages  are  found  on'  each  side  of  the  foot  ;  and  various  cartilages 
form  the  basis  of  the  ear,  larynx,  and  wind  pipe.  In  short, 
cartilage  is  found  giving  shape  and  form  where  bone  would  not  answer. 
Now.  all  these  structures  are  liable  to  disease  and  injury,  as  well 
as  the  soft  parts  of  the  body. 

69.  Bones  are  subject  to  inflammation,  more  particularly  so  those  of 
young  animals,  before  they  are  matured.  Healthy  bone  is  non- 
sensitive,  or  very  sHghtly  so  ;  but,  when  bone  is  under  inflammation, 
then,  owing  to  its  unyielding  nature,  the  pain  is  very  acute. 

70.  Periostitis,  is  inflammation  of  the  covering  of  the  bone,  and 
mostly  occurs  in  young  race  horses,  as  sore  shins.  When  the 
inflammation  is  very  acute  and  continuous,  great  constitutional 
disturbance  is  set  up,  the  parts  aff^ected  become  swollen  and  very 
painful  to  the  touch,  and  if  not  speedily  relieved  the  disease  may 
terminate  in  death  of  the  bone  (Necrosis)  or  the  death  of  the  patient. 

71.  ForitsTreatment,  rest  is  the  first  essential.  Some  practitioners 
recommend  the  use  of  hot  fomentations,  or  bandages  wrung  out  of  hot 
water.  For  my  part  I  like  cold  water  applications  best,  or  Spongi- 
opiline,  soaked  m  cold  water  and  secured  over  the  affected  part  with 
a  bandage.  For  combating  the  fever,  I  find  saline  fever  medicines 
answer  best.     (See  Appendix.)     Sometimes  the  parts  affected  have  to 


be  cut  down  upon  to  liberate  the  exudate  under  the  periosteum  ;    at 
times  a  good  plaster  bandage  has  a  grand  effect. 

72.  Ostitis  is  inflammation  of  the  bone,  and  may  be  due  to  an  injury, 
or  may  arise  from  constitutional  or  hereditary  causes,  tubercular,  or 
scrofulous,  or  from  other  diseases,  such  as  attacks  of  rheumatics. 
Sometimes  a  very  slight  injury  may  set  up  inflammation  of  the  bone 
and  cause  bony  material  or  exudate  to  be  thrown  out,  forming  bony 
enlargements  such  as  Splint,  Ringbone,  and  Spavin.  These 
deposits  are  known  as  Exostosis,  and  our  endeavour  should  be  to 
find  out  the  exact  place  aff"ected,  and  apply  such  remedies  as  will 
hurry  on  the  inflammation  to  resolution  and  consolidation,  and  thus 
form  a  true  bony  deposit ;  for  treatment,  nothing  beats  the  application 
of  cold  water.  When  there  is  no  water-main,  such  as  is  found  in  most 
towns,  this  treatment  can  be  accomplished  by  elevating  a  large  cask 
or  tub,  filled  with  water,  and  connecting  with  it  one  end  of  apiece  of  half- 
inch  indiarubber  piping,  ten  or  twelve  feet  long,  the  other  end  of  which 
is  secured  to  the  horse's  limb  by  a  bandage  or  other  appliance  ;  and 
when  this  is  fastened  to  the  part  requiring  irrigation,  it  secures  a 
constant  stream  of  water  on  the  syphon  principle— Tub  and  Tube 
Irrigation.  When  the  inflammation  has  abated,  a  smart  bhster  may 
be  applied,  or,  where  applicable,  the  plaster  bandage  may  be  used. 

73.  Should  these  endeavours  not  meet  with  success— as  abscesses 
rarely  form  in  the  bone  itself— the  disease  may  terminate  in  Caries  or 
Ulceration  of  the  bone  (which  assumes  a  worm-eaten  appearance), 
resulting  in  the  molecular  death  of  some  of  the  bony  structure.  There 
is  no  bone  in  the  body  that  is  not  subject  to  this  affliction,  but  it 
affects  some  bones  more  commonly  than  others.  The  pain  is  contin 
uous,  and  wears  the  animal  down.  The  strength  must  be  supported 
with  good  nutritious  diet,  while  cold  applications  should,  at  first  be 
resorted  to,  followed  by  blisters,  firing,  punching,  and,  when  prac- 
ticable, cutting  down  on  the  part,  and  scraping  with  a  bone  spoon 
thus  endeavouring  to  bring  about  healthy  action.  These  latter 
operations  should  be  in  the  hands  of  a  professional  man.  If  the 
disease  is  near  to,  or  m  connection  with,  a  joint,  the  object  should  be 


if  the  animal  is  likely  to  be  of  any  service  afterwards,  to  hasten  on 
the  inflammatory  process  to  throw  out  bony  material  sufficient  to 
unite  the  ends  of  the  bones,  and  form  a  stiff  joint. 

74.  This  condition  is  called  Anchylosis — the  unnatural  consolidation 
and  immobility  of  a  joint.  In  this  case,  the  articular  cartilage  becomes 
absorbed  or  destroyed,  and  a  bony  deposit  takes  its  place  in  and 
around  the  damaged  joint,  the  two  bones  becoming  united.  Some- 
tmies  the  disease  continues,  and  breaks  out,  forming  sinuses,  which 
discharge  a  fceted,  irritative  matter,  and  are  extremely  difficult  to 
deal  with,  requiring  an  operation  and  antiseptic  treatment.  Generous 
diet  is  highly  necessary.  Old  horses  are  very  subject  to  anchylosis 
from  hard  work  or  rheumatic  affection,  particularly  in  the  backbones. 
Great  care  is  therefore  necessary  in  casting  these.  The  knee,  hock, 
fetlock,  and  pastern  joints  also,  on  many  occasions,  become  fixed  ; 
and  the  ffexibilit}'  of  the  limb  is  interfered  with,  but  slow  work, 
particularly  that  on  the  farm,  can  be  done  without  pain  to  the  animal, 
although  what  may  be  called  mechanical  lameness  might  be  present. 
Ancliylosis  may,  however,  arise  from  other  causes,  and  the  joint 
become  fixed. 

75.  When  inflammation  of  bone  is  very  intense,  it  may,  at  times, 
terminate  in  death  of  the  affected  part,  and  is  known  as  Necrosis,  or 
death  of  the  bone,  and  resembles  mortification  in  the  soft  structures. 
The  hard  or  compact  structure  is  said  to  suffer  most  from  Necrosis. 
I  have  seen  it  in  the  lower  jaw,  incited  by  the  rough  usage  of  the 
horse  breaker,  where  the  dead  portion,  as  soon  as  it  became  loose 
enough,  was  removed,  and  the  part  healed.  I  have  removed  half  of 
the  Navicular  bone  and  wing  of  the  cofiin  bone,  also  a  portion  of  the 
shank — Metatarsal — bone  with  success  ;  immediately  the  dead  portion 
is  removed,  the  discharge  ceases,  and  the  place  soon  heals  up.  It 
must  be  dressed  with  antiseptics  (and  nothing  is  better  than  a  weak 
solution  of  Hydrochloric  Acid),  and  interfered  with  as  little  as 
possible,  in  order  to  let  it  mend.  At  times  the  dead  portion  cannot 
be  got  at  to  remove,  and  it  then  becomes  sequestrated  by  healthy 
bony  matter  being  thrown  out,  and  enveloping  the  dead  portion  ;  but 
this  is  a  long  process. 


76.  Rickets. — This  disease  is  due  to  a  peculiar  softening  and 
yielding  condition  of  the  bone,  and  may  be  looked  upon  as  arising  from 
the  imperfect  assimilation  of  the  lime  elements  through  a  want  of  earthy 
salts,  or  an  excess  of  animal  matter,  by  the  bony  structure  so  that  the 
bones  will  scarcely  support  the  weight  of  the  body.  Rickets  is  mostly 
seen  in  young  dogs  and  pigs,  and  not  so  frequently  in  foals  and  calves. 
In  the  treatment  of  rickets  the  affected  animal  should  be  put  into  a 
well-drained  and  ventilated  box,  and  provided  with  a  good  comfortable 
bed.  Should  any  constitutional  disturbance  be  present  it  ought  to  be 
combated  by  giving  fever  medicines,  followed  up  with  tonics,  and  as 
such,  nothing  is  better  than  the  Syrup  of  Phosphates  of  Iron, 
Potash,  Soda  and  Lime,  and  Glycerine  or  Cod  Liver  Oil,  given 
in  doses  of  one  tablespoonful  twice  a  day  in  milk  ;  good  well-boiled 
oatmeal  porridge,  with  plenty  of  milk  and  a  wine-glassful  of  lime  water, 
night  and  morning,  is  also  recommended. 

77.  Mollities  Ossium  is  real  softening  of  the  bone,  which  becomes 
of  a  spongy  red  texture  ;  the  treatment  is  much  the  same  as  for 
Rickets,  Another  disease  of  the  bone,  which  is  thoroughly  described 
by  Professor  Williams  in  his  "  Principles  and  Practice  of 
Veterinary  Surgery,"  is  called  Osteo-Porosis,  and  is  a  remarkable 
softening  and  swelling  of  the  bony  structure.  This  is  a  very  peculiar 
complaint,  from  the  description  given  of  it  by  Professor  "Williams.  I 
have  not,  however,  in  all  my  practice,  come  across  such  a  case. 

78.  Fragilitas  Ossium  or  brittleness  of  the  bone,  is  mostly  seen  in 
aged  animals ;  as  they  advance  in  life  the  bones  become  firmer,  and 
lose  their  animal  matter  to  a  certain  extent,  so  much  so,  that  the  bones 
of  an  old  horse,  owing  to  their  fragile  condition,  are  very  subject  to 

79.  Osteo-Sarcoma,  or  bone  tumour,  is  a  malignant  disease  of  the 
bone,  which  at  times  implicates  the  flesh  as  well.  It  is  very  common 
in  finely  bred  cattle  and  horses,  attacking  generally  the  head  and 
frequently  commencing  in  the  inner  corner  of  the  eye  ;  the  ribs  are  also 
the  seat  of  the  disease.      It  creeps  on  very  insidiously,  producing  little 


or  no  constitutional  disturbance.  The  animal  seems  to  have  no  pain, 
but  gradually  loses  flesh.  I  have  seen  cases  where  the  whole  side 
of  the  upper  jaw,  including  the  eye-socket  and  upper  molar  teeth, 
was  so  affected,  that  I  have  removed  the  latter  with  my  fingers,  and 
scraped  off  the  diseased  growth ;  yet,  although  the  bleeding  was 
excessive,  the  animal  seemed  to  feel  no  pain.  I  have  also  seen  the 
under  jaw  in  a  similar  condition  to  that  of  the  upper.  The  first 
appearance  of  the  disease  is  a  large  swelling,  which  finally  breaks  out 
with  a  dirty  brown  discharge,  and  a  rapid  growth  of  spongy  looking 
flesh.  As  little  or  no  good  can  be  done,  the  animal  had  better  be 

80.  Scrofulous  or  Tubercular  disease  of  the  bone.  A  number 
of  cases,  in  cows,  have  come  under  my  notice  where  the  tubercular 
deposit  has  been  found  in  various  parts  of  the  spine,  causing  a 
peculiar  staggering  gait,  and  the  animal  finally  loses  the  power  of  the 
hind  legs  even  when  the  tubercle  has  been  found  in  the  neck  bones. 
It  seems  to  follow  certain  strains  of  blood  ;  the  animal  suffering  will 
continue  to  live  on,  feed,  and  chew  the  cud,  but  finally  it  gets  so  bad 
that  it  cannot  get  up,  and  has  to  be  rolled  from  side  to  side  every 
five  or  six  hours.  The  stifle,  knee,  and  other  joints  suffer  very  much 
from  this  disease  ;  treatment  as  a  rule  being  of  little  use. 

81.  Enchondroma  is  a  cartilaginous  growth  or  tumour  upon  a 
bone,  such  as  the  sternum  and  ribs,  seldom  causing,  however,  any 
constitutional  disturbance  ;  when  practicable,  this  has  to  be  removed 
by  a  surgical  operation. 

82.  Factures. — What  is  a  fracture  ?  Some  define  it  as  a  solution  of 
continuity — which,  I  thmk  is  not  a  good  description.  My  definition 
of  a  fracture  is — "  A  forcible  separation  of  the  cohesive  particles  of  a 
hard  substance  into  two  or  more  parts."  Now,  the  bones  of  an 
animal  are  as  liable  to  fracture  as  those  of  the  human  subject. 
Formerly  it  was  thought  that  the  bones  of  a  horse  would  not  mend  ; 
yet  this  is  not  so,  for  they  will  unite  more  quickly  than  those  of  the 
human  frame,  but  we  cannot  place  ihe  patient  in  the  same  state  of 


rest  and  quietness — hence  the  difficulty  in  getting  recoveries.  With 
flat  bones,  as  the  shoulder-blade,  and  pelvic  bones,  where  they  are 
enveloped  with  flesh,  the  ends  of  the  bones  are  kept  fairly  well  in 
apposition,  and  at  times  do  capitally,  simply  by  putting  the  animal  on 
to  the  slings,  with  perfect  quietness,  and  with  a  good  pitch  charge 
applied  over  the  affected  parts.  The  bones  of  the  pastern  joints,  when 
the  injury  is  not  too  extensive,  also,  occasionally  do  well,  and  where 
the  animal  is  likely  to  be  useful  for  stud  purposes,  it  is  worth  the  attempt. 
I  have  seen  the  best  recoveries  m  fractures  of  the  lower  bones  of  the 
limbs,  obtained  by  putting  on  a  good  starch  or  plaster-of-Paris  bandage 
— the  latter  is  preferable — and  turning  the  patient  out  to  grass.  It  is 
astonishing,  when  the  animal  is  left  to  itself,  how  soon  it  can  nurse  the 
maimed  limb.  Fractures  of  the  long  bones  or  weight  carriers,  such  as  the 
thigh,  fore-arm,  and  shank,  are  the  most  difficult  to  deal  with,  especially 
in  the  horse,  which,  if  so  injured,  is  generally  destroyed  ;  yet,  in  the 
human  being  they  are  the  easiest.  The  long  bones  of  cattle  and  dogs 
unite  readily,  by  putting  on,  with  melted  burgundy  pitch,  thick  shoe- 
sole  leather  splints,  li  inches  broad,  all  being  held  with  a  bandage, 
which  is  not  too  tight,  so  as  to  allow  of  the  swelling  which  takes  place. 
When  a  bone  is  fractured  we  sometimes  have  much  constitutional 
disturbance,  or  traumatic  fever  set  up,  and  this  has  to  be  treated  as 
well  as  the  injured  part.  Great  care  and  judgment  are  required  in 
putting  splints  and  bandages  on  a  broken  limb.  Splints  made  of  stout 
shoe-sole  leather  are  very  useful,  placed  so  as  to  leave  room  between 
the  splints  for  the  limb  to  swell,  and  for  the  passage  of  the  blood.  A 
little  melted  burgundy  pitch  put  on  the  splint  before  placing  it  on  the 
limb,  keeps  it  in  its  place.  The  bandages,  as  they  are  rolled  on,  are 
smeared  with  the  melted  pitch,  and  must  not  be  pulled  too  tight, 
especially  in  young  foals. 

83.  Before  a  fracture  can  unite,  inflammation  has  to  take  place,  and 
reparative  material  or  bony  exudate  is  thrown  out  between  and  around 
the  broken  ends  of  the  bone,  taking  about  six  or  eight  weeks  to  become 
consolidated,  and  which,  on  solidifying,  is  called  the  Callus.  If  the 
animal  has  been  on  slings,  a  great  many  weeks  are   required   before 


the  muscles  regain  their  action.  Sometimes,  instead  of  the  ends  of 
the  bones  uniting,  they  become  covered  with  cartilage,  and  form  what 
is  termed  a  false  joint  ;  when  this  is  the  case  it  is  best  to  have  the 
animal  destroyed. 

84.   Fractures  are  of  six  kinds,  viz  :- 

I — Simple. 

2 — Compound. 

3 — Compound  Comminuted. 

4 — Complicated. 
5 — Green  Stick. 
6— Impacted. 

85.  Simple  Fracture  is  when  the  bone  is  simply  broken  without 
much  injury  to  the  flesh — a  fracture  only  into  two  parts,  and  without 
any  external  wound. 

86.  Compound  Fracture  is  where  the  bone  has  been  broken 
in  an  oblique  manner,  and  the  sharp  ends,  pointing  up  and  down, 
cut  through  the  flesh  and  skin,  and  make  an  external  wound.  In  the 
horse,  this  is  difficult  to  deal  with,  and  the  most  humane  course  is  to 
have  the  animal  destroyed. 

87.  Compound  Comminuted  Fracture  is  where  the  bone  is 
broken  or  crushed  into  a  great  many  pieces,  and  the  connecting  tissues 
implicated;  little  or  no  good  can   be  done  in  these  cases. 

88.  Complicated  Fractures  are  where  the  fracture  extends  into 
a  joint,  or  wounds  important  organs,  blood-vessels,  &c. 

8g.  Green  Stick  Fracture  is  a  partial  or  deferred  fracture,  where 
only  part  of  the  bone  is  partially  broken  (cracked).  It  is  an  incomplete 
fracture,  in  which  one  side  is  broken,  while  the  other  holds  together. 

go.  Impacted  Fracture  is  the  jamming  or  driving  in  of  one 
fragment  of  bone  into  the  other,  without  movement  or  crepitation. 

91.  All  the  bones  of  the  body  are  subject  to  fractures.  When 
we  had  the  old  horse  thrashing  machines,  injuries  to  the  bones  of  the 
head  were  not  uncommon.  In  pit  horses,  too,  I  have  seen  the  frontal 
and  nasal  bones  delved  in,  and  occasionally  had  to  use  the  Trephine,  to 


remove  a  piece  of  bone  so  as  to  get  into  the  cavities  and  liberate  the 
collected  blood  or  effusion.  The  lower  jaw  also  sometimes  gets  broken; 
but  all  such  cases  require  the  attention  of  the  qualified  practitioner. 

92.  The  Occipital  bone,  at  the  back  part  of  the  head,  is  often 
fractured  by  the  horse  falling  back,  and  so  is  the  Atlas  or  first  cervical 
vertebrae.  The  injuries  are  generally  followed  by  paralysis,  and  the 
animal  has  to  be  destroyed. 

93.  The  Cervical  Vertebrae. — The  oblique  processes  of  these 
bones  are  now  and  again  fractured,  mainly  by  the  horse  getting  a  hind 
foot  shoe  fixed  in  the  head  collar  on  scratching  its  head.  When  this 
takes  place  the  head  turns  round  to  one  side,  the  nose  nearly  touching 
the  knee,  and  there  is  all  the  appearance  of  some  of  the  neck  bones  being 
dislocated.  (See  diagram  in  Professor  Williams'  "  Surgery.")  The 
head,  when  this  occurs,  should  be  tied  up  short  to  the  rack  with  a  double 
shanked  halter,  and  the  part  supported  by  a  stout  pitch  plaster,  with 
wooden  splints,  and  cradle,  put  round  the  neck.  The  bones  of  the 
neck  also  occasionally  get  smashed  by  the  horse  falling  on  its  head. 
One  case  in  particular  deserves  mention  : — "  Lord  of  the  Harem,"  when 
racing  at  Harras  Moor,  Whitehaven,  a  few  years  ago,  fell  and  broke 
the  third  and  fourth  neck  bones.  After  falling,  strange  to  say,  it  got 
up  and  ivalked  a  quarter  of  a  mile  to  a  loose  box ;  but  immediately  it  got 
inside,  it  laid  down,  and  never  got  up  again.  I  saw  it  next  day,  in 
company  with  two  other  professional  men,  when  we  ordered  it  to  be 
destroyed,  as  there  was  no  mistake  about  its  neck  being  broken. 
Greyhounds  also  frequently  come  to  grief  in  this  fashion  when 

94.  Broken  Back. — When  this  happens  the  animal  may  rise  on  to 
its  fore  legs,  but  cannot  get  the  hind  ones  up  ;  to  test  it,  stick  a  pin 
into  the  hind  limbs,  and  if  it  shows  pain  and  can  pull  its  legs  up  to 
its  belly,  or  kick  out,  there  is  some  chance  for  the  patient,  but  if  no 
pain  is  evinced  the  case  is  hopeless. 

95.  The  Haunch  Hook,  or  hip-bone,  is  frequently  broken  or 
chipped,  and  should  be  noticed  particularly,  specially  when  examining 


for  soundness.  It  may  be  caused  by  the  horse  tumbhng  down,  or  by 
going  through  a  door-way,  but  it  does  not  hinder  the  horse  from  doing 
its  work.  The  piece  broken  off  may  drop  into  the  flesh  below,  but  very 
rarely  it  brings  on  bad  effects,  sometimes,  however,  it  forms  an  abscess  ; 
then  we  have  to  cut  down  upon  it  and  remove  the  piece  or  pieces  of 
detached  bone.  This  lesion  is  of  more  frequent  occurrence  in  cattle 
than  in  horses. 

g6.  The  Ilium. — When  the  shaft  of  this  bone  is  broken,  the  horse 
lias  a  peculiar  way  of  walking  ;  on  putting  one  hand  on  the  point  of  the 
haunch  and  the  other  on  the  rump  bone,  and  getting  some  one  to  stir 
the  leg,  you  will  both  hear  and  feel  the  ends  of  the  bones  crunching 
underneath.     Long  rest  and  support  with  pitch  charges  are  required. 

97.  The  Pelvic  Bones. — I  have  seen  the  floor  (Symphysis  Pubis) 
of  the  pelvic  cavity  fractured  by  a  fall  down  a  stone  quarry,  and  when 
the  animal  (a  cow)  attempted  to  stand,  the  legs  spread  apart.  It  was 
put  in  slings,  had  its  hocks  buckled  together,  and  made  a  good  recovery 
in  about  seven  or  eight  weeks.  Horses  should  also  be  put  into  slings, 
and  have  the  legs  tied  together  at  the  hocks.  When  such  an  accident 
happens  to  a  fat  cow  or  ox  it  should  be  sent  to  the  butcher. 

98.  The  Ischium,  or  rump  bone,  is  now  and  again  fractured  in  the 
horse.  This  may  be  caused  by  the  animal  falling  over  backwards, 
and  occurs  more  particularly  in  a  young  horse,  when  first  tied  up, 
breaking  its  halter  and  rearing,  or  from  a  slip  when  backing.  It  is 
not  of  much  consequence,  only,  the  side  injured  is  more  flattened 
than  the  undamaged  one.  This  should  be  carefully  noticed  in 
examination  for  soundness.  It  is  best  seen  by  viewing  the  animal 

99.  The  Femur  is  at  times  fractured  at  the  top  or  neck,  and  also  in 
the  shaft.  It  may  be  due  to  a  fall,  or  it  may  occur  when  a  horse  has 
been  cast  and  tied  for  some  operation,  as  in  castrating.  On  account 
of  the  quantity  of  flesh  surrounding  the  bone,  little  or  nothing  can  be 
done  ;  the  animal  has  to  be  destroyed.  I  remember  one  case — a 
valuable    carriage    horse — where    the   inner    condyle    of    the    lower 


articulation  of  the  femur  was  broken  off,  and  the  Patella,  or  cup  of 
the  stifle,  was  split  at  the  same  time  ;  it  was  a  compound  comminuted 
fracture.  The  horse  was  put  into  slings,  but  its  sufferings  were  so 
great  that  it  was  shot. 

loo.  The  Tibia,  or  leg  bone,  is  considered  to  be  more  liable  to 
fracture  than  any  other  bone  in  the  body,  but  very  often  the  bone  is 
merely  cracked  without  any  displacement,  and  with  little  or  no 
lameness  present — a  slight  skin  wound  may  perhaps  be  seen,  or,  may 
be,  only  a  small  enlargement  felt,  which  is  painful  to  the  tauch. 

loi.  Cracked  Tibia,  or  deferred  fracture,  mostly  occurs  when  two 
horses  are  put  into  one  stall,  and  one  of  them,  standing  a  little 
further  forward  than  the  other,  kicks  out  and  hits  its  companion  on  the 
inside  of  the  thigh.  The  best  thing  that  can  be  done  in  a  case  of  this 
kind  is  to  at  once  tie  the  injured  horse  up  by  the  head  with  two 
halters,  one  on  each  side,  and  put  on  the  slings,  not  permitting  it  to 
lie  down,  as  the  limb  frequently  gives  way  when  the  animal  gets  up. 
But  if  it  is  kept  working  for  two  or  three  days  (which  it  may  be  equal 
to),  the  least  exertion  will  cause  the  bone  to  part  asunder.  Hence,  if 
there  is  a  doubt  whether  the  horse's  leg  be  cracked  or  not,  give  the 
animal  the  benefit  of  the  doubt,  and  tie  it  up  for  a  time.  In  one  case 
under  my  notice,  the  horse  stood  for  three  weeks,  but,  when  turned 
out  to  grass,  it  laid  down  to  roll,  and,  on  rising,  broke  the  bone  in  two. 
In  the  case  of  a  blow  on  the  inside  of  the  fore  leg — the  Radius — there 
is  the  same  danger,  and  similar  treatment  must  be  adopted. 

102.  The  Scapula  or  Shoulder  Blade  may  be  broken  by 
excessive  muscular  contraction,  owing  to  the  lower  parts  of  the 
limb — particularly  the  foot — being  suddenly  injured.  It  may  also  be 
damaged  by  the  animal  falling,  through  making  too  sharp  a  turn  when 
galloping.  If  the  fracture  be  oblique,  and  the  horse  is  put  in  slings, 
the  parts  being  well  supported  with  a  good  pitch  charge,  a  good 
recovery  may  result  ;  but  if  the  neck  of  the  bone  be  broken  and 
the  joint  be  implicated,  treatment  is  of  little  avail. 

103.  The  Humerus  can  be  fractured  by  the  animal  falling  in  its 
gallop,  or  by  a  kick  from  another  horse  ;    recovery  entirely  depends 


on  the  nature  of  the  injury.  Treatment  is  the  same  as  for  the 

104.  The  Ulna. — The  upper  and  posterior  portion  of  this  bone 
forms  the  elbow,  the  point  of  which  is  occasionally  fractured  by  a 
kick,  or  from  a  fall.  When  this  happens,  the  limb  hangs  down  (dropped 
elbow)  and  the  knee  joint  bends  forward  as  if  all  the  muscles  between 
the  back  of  the  shoulder-blade  and  the  elbow  point  were  torn  assunder  ; 
and  recovery  is  very  uncertain.  Fracture  of  the  first  rib  shows 
similar  symptoms. 

105.  The   Radius   or   Fore   Arm,   and  the   Cannon    or  Shank 

Bones  of  the  fore  and  hind  legs  in  the  horse  are  most  subject  to 
fractures,  and  are  very  difficult  to  treat,  owing  to  the  limb  having  to 
hang  pendulous.  There  is  great  pain,  and  the  parts  swell,  generally 
ending  with  mortification  of  the  soft  structures  and  death  of  the  patient. 
The  most  humane  treatment,  therefore,  is  to  destroy  the  animal  at  the 
outset.  These  bones  in  cattle,  sheep,  and  dogs,  however,  generally 
do  well  when  splints  and  bandages,  as  already  named,  have  been 
properly  applied. 

106.  The  Knee  Joint. — Some  of  the  small  bones  of  this  joint  are  at 
times  fractured  by  the  animal  being  kicked,  or  by  its  coming  in 
contact  with  a  stone  wall,  &c.  Splints  and  bandages  should  be 
applied,  and  long  rest  given,  but  the  result  is  invariably  a  stiff  joint. 

107.  The  Sesamoids,  or  lever  bones,  at  the  back  of  the  fetlock 
are  occasionally  fractured  ;  when  this  occurs  the  fetlock  descends  and 
the  toe  sticks  up.  The  Os  SufTraginis,  or  lavge  pastern  hone,  in  the 
fore  leg,  seems  generally  to  be  the  most  subject  to  fracture,  being,  at 
times,  broken  into  a  number  of  pieces.  The  same  thing  occurs  to  the 
Os  Coronae  or  small  pastern.  Such  cases,  when  the  bone  is  not  too 
much  smashed,  make  good  recoveries  when  put  under  treatment,  but 
leave  behind  stiff  joints.  The  Os  Pedis,  or  Coffin  hone,  as  well  as 
the  Navicular  Bone,  are  also  occasionally  fractured.  These  fractures 
are  generally  caused  by  the  horse  galloping  on  a  hard  road,  or  on  rough 
uneven  ground,  or  on  hard  sand.  (For  hones  mentioned  in  paragraphs  92 
to   107  reference  should  he  made  to  Plates   V.,  VI.,  and   VII.) 



io8.  Splint  is  generally  looked  upon  as  a  bon}^  enlargement,  and  is 
usually  found  on  the  inside  of  the  fore  leg,  just  below  the  knee, 
though  occasionally  seen  on  the  outside,  and  also,  but  rarely,  on  the 
hind  shanks.  It  is  due  to  an  injury  or  concussion,  setting  up 
inflammation  of  the  bone  and  periosteum,  and  resulting  in  the 
throwing  out  of  bony  matter  forming  an  Exostosis,  or  bony  tumour. 
Young  horses,  of  the  light  class,  are  most  subject  to  it,  chiefly  through 
their  bemg  put  to  too  fast  and  heavy  work  on  hard  roads,  before  their 
bones  are  properly  set  ;  some  breeds  being  more  prone  to  it  than 
others.  When  formed  on  the  large  shank  bone,  and  well  forward 
towards  the  front  of  the  bone,  although  the  splint  may  be  of  large 
size  and  unsightly,  it  seldom  causes  any  lameness,  and  is  not  nearly 
of  so  much  consequence  as  when  inflammation  takes  place  at  certain 
points  of  attachment  between  the  large  shank  and  inner  small  splint 
bone,  along  with  the  exudation  of  bony  material  implicating  the 
interosseous  ligament,  which  either  becomes  absorbed  or  ossified, 
and  the  union  of  the  two  bones  takes  place  with  or  without  enlarge- 
ment. (See  Plate  VII.,  No.  3x).  This  may  be  termed  true  splint,  and  in 
many  cases  causes  a  very  troublesome  and  protracted  lameness.  If 
care  and  rest,  with  suitable  treatment  be  not  early  adopted,  the 
inflammation  and  bony  formation  may  extend  behind  and  under  the 
suspensory  ligament  to  the  outer  splint  bone.  At  its  commencement, 
this  class  of  splint  is  not  easily  detected,  as  there  is  nothing  to  be  seen 
or  ielt,  only  a  peculiar  lameness,  with  a  characteristic  nodding  and 
dropping  of  the  head,  noticeable  both  on  hard  and  soft  ground  when  the 
horse  is  trotted,  while  little  or  no  lameness  is  observed  in  the  walk. 
On  pressing  the  finger  firmly  between  the  large  and  small  bones  on  the 
inside,  below  the  knee,  the  animal  shows  pain,  and  may  rear  up,  owing 
10  the  sharp  twinge  produced  by  the  pressure  on  the  inflamed  structure. 

109.  The  treatment  for  vSphnt  is  to  give  rest,  with  cold  water 
applications,    until   the    inflammation  subsides;   then    blister — and — 


FIG. 12. 




1.  Anchylosis  of  the  Backbone,  showing  three  Bones  fused  together. 

2.  Anchylosis  of  the  Pastern  Bone,  with  Caries  and  High  Ringbone. 

3.  Shank  Bone  (a),  Long  (b)  and  Short  (c)  Pastern,  and  {d)  Coffin  or 

Pedal  Bone,  showing  Bony  Deposits,  with  Ulceration,     x  Seat 
of  Splint. 

4.  Hock  Joint. 

5.  Occult  Bone  Spavin,  showing  three  Bones  united  together  (the  two 

Cuneiform  Bones  and  the  Scaphoid)  as  a  result  of  Inflammation 
and  Bony  Deposit, 

6.  Large  Side  Bones. 

7.  Coffin   Bone,    with    Lateral   Cartilage  ossified   and   enlarged,   as 


8.  Bad  Caries,  Sidebones. 

9.  Coffin  or  Pedal  Bone. 

10.  Knee  Spavin,  with  Caries. 

11.  Sound  Navicular  Bone. 

12.  Navicular  Bone — Dsurk  spots  indicate  Ulceration  of  Bone,  as  in 

Navicular  Disease. 


blister  :  and,  if  necessary,  follow  up  with  the  plaster  bandage  or  firing, 
setoning,  &c.  Occasionally,  great  benefit  is  derived  from  cutting- 
through  the  skin  and  dividing  the  periosteum  with  a  suitable  knife. 
Should  the  bony  deposit  become  carious — worm-eaten — as  it  some- 
times does,  cutting  down  on  the  part  and  scraping  with  a  bone  spoon, 
may  have  a  good  eff"ect.  The  great  point  in  the  treatment  is  to  hurry 
on  the  inflammatory  process  to  the  deposition  of  healthy  bony  matter, 
and  for  this  purpose  nothing  beats  the  hot  iron  prongs. 

no.   Sore   Shins.     See  Periostitis,  pay,  70. 

111.  Ring  Bone. — x\s  in  splint,  there  is  in  Ring  Bone,  inflamma- 
tion of  the  bony  structures,  and  deposition  of  bony  material,  with 
enlargement,  varying  in  size.  It  is  found  on  the  large  and  small 
pastern  bones,  and  may  be  due  to  an  injury,  such  as  a  nip  in  casting 
a  young  colt  and  tying  too  tight  with  a  hard  rope,  or  from  constitutional 
causes,  such  as  a  rheumatic  and  other  hereditary  tendencies.  It  may 
be  considered  under  two  heads — High  and  Low.  Low  Ring  bone  is 
seen  just  above  the  top  of  the  hoof,  and  is  generally  largest  at  the 
sides,  while  High  Ring  bone  is  found  a  little  higher  up.  Both  forms, 
when  not  early  and  properly  attended  to,  may  end  in  Caries  and 
Anchylosis  of  the  upper  and  lower  pastern  bones  (See  Plate  VII., 
No.  2.)  or  of  the  lower  and  cofiin  bone.  Ring  Bone  occurs  more 
frequently  in  the  light-legged  horses  and  half-breds,  also  more  often 
in  the  hind  pastern  than  the  fore,  and  is  accompanied  by  stiffness  and 
lameness,  but  the  pain  and  enlargement  of  the  parts  are  the  most 
pronounced  symptoms. 

112.  The  Treatment  of  Ring  Bone  is  mainly  unsatisfactory.  Give 
rest,  and  try  to  arrest  the  progress  of  the  inflammation,  and  prevent 
the  deposition  of  bony  matter  ;  and  for  this  there  is  nothing  better  than 
a  bandage  of  meadow  hay,  rolled  up  nicely  and  put  round  the  leg 
(but  not  too  tightly),  and  kept  constantly  soaked  with  cold  water, 
until  the  inflammation  is  reduced.  Follow  this  up  with  blisters  and 
firing,  the  hot  prongs  preferred,  assisted  by  the  application  of  a  shoe 
suitable  to  the  case,  according  to  the  form  of  lameness  and  parts 


113.  Side  Bone  and  Navicular  Disease. — These  are  fully 
explained  under  the  fourth  Lecture  on  "  The  Horse's  Foot — Shoeing, 
&c:'     (See  Pars.  192  and  199. 

11^.  Stifle  Joint  Disease. — This  joint,  which  corresponds  to  the 
knee  of  man,  being  a  double  joint,  is,  more  particularly  in  an 
old  horse,  subject  to  extensive  disease  of  the  bone  from  hereditary 
and  rheumatic  causes.  (See  Plate  IX.,  No.  30)  The  bone  becomes 
carious  (worm-eaten),  the  cartilages  are  absorbed,  and  a  porcelaneous 
deposit  takes  place  between  the  ends  of  the  bones  ;  treatment  is  of  very 
little  use.  At  the  outset,  rest  and  cold  water  applications,  followed 
by  blistering,  firing,  and  setoning  may  have  a  beneficial  effect,  or  a 
charge  may  be  applied.     (See  Appendix.) 

115.  Bone  Spavin. — This  may  be  defined  as  inflammation  of 
the  head  of  the  metatarsal  or  shank  bone,  and  the  cuneiform 
bones,  with  a  deposition  of  bony  material,  which  at  times  forms  an 
exostosis,  or  bony  enlargement,  at  the  lower  inner  part,  and 
partially  to  the  front,  of  the  hock  joint  of  the  horse,  {see  Plate 
IX.,  No.  34)  and  which,  in  many  cases  causes  great  pain  and  lameness 
and  a  form  of  unsoundness.  It  is  brought  on  by  injury  or  over- 
exertion, as  in  jumping,  more  particularly  in  young  horses  when 
not  trained  or  in  condition.  The  pain,  frequently,  is  so  acute 
that  the  animal,  when  first  brought  out  of  the  stable,  dare  scarcely 
put  its  foot  to  the  ground,  and,  then,  if  it  does,  only  on  the  toe, 
yet  after  going  a  short  distance,  the  lameness  gradually  disappears, 
and  the  animal  goes  sound ;  the  lameness,  however,  returns  again 
after  a  short  rest.  The  toe  of  the  shoe  of  a  spavined  horse,  it  will 
be  noticed,  is  generally  well  worn.  Bone  spavin  is  not  always 
easily  diagnosed,  more  particularly  when  the  joints  are  weedy  and 
dissimilar,  and  there  is  an  absence  of  lameness,  which  is  of  frequent 
occurrence  in  half  bred  horses.  This  causes  great  difference  of  opinion 
to  occur  amongst  members  of  the  profession — spavin  or  no  spavin — 
more  particularly  so  in  cases  of  occult  spavin  when  three  or  four 
small  bones  of  the  hock  become  united  to  such  an  extent  that  the 
original   divisions    are    not    distinguishable,  there    being  little  or    no 


enlargement  outside  the  bone  (See  Plate  VII.,  No.  5)  These  cases 
are  difticnlt  to  detect,  as  httle  or  nothing  can  be  seen  or  felt  outside. 
A  decision,  therefore,  can  only  be  arrived  at  by  judging  the  movement 
of  the  joint,  which,  in  such  cases,  is  generally  carried  stiffly  with  a 
round-about  action  of  the  toe  inwards.  In  cases  of  doubt,  lift 
the  foot,  take  hold  of  the  toe,  and  press  the  front  of  the  fetlock 
against  the  stifle  joint  for  two  or  three  minutes,  then  make  the  animal 
trot  ;  if  it  goes  very  lame  and  only  puts  the  toe  to  the  ground,  the 
lameness  gradually  disappearing  with  the  exercise,  it  may  be  concluded 
that  spavin  is  developing.  In  some  cases  a  bone  spavin  may  be 
patent  both  to  the  eye  and  touch,  and  yet  the  horse  goes  sound  and 
does  his  work  correctly.  To  detect  bone  spavin,  stand  about  one  foot 
sideways  from  the  animal's  shoulder,  and  look  diagonally  across  the 
lower  and  inner  part  of  the  hock  joint,  and  compare  the  joints.  When 
the  inflammation  is  extensive  it  may  terminate  in  caries  or  ulceration, 
as  when  two  or  more  of  the  bones  of  the  joint  become  involved  ;  this 
as  a  rule  may  be  looked  upon  as  incurable,  thus  showing  how 
necessary  it  is  that  entire  rest  and  carefnl  treatment  should  he  early  adopted. 

ii6.  The  Treatment  of  Bone  Spavin  is  the  same  as  laid  down  for 
splint  and  ring  bone  (See  pars.  109  and  112)  ;  but  if  there  is  one  thing 
more  than  another  that  firing  has  a  decided  benefit  upon,  it  is  Bone 
Spavin,  as  it  hurries  the  inflammatory  action  forward  to  a  healthy 
termination.  It  must  be  bornein  mindthat  when  we  have  any  extensive 
accidents  or  disease  of  the  bones  and  joints,  the  muscles  surrounding, 
or  above  the  injury,  waste  away,  and  take  a  long  time  before  they 
resume  their  proper  standard  and  tone. 

117.  In  connection  with  the  diseases  of  the  bones,  special  attention 
may  be  given  to  Plate  VII.,  and  the  text  explanatory  of  the  different 
figures,  particularly  to  the  anchylosis  of  the  three  bones  of  the  spinal 
column,  or  back  bone  ;  also  the  Ring  Bone,  the  bones  of  the  hock, 
and  occult  spavin  ;  while  the  mark  x  on  figure  3  shows  the  point  of 
true  splint,  and  the  figures  6,  7,  and  8  are  good  specimens  of  side 
bones,  or  ossification  of  the  lateral  cartilages  of  the  foot. 


MYOLOGY,    OR    THE    STUDY    OF    THE 

ii8.  IN  intimate  connection  with  the  bony  structures,  we  have  the 
muscular  system  or  the  active  organs  of  locomotion.  Muscle  is  also 
found  entering  into  the  formation  of  the  walls  of  various  organs  of  the 
body,  as  the  stomach,  bladder,  &c.  Muscle,  Flesh,  or  Beef,  is  a 
contractile,  fibrous  structure,  and  forms  the  bulk  and  symmetry  of  the 
body.  It  is  composed  of  bundles  of  small  fibres,  held  together  by 
connective  tissue.  There  are  two  kinds  of  Muscles— Striped,  or 
Voluntary;  and  Non-Striped,  or  Involuntary.  The  voluntary 
muscles  are  under  the  control  of  the  will,  as  for  example,  those  of  the 
legs,  &c. ;  while  the  involuntary  muscles  carry  on  the  functions  of  the 
body,  independently  of  the  will,  as  those  of  the  intestines,  uterus,  blood- 
vessels, &c.  The  muscle  of  the  heart,  however,  though  involuntary, 
is  striped. 

I  ig.  A  Voluntary  muscle  may  be  said  to  consist  of  three  parts  : — • 
1st,  the  tendinous  origin — i.e.,  where  it  arises  ;  2nd,  the  body,  or 
fleshy  part — the  contractile  portion,  or  tissue,  which  does  all  the  work, 
producing  the  movements  of  the  body  ;  and  3rd,  the  termination  in 
the  pale  yellowish-white  glistening  bands,  or  fibrous  cords,  called 
Tendons,  or  Sinews,  which  are  extremely  strong,  though  very  light. 
These  latter  are  inserted  into  the  various  portions  of  the  bony  structure, 
which  are  to  be  acted  upon  in  locomotion,  and  thus  attach  the  muscle 
to  the  bone. 

't  u5   b 









Circular  Muscle  of  the  Lips. 

Elevator  of  the  Upper  Lip  and  Wing 
of  the  Nostril. 


Proper  Elevator  of  the  Upper  Lip. 

Transverse  Muscle  of  the  Nose. 

Pyramidal  Muscle  of  the  Nose. 

Depressor  Muscle  of  the  Under  Lip. 

Masticator  Muscle. 

Circular  Muscle  of  the  Eye  Lids. 

Temporalis  Muscle. 


Cervical  portion  of  the  Serratus 
Magnus ;  the  Chest  division  being 
behind  the  Shoulder. 


Mastoido-Humeralis     or     Levator- 

Scapulo- hyoides 
alone  visible. 

the  upper  part  is 

Pectoralis  Parvus. 

Antea  Spinatus. 

Postea  Spinatus. 

Teres  externus  or  long  Abductor  of 
the  arm. 

Triceps  Extensor  Brachii. 


Extensor  Metacarpi  Magnus. 

Extensor  Metacarpus  Obliquus. 

External  flexor  of  the  Metacarpus. 

Anterior  Extensor  of  the  Phalanges. 

Extensor  Sufifraginis. 

Flexor  Perforans  and  its  Tendon. 

29.  Flexor  Perforatus  and  its  Tendon. 

30.  Suspensory  Ligament  of  the  Fetlock. 

31.  Oblique  Flexor  of  the  Metacarpus. 

32.  Internal  Flexor  of  the  Metacarpus. 

33.  Latissimus  Dorsi, 

34.  Intercostal  muscles, 

35.  Obliquus  Abdominis  Externus. 

36.  Rectus  Abdominis. 

37.  Muscle  of  the  Fascia  Lata. 

38.  Gluteus  Maximus. 

39.  The  upper  part  of  the  Gluteus  Ex- 

ternus or  Superficialis. 

40.  Biceps  Abductor  Femoris. 

41.  Semi-tendinosus. 

42.  Semi-membranosus  (only  a  small  por- 

tion is  visible). 

43.  Gastrocnemius. 

44.  Soleus. 

45.  The   Tendo   Achillis,    which   comes 

from  the  Gastrocnemius   muscle, 
but  it  is  also  partly  formed  by  the 

46.  Superficial  Flexor  of  the  Phalanges 

or  Perforatus. 

47.  Deep   Flex?)r  of    the    Phalanges  or 

Perforatus  (a)  lateral  (b)  middle 
(c)  larger  heads. 

48.  Anterior  Extensor  of  the  Phalanges. 

49.  Lateral  Extensor  of  the  Phalanges. 

50.  Oblique  Flexor  of  the  Phalanges. 

51.  Flexor  of  the  Metatarsus. 

52.  Muscles  which  elevate  the  Tail. 

53.  Muscles   which   curve   or  draw  the 

Tail  to  one  side. 

54.  Muscles   which   curve   or  draw  the 

Tail  downwards. 


120.  Muscles,  like  bones,  have  particular  names,  according  to  their 
situation,  form,  attachment,  and  action,  and  they  are  well  supplied 
with  blood-vessels,  nerves,  and  absorbents.  {See  Plate  VIII.)  Their 
action  is  under  the  influence  of  the  nervous  system.  Muscle,  in  a 
state  of  rest,  is  said  to  be  neutral,  or  slightly  alkaline,  but  becomes 
acid  when  in  action. 

121.  The  tissues  of  the  body  may  be  Cellular,  White  Fibrous,  Yellow 
Elastic,  or  Adipose.  Cellular  or  Areolar  Tissue  consists  of  small 
filaments  interwoven  together,  forming  a  network.  It  is  found  in  the 
different  organs  of  the  body,  giving  support  to  their  substance,  also 
binding  them  together  and  holding  them  m  position.  Cellular  tissue 
is  loose  connective  tissue,  having  large  interspaces. 

122.  White  Fibrous  Tissue  is  made  up  of  bundles  of  very  fine 
white  fibres,  and  is  the  very  tough  unyielding  substance  found  in  the 
tendons  of  muscles  and  most  ligaments  ;  it  is  also  present  in  the 
periosteum,  pericardium,  &c.  Fibrous  tissue  is  the  connective  tissue 
of  the  body,  and  composed  of  fibres. 

123.  Yellow  Elastic  Tissue  consists  of  yellow  elastic  branching 
fibres,  which  are  much  larger  than  those  of  the  white  fibrous  tissue, 
but  not  so  tough  or  strong,  and,  as  the  name  indicates,  more  elastic. 
It  is  of  this  connective  tissue  that  the  middle  coat  of  the  larger  arteries 
is  formed,  and  it  is  very  plentiful  beneath  the  skin.  It  is  also  found  in 
certain  ligaments.  The  Ugamentum  nucha,  for  example,  being  entirely 
composed  of  this  tissue. 

124.  Adipose,  or  Fatty  Tissue  consists  of  a  number  of  cells 
containing  an  oily  substance,  held  together  by  a  network  of  Areolar 
tissue.  It  is  found  in  nearly  every  part  of  the  body — underneath  the 
skin,  around  joints,  and  enveloping  the  kidneys,  &c. 

125.  Tendons  are,  as  before  mentioned,  found  at  the  ends  of 
muscles,  at  their  points  of  origin  and  termination.  They  are  most 
abundant  in  the  lower  parts  of  the  extremities — shielding  and  protecting 
joints  ;   at  other  times    they  are  spread  out  like  a  fine,  strong,   thin 


membrane,  according  to  their  situation  and  action.  They  are  very 
strong  and  fibrous,  combining  great  strength,  with  Hghtness  ;  their 
extreme  strength  being  well  illustrated  by  the  every- day  occurence 
of  slaughtered  animals  being  suspended  by  their  Achilles  tendon,  or 
ham-strings.  Tendons  are  brought  into  action  by  the  middle  or  fleshy 
part  of  the  muscle,  contracting  and  relaxing.  To  keep  the  muscles  in 
proper  order,  good  grooming  and  regular  exercise  are  highly  necessary 
— a  profession  in  itself — as  in  training  race-horses,  &c. 

126.  Involuntary  or   Non-Striated  or    Non-Striped    Muscle 

consists  of  spindle-shaped  cells,  each  with  its  own  nucleus.  The  cells 
are  arranged  in  such  a  manner  that  they  overlap,  and  are  held  together 
by  a  small  amount  of  intercellular  cementing  substance.  They  are  most 
commonly  collected  into  bundles  of  varying  size,  which  may  cross  each 
other  or  interlace.  Although  involuntary  muscle,  as  its  name  indicates, 
is  beyond  the  control  of  the  will,  it  is  none  the  less  necessary  that  it 
should  be  supplied  with  nerves.  It  is  chiefly  found  in  the  walls  of 
hollow^  viscera,  such  as  the  stomach  and  intestines,  the  urinary  bladder, 
the  uterus,  &c.,  and  also  forms  an  important  constituent  in  the 
formation  of  the  coats  of  blood-vessels.  In  the  hollow  viscera,  the 
muscular  tissue  is  very  pale,  thus  diff"ering  materially  in  appearance 
from  the  voluntary  muscles  of  the  body.  The  heart  contains  a  form 
of  muscular  tissue  which  is  mvoluntary,  but  possesses  a  deep  red 

127.  Muscles   and  Tendons  are  subject  to  Injury  and  Disease,  of 
various  kinds.     Injury  may  be  caused  by  Wounds,  and  these  may 


1.  Incised  ;  i.e,  clean  cut,  as  with  a  sharp  cutting  instrument. 

2.  Bruised  or  contused,  when  caused  by  severe  blows  or  falls. 

3.  Lacerated  ;  when  the  skin  and  flesh  are  torn  by  a  foreign 

body,  as  by  barbed  wire  or  a  cart  shaft,  &c. 

4.  Punctured  ;  when  made  by  a  pointed  object,  as  a  prick 

or  probe  with  thorns,  or  stabs  with  pitch-forks,  &c. 

5.  Gunshot ;  from  shot,  bullets,  &c. 

6.  Poisoned  ;  from  say,  the  use  of  arsenical  sheep  dip,  wasp 

stings,  snake  bites,  &.c. 


128.  Of  the  foregoing,  the  only  one  that  might  heal  by  first  intention, 
is  the  incised  or  clean  cut  wound  ;  but  such  is  rarely  seen  in  domestic 
animals.  However  simple  the  injury  may  be,  it  ought  to  have  early 
care  and  attention  ;  as  it  might  result  in  sloughing,  or  mortification  with 
Septicemic  blood  poisoning,  or  Pyamia,  as  when  abscesses  are  formed 
in  different  parts  of  the  body — well  exemplified  in  bastard  strangles. 

i2g.  Incised  Wounds — Local  Treatment.  First  examine  the 
part,  remove  all  the  blood  clots,  &c.,  from  the  wound,  and  stop  the 
bleeding.  If  the  blood  be  bright  scarlet  and  spurting  out  in  jerks,  an 
artery  has  been  wounded.  To  arrest  the  bleeding,  at  once,  when 
practicable,  tie  a  cord,  handkerchief,  or  bandage  loosely  around  the 
limb,  above  the  wound  ;  insert  a  pocket-knife  or  piece  of  stick  beneath 
the  cord  or  bandage,  and  twist  it  round  and  round  tightly,  until  the 
bleeding  stops,  when  the  ends  of  the  damaged  vessel  may  be  tied  wnth 
a  piece  of  silk,  or  even  cotton,  thread.  Arteries  are  sometimes  injured 
on  one  side  only  :  this  is  very  dangerous,  and  the  bleedn:)g  is  difficult 
to  stop.  In  this  case,  the  vessel  has  to  be  completely  divided — which 
should  only  be  done  by  a  professional  man — when  the  cut  ends  will 
contract  into  the  neighbouring  parts,  and  the  bleeding  cease.  Blood 
from  veins  is  dark  red,  and  pours  out  of  the  wound  in  a  continuous 
stream,  turning  brighter  in  colour  as  it  runs  down  the  leg  or  side,  under 
the  oxidising  action  of  the  air.  This  bleedmg  may  be  stopped  by 
applying  the  point  of  a  red-hot  poker  to  the  vessel,  or  by  placing  a  pad 
of  tow  over  the  place,  and  securing  it  with  a  bandage,  where  practicable. 
Plugging  the  wound  with  tow  (which  can  be  readily  made  by  teasing 
out  a  piece  of  soft  rope),  is  also  of  great  service,  and  should  be  done 
thus  : — First  soak  the  tow  well  with  antiseptic  mixture,  (see  Appendix) 
then  plug  it  tightly  into  the  bottom  of  the  wound,  securing  it  in  the 
place  by  pulling  the  edges  of  the  wound  together  with  stitches  of 
antiseptic  silk,  cord,  catgut,  or  silver  wire.  In  about  thirty-six  or 
forty-eight  hours'  time,  the  plug  may  be  carefully  removed,  and  the 
injured  part  re-dressed  with  the  antiseptic  mixture. 

130.  When  the  cut  surface  casts  off  a  fine  thick  yellowish-white, 
creamy   pus,   or   matter,   and    the  wound  assumes  a  nice    strawberry 


colour,  it  is  a  sign  that  healthy  action  has  taken  place,  in  the  shape  of 
granulation.  Excessive  granulations,  however,  must  be  kept  in  check, 
by  the  application  of  some  caustic  lotion,  or  powder.  (See  Appendix.) 
To  keep  down  undue  inflammatory  action,  nothing  is  better  than  cold 
water  bandages  or  cloths,  kept  constantly  wet  by  pouring  cold  water 
over  them  from  time  to  time.  These  should  be  continued  until  healthy 
matter  is  seen  coming  from  the  wound.     (See  Par.  33,  First  Lecture.) 

131.  After  the  edges  of  a  clean  cut  wound  have  been  drawn  together 
with  stitches — sutures — I  have  frequently  seen  good  results  from 
covering  the  part  with  green  (Stockholm)  tar.  This  acts  as  a  good 
antiseptic,  and  keeps  the  air  from  the  wound  ;  it  also  has  a  tendency 
to  keep  the  stitches  from  suppurating  out,  thus  preventing  the  lips 
from  gaping  open.  This  is  of  most  value  in  cases  of  injury  to  the 
neck,  ribs,  hips,  and  thighs.  When  bandages  can  be  used,  a  pledget 
or  small  compress  of  tow  or  cotton  wool,  saturated  with  a  mixture  of 
oak  varnish  and  Iodoform  can  be  applied  to  the  wound  before  putting 
on  the  bandage.  {See  Appendix.) 

132.  Bruised  and  Contused  "Wounds  may  be  considered  as  one, 
and  are  those  in  which  the  parts  are  injured  with  or  without  an  abrasion 
of  the  skm — a  good  example  being  a  black  eye,  in  the  human  body. 
In  domestic  animals,  these  wounds  are  generally  caused  by  kicks, 
blows,  prods  from  a  cow's  horn,  slipping  on  ice,  &c.  The  bleeding 
takes  place  under  the  skin,  the  blood  coagulating  and  arresting 
the  hemorrhage.  Sometimes  these  injuries. are  very  extensive,  and 
should  not  be  interfered  with  by  an  amateur,  nor  should  they  be  cut 
into  for  eight  or  nine  days,  when  a  good  opening  must  be  made,  and 
the  clotted  blood  removed  ;  the  wound  may  then  be  dressed  with  the 
antiseptic  mixture  and  tow.  [See  Par.  729.)  Frequently  they  suppurate 
and  form  matter;  or  the  watery  portions  may  become  absorbed  and  the 
solids  organised,  and  form  a  big  hard  lump — a  tumour.  A  good 
example  is  the  breaking  of  the  "  belly-rind,"  by  one  cow  "  dumping  " 
another,  or  through  the  kick  of  a  brutal  cattle-man  or  horse- man.  In 
such  cases,  cold  water  bandages  can  be  applied,  or  the  parts  may  be 
thickly  and  loosely  covered  witli  cotton  wadding,  and  hrmly  bandaged. 


133-  Lacerated  W^ounds  are  caused  by  the  animal  coming  in 
contact  with  some  sharp  bod}',  such  as  barbed  wire,  when  the  skin, 
flesh,  and  tissue  are  torn  in  an  irregular  or  jagged  manner.  Strange 
to  say,  we  have  little  or  no  bleeding  from  this  class  of  wounds.  Their 
treatment  is  simple: — Dress  with  the  antiseptic  mixture  (see  Appendix), 
and  draw  the  parts  together  with  sutures  ;  then  keep  the  inflammation 
in  abeyance,  by  means  of  cold  water  applications,  until  healthy  matter 
comes  from  the  wound,  which  generally  heals  by  granulation  ;  this,  of 
course,  must  be  kept  in  check  by  caustic  applications,     (see  Appendix.) 

134.  Punctured  Wounds. — These,  at  all  times,  must  be  regarded 
as  dangerous.  They  are  produced  by  sharp-pointed  objects,  such  as 
knives,  pitchforks,  stakes,  thorns,  &c.  A  minute  examination  should 
be  made,  as  frequently  a  piece  of  wood,  &c.,is  found,  after  many  days, 
at  the  bottom  of  the  wound.  In  all  cases,  the  foreign  body  should  be 
carefully  removed,  where  practicable  ;  but,  in  some  cases,  it  is 
dangerous  to  remove  it  at  first,  and  it  has  to  be  left  to  suppurate  out 
of  itself,  or  until  it  can  be  removed  without  risk.  When  the  bleeding 
is  excessive,  it  must  be  stopped  by  plugging,  and  the  part  treated  as 
described  under  Incised  Wounds.  [See  Par.  129.)  There  is  always  a 
great  danger  of  Blood-Poisoning  setting  m,  especially  if  the  thick  part 
of  a  muscle  be  injured  ;  and  in  no  case  should  this  description  of  wound 
be  "tinkered"  with,  more  particularly  if  the  wound  takes  a  downward 
direction,  i.e.,  the  internal  part  of  the  wound  is  lower  than  the  external 
opening,  in  which  case  it  has  to  be  cut  into.  Punctures  from  thorns,  in 
the  hunting  field,  often  cause  a  great  deal  of  lameness,  as  well  as 
constitutional  disturbance,  more  particularly  if  in  the  knee,  hock,  or 
other  joint ;  and  if  a  piece  of  thorn  has  been  broken  in,  under  the  skin, 
cold  water  bandages  answer  best  until  suppuration  sets  in,  when  the 
thorn  can  be  removed.  Punctured  wounds  also  frequently  cause  lock- 
jaw, when  the  irritating  cause  is  such  as  nails  in  the  feet. 

135.  Gun-Shot  Wounds. — These  are  mostly  met  with  in  time  of 
war,  but  are  frequently  found  in  dogs.  The  bullets,  or  pellets,  should 
be  removed,  if  practicable,  then  dress  as  under  Incised  Wounds;  {par. 
129)  but  the  bullets  or  pellets  may  often  be  left  m  the  part  with  safety, 


nature  enveloping  them  with  a  covering  of  dense  tissue,  when  they  cause 
little  inconvenience. 

136.  Poisoned  Wounds  are,  happily,  rare  in  horses  and  cattle, 
except  when  the  skin  has  been  damaged  by  lice,  or  by  a  scratch,  and 
the  animal  has  subsequently  been  washed  with  arsenical  sheep  dip. 
Arsenical  preparations  should  never,  under  any  circumstances,  be 
used  for  washing  horses,  cows,  or  dogs  affected  with  lice,  numerous 
animals  having  been  poisoned  by  their  use.  Poisoned  wounds  in  animals 
are  sometimes  also  caused  by  a  wasp's-sting,  snake-bite,  &c.  For 
stings,  apply  a  diluted  solution  of  Ammonia.  In  bites  from  dogs,  the 
best  treatment  is  to  wash  the  part  well  with  cold  water,  and  apply 
Tincture  of  Iron. 

137.  From  wounds  of  ever}'  description  we  may  have  a  great  deal  of 
constitutional  disturbance — Sympathetic  Fever — when  the  temperature 
rises  to  104°  or  106°.  This  also  must  be  attended  to.  (See  Par. 
38,  First  Lecture.) 

138.  Lacerated  Muscles. — Musclesoccasionally  become  lacerated, 
or  torn,  without  any  swelling  or  lameness  being  visible,  the  animal 
merely  going"  stiff."  All  the  muscles  of  the  body,  those  of  the  neck,  back, 
loins,  quarters,  &c. — from  slipping  on  the  ice,  falling,  galloping,  jumping, 
&c. — are  liable  to  this  ;  and  to  arrive  at  a  proper  conclusion,  the 
history  of  what  tlie  animal  had  been  doing  previously  is  indispensable. 
Frequently,  nothing  is  seen  until  the  flesh  is  noticed  to  waste  away 
from  the  part ;  as  for  example,  the  so-called  shoulder-slip  in  young 
horses  when  first  put  to  work.  If  the  animal  does  show  lameness, 
rest,  with  cold  water  irrigation  by  means  of  the  hosepipe,  or  tub  and 
tube  irrigation,  several  times  a  day,  answers  well  (see  Par.  72,  Second 
Lecture),  and  a  run  at  grass  is  to  be  highly  recommended  ;  while,  at 
times,  blistering  may  be  found  expedient. 

139.  Lameness  of  the  Shoulder  may  arise  from  many  causes, 
such  as  an  injury  to  the  muscles  of  the  shoulder,  or  to  the  long  muscle 
of  the  neck,  or  to  rheumatism,  disease  of  the  liver,  or  even  a  slight 
disorder  of  the  stomach,  caused  by  a  feed  of  new  oats,  Indian  corn,  ur 


strange  food  of  any  kind,  inducing  indigestion.  In  all  these  cases,  the 
symptoms  of  the  lameness  are  much  alike,  the  limb  is  carried  stiffly, 
and  swung  in  a  round-about  outward  manner,  with  dragging  of  the 
toe.  To  detect  from  what  source  it  arises,  the  history  of  the  case  is 
necessary,  accompanied  by  the  eye  and  finger  of  an  expert.  It  may 
be  from  any  one  of  those  already  enumerated,  or  others  not  mentioned, 
so  that  a  careful  and  proper  examination  must  be  made  before  any 
treatment  is  adopted.  If  from  injury,  cold  water  irrigation  daily, 
followed  by  blisters  and  long  rest,  should  be  resorted  to  ;  if  from 
indigestion,  or  change  of  food,  one  ounce  of  carbonate  of  soda  daily, 
for  a  few  days,  in  the  food,  will  be  found  very  beneficial. 

140.  The  Shoulder  Joint  is  also  frequently  the  seat  of  disease,  either 
from  injury  of  the  joint  itself  or  through  the  muscle — Flexor  Brachii 
— as  it  passes  over  the  head  of  the  humerus,  being  sprained,  or  from 
the  sprain  of  some  of  the  muscles  in  the  near  neigbourhood  of  the 
joint.  The  point  of  the  shoulder  is  occasionally  damaged  by  the 
animal  running  against  some  hard  substance,  such  as  a  stone  wall,  &c. 
Any  one  of  these  injuries  causes  great  pain,  lameness,  and  enlargement 
of  the  parts. 

141.  For  its  Treatment,  rest  is  the  first  essential  ;  then  hot  or  cold 
applications  of  water  may  be  tried,  followed  by  blistering.  Setons  act 
well  at  tunes  in  such  cases,  with  a  run  out  on  grass. 

142.  Again,  shoulder  lameness  may  be  due  to  Rheumatism,  a 
disease  that  is  both  acute  and  chronic,  and  which  may  be  regarded  as 
being  due  to  some  peculiarity  in  the  blood,  the  exact  nature  of  which 
is  not  as  yet  known.  Nearly  all  the  structures  of  the  body  are  subject 
to  its  baneful  influence.  It  is  not,  however,  so  common  in  the  horse 
as  in  the  human  subject,  but,  from  long  observation,  I  have  met  with 
it  m  certain  breeds  of  horses,  and  have  generally  traced  it  to  hereditary 
causes,  and  have  usually  found  it  associated  with  heart  affections. 

143.  As  in  the  human  subject,  Treatment  of  Rheumatism  is  not 
very  satisfactory,  but  when  much  pain  and  constitutional  fever  are 
present,  ounce  doses  of  Sulphate  of  Magnesia  or  Sulphate  of  Soda,  along 


with  1  oz.  of  Nitrate  of  Potash,  may  be  given,  night  and  morning,  in 
a  mash,  with  two  to  three  drachms  of  Salicylate  of  Soda  at  noon  ';  if 
the  pain  is  very  acute.  Hypodermic  injections  of  Morphia  are  useful 
(See  Appendix. ) 

144.  Cripples  or  Crockles,  a  complaint  of  a  rheumatic  character, 
from  which  cattle  sometimes  suffer,  and  which  is  generally  known  by 
these    names,    most    frequently   occurs   on    strong,    undrained    land, 
or   on    sour    mossy    ground.     The  animal    suffering   arches  its  back 
and  walks  as  if  on  stilts,  it  becomes  hidebound,  milk  and  flesh  disappear 
rapidly,  and   the  beast  is  very   fond   of  chewing  bones,  stones,  and 
foreign  bodies.     A  change  of  pasture,  with  doses  of  10  oz.  linseed  oil 
and  I  oz.  turpentine,  twice  or  thrice  weekly,  I  have  found  to  answer 
best  in  such  a  case.     Dressing  the  land  with  lime  or  salt  is  also  to  be 
highly  recommended.     In  some  farm  buildings,  young  bulls,  under  12 
months   old,  are   occasionally   affected  in   a   similar   manner,   and    I 
attribute  it  to  the  arrangement  of  the  boxes,  their  imperfect  sanitation 
and  ventilation,  but   more   particularly  their  ground  floor,  Avhich  is 
frequently  found  to  be  laid  with  old  red  sandstone  flags,  having  bad 
drainage,  and  with  ground  damp  evaporation.     In  these  cases  I  always 
recommend  that  the  floor  be  pulled  up,  the  soil  dug  to  the  depth  of 
eight  or  ten  inches,   then  filled   with   stones,  bricks,  sand,  &c.,  and 
paved  on  the  top  with  the  old-fashioned  blue  cobble,  or  fluted  stable 
bricks.     Dry  wooden  portable  beds,  raised   four  to  six   inches,  also 
answer  admirably.     The  animal  also  ought  to  have  the  run  of  a  large 
yard  or  paddock  in  dry  weather,  while  half  the  quantity  of  oil  and 
turpentine    mentioned    above    should    be    given.     Drachm    doses  of 
Salicylate  of  Soda  may  also  be  given  once  or  twice  a  day. 

145.  Kennel  Cripple  or  Lameness  in  dogs  is  not  now  so  common 
as  formerly.  It  is,  in  my  opinion,  analogous  to  the  foregoing  complaint, 
and  due  to  a  similar  cause.  Sanitation,  ventilation,  and  good  dry  wooden 
beds,  raised  18  to  20  inches  from  the  ground,  are  necessary,  as  well 
as  a  good  dry  ground  floor.  Change  of  quarters,  with  doses  of 
Salicylate  of  Soda,  are  recommended  for  the  treatment  of  this 



21.  Foot  Deformed   from  Laminitis. 

22.  Sidebone. 

23.  Capped  Elbow. 

24.  Mallenders. 

25.  Seat  of  Splint  and  Speedy  Cut. 

26.  Cracked  Heels. 

27.  Sandcracb  at  Quarter. 

28.  Flat  Ribbed. 

29.  Tucked  up  Flank. 

30.  Enlarged  Stifle  Joint. 

31.  Bursal  Enlargement. 

32.  Bog  Spavin. 

33.  Sallenders. 

34.  Bone  Spavin. 

35.  Grease  or  Grapes. 

36.  Thoroughpin. 

37.  Capped  Hock. 

38.  Curb. 

39.  Enlarged  Fetlock. 

40.  Knuckling     Forward     from     Con- 
tracted Tendon. 




Dropped  Lip. 


Roman  Nose. 




Lop  or  Pig  Ears. 


Sub-Maxillary  Glands. 


Poll  Evil. 


Parotid  Gland. 


Fistulous  Withers. 


Saddle  Galls. 




Ragged  Hooks. 


Mule  or  Goose  Rumped. 


Rat  Tailed. 


Shouider  Galls. 


Knee  Windgalls. 


Broken  Knees. 


Sprained  Tendon. 




Knuckling  Over  at  Fetlock 


146.  Poll  Evil  is  of  an  ulcerative  or  fistulous  character,  with  open 
sores  discharging  a  thin  glairy  matter;  it  is  a  very  troublesome  disease, 
and  occurs  just  behind  the  ears.  {See  Plate  IX.,  No.  7).  It  is  caused  by 
an  injury  to  this  part,  for  instance,  from  a  blow  with  a  big  stick,  wielded 
by  a  brutal  stableman  or  through  the  horse — when  in  a  low-ceilinged 
stable — throwing  up  its  head,  and  striking  itself  against  the  beams; 
or  from  a  heavy,  grandly  furnished  bridle.  At  first,  the  animal 
goes  with  its  neck  very  stiff,  and  points  its  nose,  with  drooping 
head  ;  it  flinches  when  the  collar  or  bridle  is  put  on  :  and  then  swelling 
of  the  part  is  next  noticed.  As  this  is  a  very  formidable  disease  to 
deal  with,  it  should,  at  once,  be  put  in  the  hands  of  a  qualified  man. 
At  first,  cold  water  cloths  ought  to  be  constantly  applied  ;  after- 
wards, blistering  may  be  necessary  ;  and,  finally  an  operation.  As  the 
part  affected  is  of  low  vitality,  great  care  and  judicious  treatment 
must  be  exercised,  or  the  disease  may  extend  to,  and  cause,  caries  of 
the  bones. 

147.  Fistulous  Withers  is  similar  in  character  to  Poll  Evil,  and 
as  the  name  indicates,  is  a  disease  found  at  the  top  of  the  shoulders- 
[Sec  Plate  IX.  No.  9).  It  is  due  to  some  damage  done  to  the  neigh- 
bouring parts,  as  from  one  horse  biting  another;  or  through  injuries 
to  the  bony  spines  by  blows  ;  or  from  nips  from  badly  fitting  riding 
or  harness  saddles.  Here,  again,  swelling  is  the  first  visible  indica- 
tion, and  prompt  attention  is  necessary.  Cold  water  cloths  should 
be  applied,  and  kept  constantly  wet,  and  the  saddles  must  be 
examined  and  altered  ;  again,  on  account  of  its  formidable  nature,  the 
case  should  not  be  "tinkered"  with,  but  must  be  immediately  placed 
in  the  hands  of  a  professional  man. 

148.  The  Elbow  Joint  {see  Plate  IX.  No.  23)  is  also  subject  to 
injury  from  kicks  and  blows,  as  well  as  from  the  shoes  being  made 
too  long,  or  with  too  much  caulking,  thus  damaging  the  elbow  point 
when  the  animal  lies  down.  If  the  shoe  is  the  cause,  it  must  be  at 
once  removed  and  remedied,  to  prevent  further  injuries  from  that 
source  ;  a  stocking  leg  stuffed  with  horse  hair,  or  special  pad,  should 
be  placed  round  the  pastern  every  night.     Hot  or  cold  fomentations 


ought  to  be  applied  to  the  damaged  elbow,  night  and  morning, 
with  soothing  absorbent  lotions  ;  {see  Appendix)  but  beware  of  strong 
stimulating  embrocations.  Should  the  tumour  be  soft  to  the  touch, 
and  just  underneath  the  skin,  it  may  contain  watery  fluid  (serum),  or 
matter,  when  it  will  have  to  be  opened  ;  if  it  is  hard,  or  deeply  seated, 
a  small  piece  of  15  per  cent,  of  oleate  of  mercury,  applied  every  other 
day,  will  have  a  good  effect. 

149.  Broken  Knee  [see  Plate  IX.  No.  /  7)  is  of  frequent  occurrence, 
and  varies  greatly  as  to  the  degree  of  injury.  In  some  cases  it  is  slight, 
only  abrasion  of  the  skin  and  hair,  in  others  so  extensive  that  the  joint 
may  be  permanently  damaged  ;  particularly  so  when  the  joints  are  laid 
open  and  the  ligaments  and  tendons  iiijured.  The  parts  to  be  treated 
must  beproperly  cleansed  from  all  sand,  grit,  &c.,  then  a  pledget  of  tow, 
saturated  in  the  antiseptic  mixture  [see  Appendix),  should  be  applied, 
secured  with  cold  water  bandages,  which  must  be  kept  constantly  wet, 
and  not  removed  for  three  days,  unless  the  leg  swells  very  much.  The 
animal  should  have  its  head  tied  close  up  to  the  rack,  so  that  it  cannot 
lie  down.  Any  constitutional  disturbance  that  may  arise  must  be 
treated  as  Sympathetic  Fever.  {See  Par.  38,  First  Lecture).  If  the 
joint  be  damaged,  and  joint  oil  run  from  the  wound,  a  special  tin 
splint  must  be  placed  at  the  back  of  the  knee,  to  keep  it  steady. 
The  cold  water  bandages  keep  the  inflammatory  process  in  check, 
conducing  to  healthy  action,  and  closing  the  wound  by  granulation, 
which  may  appear  in  eight  to  ten  days  ;  then  the  cloths  must  be 
removed,  and  the  wound  left  bare,  dressing  it  daily  with  suitable 
caustic  lotions  or  a  preparation  of  iodoform  (see  Appendix).  A  good 
blister,  and  a  run  at  grass,  may  be  necessary,  but  the  skin  once 
destroyed  is  never  reproduced.  In  treating  these  cases,  great  care  is 
required  in  dieting  the  animals,  keeping  them  cool  and  quiet,  as  at 
times  lock-jaw  supervenes.  When  the  injury  is  slight,  dressing  the 
parts  either  with  Friar's  Balsam,  or  Flexible  Collodion  twice  a  day  is 
all  that  is  required. 

150.  Speedy-cut. — This  is  a  bruise  on  the  inside  of  the  fore  leg. 
It  may  be  between  the  knee  and  'fetlock  ;  at  the  knee  ;  or,  even,  in 


a  high-actioned  horse,  above  the  knee.  It  comes  under  the  class  of 
contused,  or  bruised  wounds,  and  is  caused  by  the  horse  striking  the 
inside  of  one  fore  leg  with  the  opposite  foot  ;  very  careful  shoeing  is 
required,  while  the  damaged  part  should  be  treated  as  under  contused 
wounds.     (Sec  Par.   132.) 

151.  Brushing  and  Cutting  may  be  classed  under  the  same 
heading  as  Speedy  Cut,  being  caused  by  one  foot  striking  the  fetlock 
of  the  opposite  leg  ;  both  fore  and  hind  fetlocks  are  liable  to  the  injury, 
but  the  hind  ones  more  frequently  than  the  fore.  The  causes  vary, 
sometimes  it  is  the  outer  rim  of  the  inner  web  of  the  shoe  that 
brushes  or  cuts  the  joint,  in  other  cases  the  toe  or  inner  quarter  of  the 
hoof  itself,  is  at  fault.  {See  Par.  178,  No.  9.) 

152.  Sprain  of  the  Tendons  or  Back  Sinews  and  their  sheaths, 
may  be  said  to  be  laceration  of  the  tendinous  fibres,  causing  heat  and  a 
painful  swelling.  This  usually  occurs  below  the  knee,  just  where 
the  inferior  check  ligament  joins  the  tendon;  [see  Plate  IX.  No.  18, 
also  Plate  XI.  Fig.  E.)  but  any  portion  of  the  latter  is  liable  to 
lesions,  and  it  is  most  frequently  seen  in  the  fore  leg,  specially  in  cart 
horses,  having  heavy  loads  to  pull  up  steep  hills.  High-heeled  and 
high-toed  shoes  may  have  something  to  do  with  causing  it  ;  while, 
as  other  sources,  we  have  slipping  on  ice,  over-reaching  in  jumping,  Sec. 
The  animal  steps  short,  and  rests  the  limb  whenever  it  has  a  chance. 
On  examining  the  leg,  the  damaged  part  is  readily  felt.  The  most 
essential  point  towards  recovery,  in  such  cases,  is  entire  rest  from 
work  ;  but  this  rule  is  "  more  honoured  in  the  breach  than  in  the 
observance,''  and  the  poor  brute  is  frequently  kept  at  work  till  repair 
is  hopeless.  First,  then,  as  already  said,  entire  rest  is  necessary  ; 
next,  the  application  of  a  cold  water  bandage.  The  shoe  must  be 
removed,  and  the  heel  slightly  elevated,  so  as  to  act  as  a  support  to 
the  part ;  or  the  following,  as  recommended  by  Captain  M.  H.  Hayes, 
F.R.C.V.S.,  may  be  tried — "  A  good  ply  of  cotton  wadding  to  be 
wrapped  loosely  round  the  part,  and  held  in  its  place  by  a  long  calico 
bandage  rolled  firmly  round  the  leg,  to  be  taken  off  and  re-wrapped  once 
every  24  hours."      After  the  active  symptoms  have  abated,  blistering 



should  be  resorted  to,  and  the  animal  turned  out  to  grass.  Firing, 
before  turning  out,  may  be  necessary,  and  generally  has  a  good  effect, 
and  good  results  are  often  obtained  by  the  application  of  the  adhesive 
plaster  bandage.  When  the  animal  is  worked  too  long,  and  the  case 
neglected,  the  tendon  becomes  so  much  contracted,  that  the  fetlock 
knuckles  over,  and  the  animal  walks  on  its  toe.  A  special  shoe,  with  a 
turned-up  toe,  is  required  for  this,  and  the  operation  of  Tenotomy — 
dividing  the  tendon — has  to  be  performed.  From  this,  it  will  be  seen 
how  highly  necessary  it  is  to  give  rest  in  the  first  stages,  and  thus 
obviate  future  ill-consequences. 

153.  Break-down. — This  is  of  common  occurrence  in  racehorses, 
steeplechasers,  and  hunters.  The  suspensory  ligament,  and  even  the 
tendons  themselves,  give  way,  or  fracture  of  the  sesamoid  bones 
may  occur,  allowing  the  back  of  the  fetlock  to  come  to  the  ground.  For 
this  cold  water  bandages,  with  splints,  may  be  applied,  until  the  active 
inflammation  is  arrested;  the  animal  should  also  be  put  on  slings,  and 
dieted  on  mashes,  or  green  food  ;  finally,  a  plaster-of- Paris  bandage, 
or  the  adhesive  plaster  bandage,  may  be  applied,  and  the  horse  turned 
out  to  grass. 

154.  Sesamoiditis  is  inflammation  of  the  joint  at  the  back  of  the 
fetlock,  due  to  some  injury,  either  to  the  small  bones,  or  to  the  ligaments 
or  tendons  in  connection  with  them.  [See  Plate  IX.  No.  39).  The 
parts  are  much  swollen,  and  tender  to  the  touch  ;  while  the  fetlock 
stands  forward,  and  the  animal  steps  short.  When  certain  that  this 
is  the  seat  of  lameness,  cold  water  bandages  can  be  used  first,  with 
complete  rest  ;  and  the  adhesive  plaster  bandage  may  be  applied,  but 
finally,  blistering  or  firing  may  have  to  be  resorted  to.  In  the  early 
stages  of  both  Break-down  and  Sesamoiditis,  the  cotton  wadding 
wrapping  with  bandage  and  splints  can  also  be  used  as  noted  in 
"  Sprains  of  the  Tendons."     {See  Par.  152.) 

155.  Hip-Joint  Lameness  may  arise  from  a  variety  of  causes, 
such  as  sprain  of  the  muscles,  tendons,  or  ligaments  in  connection 
with  the  joint  and  the  head  of  the  hip-bone.     As  in  the  fore  leg,  the 


shoulder  was  generally  considered  the  seat  of  lameness;  so,  in  the  hind 
leg,  the  hip  is  often  pointed  to,  when  the  cause  is  really  in  some  portion 
of  the  limb  below,  thus  showing  that  lameness  in  this  part  is  by  no 
means  easy  to  trace,  as  it  may  arise  from  muscular  sprain,  or  from 
some  nervous  derangement,  such  as  sciatica,  &c.  So  that  before  any 
treatment  is  adopted,  a  qualiiied  practitioner  should  be  consulted,  as 
I  have  often  seen  a  large  surface  of  the  skin  permanently  damaged  by 
the  use  of  some  fancy  advertised  quack  nostrum,  the  animal  having 
rubbed  the  part  after  application,  and  thus  destroyed  the  skin.  When 
certain  that  the  lameness  is  in  the  hip,  rest,  with  cold  water  irrigation, 
for  two  or  three  hours,  twice  daily,  is  of  great  service.  Blisters, 
setons,  and  pitch  charges  are  frequently,  when  desirable,  of  great 

156.  Windgall  is  a  puffy  elastic  swelling  of  very  common  occurrence 
in  nearly  all  classes  of  animals,  found  at  the  knee  and  fetlock  joints, 
&c.,  and  is  caused  by  over  secretion  of  Synovia  from  the  Bursa  Mucosa, 
a  fluid  similar  to  joint  oil.  [See  Plate  IX.  Nos.  16  and  19).  Some 
classes  or  stamps  of  animals  are  more  prone  to  it  than  others.  The 
swelling  may  be  brought  on  by  overwork,  or  by  putting  the  animal 
to  work  too  soon.  It  very  rarely  causes  lameness,  or  in  any  way 
interferes  with  the  usefulness  of  the  animal,  but  still  it  is  very  unsightly 
and  objectionable,  and  not  easily  removed.  The  treatment  consists  of 
rest,  and  the  application  of  a  cold  water,  india-rubber,  or  adhesive 
plaster  bandage,  and  blistering  ;  also  firing,  when  very  large.  In  olden 
times,  the  enlargement  was  supposed  to  contain  wind,  hence  the  name. 

157.  Bog  Spavin  is  found  on  the  front  and  inner  part  of  the 
hock  joint,  {see  Plate  IX.  No.  32,)  and  is  of  the  same  nature  as  wind- 
gall,  being  an  over-distension  of  the  capsular  ligament  of  the  hock 
joint,  with  synovia.  It  is  mostly  seen  in  cart  horses — certain  strains 
of  Clydesdales  having  a  special  tendency  to  it — and  it  rs  frequently 
found  in  young  horses  rising  two  years  old,  more  particularly  in  over-fed, 
forced  animals.  It  very  rarely  occasions  lameness,  and  sometimes 
disappears  without  any  treatment.  If  hard  feeding  is  thought  to  be 
the  cause,  it  should  be  diminished,  and  the  animal  turned  out  to  grass, 


after  applying  a  good  dressing  of  green  tar  to  the  part.  Compression, 
by  means  of  an  india-rubber  bandage,  has  also  a  splendid  effect,  but 
when  lameness  is  present,  blistering  and,  subsequently,  firing  have  to 
be  resorted  to. 

158.  Thorough  Pin. — This  consists  of  an  enlargement  of  the  sac 
through  which  one  of  the  tendons  passes,  and  is  situated  behind  the 
main  joint,  and  in  front  of  the  Os-Calcis,  or  point  of  the  hock.  (See 
Plate  IX.  No.  36.)  It  varies  very  much  in  size,  and  is  generally  seen 
more  prominently  on  the  outside  than  on  the  inside,  or  vice  versa,  and 
sometimes  it  is  right  through.  Pressure  on  one  side  makes  it  more 
apparent  on  the  other.  It  seldom  causes  lameness,  but,  being 
unsightly,  is  very  objectionable,  and  is  frequently  associated  with 
large  Bog  Spavin.  The  treatment  greatly  resembles  that  for  Windgall 
{par.  156.)  An  india-rubber  bandage  may  be  applied,  or  a  truss 
specially  prepared  for  the  hock  joint  may  be  used,  causing  compression 
and  absorption.  A  winter's  run  at  grass,  with  green  tar  dressings 
of  the  affected  part,  have  also  been  found  to  answer  splendidly. 
These  bursal  distensions,  like  Windgall,  Bog  Spavin,  and 
Thorough  Pin,  when  very  large,  are  sometimes  tapped,  and  the  over 
secretion  drawn  off  by  means  of  a  special  instrument —  an  aspirator — 
but  this  should  only  be  attempted  by  a  professional  man,  as  it  is  very 
dangerous  to  admit  air  into  a  synovial  or  serous  cavity. 

159.  Capped  Hock  is  of  two  kinds,  either  a  serous  or  watery 
effusion  immediately  under  the  skin,  or  a  synovial  or  bursal  distension. 
The  Serous  Capped  Hock  consists  of  a'  swelling  on,  and  over  the 
point  of,  the  hock  {see  Plate  IX.  No.  37),  and  is  caused  by  kicks  or  other 
bruises  ;  when  recent,  it  is  very  painful  to  the  touch.  Soothing  treat- 
ment IS  necessary,  such  as  hot  or  cold  applications  accompanied  by 
cooling  lotions  (see  Appendix).  All  stimulating  embrocations  are  to  be 
avoided,  as  they  have  a  tendency  to  consolidate  the  effused  products. 
Some  animals  get  capped  hocks  by  scraping  all  their  litter  behind 
them,  and  then  lying  down  on  the  bare  brick  or  pavement.  This 
may  be  remedied  by  bedding  thickly  with  sawdust  or  moss  litter. 
When  the  swelling  is  very  large  it  may  be  opened,  and  the  watery 


fluid  drawn  off,  but  great  care  is  required  to  distinguish  the  serous 
effusion  from  the  synovial  secretion,  and  if  the  synovial  bursa  was 
punctured  it  might  lead  to  serious  consequences.  The  Synovial 
Capped  Hock  is  generally  not  so  painful  as  the  serous  variety,  but  is 
more  deeply  seated,  and  is  best  treated  by  repeated  applications  of 
20  per  cent,  of  Oleate  of  Mercury. 

160.  Curb  is  known  by  an  enlargement  on  the  back  and  lower 
part  of  the  hock  joint  where  the  heads  of  the  small  metatarsal  bones  join 
the  lower  row  of  bones  of  the  hock  [see  Plate  IX.  No.  38).  We  have 
two  kinds  of  Curb — false,  and  true.  False  Curb  is  due  to  a  sharp  blow 
on  the  part,  causing  an  effusion  of  serum  under  the  skin.  The 
treatment  for  it  consists  of  hot  fomentations,  or  cold  water  applications, 
followed  by  an  iodine  blister.     [See  Appendix.) 

161.  True  Curb  is  of  a  more  serious  nature,  and  consists  either  of  a 
sprain  of  the  tendons  passing  over  the  seat  of  curb,  or  laceration  of  the 
calcaneo-citboid  ligament,  at  its  attachments  to  the  cuboid  and  outer 
small  metatarsal  bone.  This  is  caused  by  over-exertion,  as  when 
galloping,  jumping,  rearing  up,  &c.  Some  breeds  of  horses  have  joints 
naturally  predisposed  to  Curb — called  Curby  or  Sickle  Hocks — and, 
therefore,  of  congenital  formation.  In  Sickle  Hecks,  the  head  of  the 
metatarsal  is  set  too  far  back  ;  and  the  OS  calcis,  the  upper  end  of 
which  forms  the  point  of  the  hock,  is  too  short  and  straight  up,  forming 
a  narrow  joint,  or  "  tied-in  "  hock,  with  a  sharp  angle  at  the  lower  part 
of  the  front  of  it.  This  class  of  joint  is  more  subject  to  curb  than  a 
well-formed,  broad,  and  developed  one.  When  the  enlargement  is 
seen,  and  the  animal  is  noticed  to  be  lame,  or  the  part  found  to  be 
tender,  it  should  be  put  off  work,  and  cooling  applications  used — such 
as  the  hose-pipe  irrigation  of  cold  water,  or  a  cold  water  bandage — 
until  the  inflammation  is  reduced  ;  then,  iodine  or  fly- blisters  must  be 
used,  but  the  best  and  most  satisfactory  treatment  for  Curb,  or  Curby 
Hocks,  is  to  fire,  in  lines.  I  know  of  no  complaint,  except  Bone  Spavin 
(Pars.  115  and  116),  on  which  firing  has  such  a  beneficial  effect  as  Curb. 

162.  Sprung  Hock. — This  injury  varies  very  much  in  degree  ;  in 
slight  cases,  the  ligaments  only  may  be  affected,  but  in  more  severe 


injuries,  not  only  the  ligaments,  but  the  tendons  and  bones  are 
implicated.  Great  pain  is  evinced,  with  high  fever.  Treatment  : — 
The  patient  should  be  supported  by  slings,  and  cold  water  irrigation 
applied  to  the  joint  until  the  inflammation  and  pain  subside. 
Hypodermic  injections  of  morphia  near  the  joint  have  a  soothing 
effect,  while  the  fever  must  also  be  combatted.  (su  par.  38 — 
"  Sympathetic  Fever." ) 

163.  Open  Joint. — All  the  joints  are  liable  to  be  laid  open  from 
kicks,  probes,  and  other  injuries.  The  joints  most  frequently  damaged 
in  this  manner  are  the  knee,  elbow,  stifle,  and  hock.  The  three  latter 
are  very  formidable  to  deal  with,  and,  owing  to  their  arrangement,  are 
difficult  to  treat  successfully.  When  a  joint  is  opened  into,  it  should 
have  immediate  attention,  or  it  may  end  m  a  stiff  joint,  or  caries  of  the 
bone,  and  even  in  the  death  of  the  animal.  As  soon  as  it  is  ascertained 
that  the  discharge  coming  from  the  wound  is  joint  oil,  entire  rest  must 
be  given,  and  cold  water  irrigation  resorted  to.  The  water  must  be 
kept  running  constantly  over  the  part  for  four  or  six  days.  I  have, 
on  many  occasions,  with  this  treatment  alone,  been  successful  in 
stopping  synovia,  and  healing  the  joint.  Next  to  this  is  the  application 
of  a  good  fly-blister,  which  has  generally  the  desired  effect  ;  it  causes 
the  parts  to  swell,  thus  closing  up  the  opening  in  the  joint  and 
preventing  the  admission  of  atmospheric  air.  Creasote,  oil  of  cloves,  or 
carbolic  acid  may  also  be  applied  to  the  wound,  if  thought  necessary. 

164.  Stifle  Joint. — Independent  of  the  disease  of  the  bones  that 
enter  into  the  formation  of  this  joint  {see  par'.  114),  the  soft  structures  in 
connection  with  it  are  frequently  the  seat  of  injury  and  disease.  Some 
breeds  of  horses  are  more  susceptible  to  contract  diseases  and  enlarge- 
ments of  this  joint  than  others.  Young  animals — more  particularly  of 
the  cart-horse  class — are  subject  to  big  or  distended  joints,  known  as 
'■'stifled''  or  luxation   of  the  patella,   {see  Plate  IX.  No.  30). 

165.  Luxation  of  the  Patella,  or  partial  displacement  of  the  cup, 
in  my  opinion,  is  a  disease  of  a  hereditary  nature.  The  young 
animals,  which  suffer,  as  a  rule,  are  very  poor,  and  bad  thrivers  ;  and 












when  they  stir  or  walk  about,  the  patella,  or  cap,  slips  partly  off  the 
joint,  towards  the  outside,  making  a  knocking  noise.  Very  hilly 
pastures  are  thought  to  favour  the  development  ot  the  trouble  in  young 
horses.  The  treatment  consists  of  repeated  blistering,  which  sometimes 
does  good,  and  putting  on  of  a  special  shoe,  thin  at  the  heels  but  with 
a  thick  projecting  toe.  But  so  unsatisfactory,  as  a  rule,  are  the 
various  forms  of  treatment,  that  the  best  plan  is  to  destroy  the  animal, 
as  it  scarcely  pays  to  bring  it  up  for  work,  and  it  is  of  no  good  to  breed 

i66.  Dislocation  of  the  Patella. — Horses  and  cows  sometimes 
throw  off  the  cap  by  jumping  up  too  suddenly.  When  dislocation 
takes  place,  the  cap  comes  to  the  outside,  on  account  of  the  ridge  on 
the  femur  being  less  on  the  outside  than  on  the  inside.  The  leg  is 
extended  behind  in  a  rigid  condition,  the  front  of  the  point  of  the  toe 
resting  on  the  ground  with  the  sole  of  the  foot  looking  upwards  and 
backwards  (see  Plate  X.).  If  in  the  stall  the  animal  must  be  got  into 
the  yard,  a  neck  collar  put  on,  and  a  strong  rope  passed  through  the 
bottom  of  the  collar,  between  the  fore  legs,  and  tied  round  the 
pastern  joint  of  the  dislocated  limb.  The  foot  must  then  be  pulled 
forcibly  forward  under  the  belly,  until  the  sole  can  rest  flat  on  the 
ground  ;  the  cap  must  now  be  manipulated  to  the  front,  and  held  there, 
when,  on  the  horse  stepping  forward,  it  readily  drops  into  its  place. 
A  good  blister  should  be  applied,  and  the  animal  tied  up  short  for  a 
week  or  so,  to  prevent  it  lying  down,  as  when  once  the  cap  has  been 
disturbed,  and  ligaments  stretched,  it  is  apt  to  again  become  displaced. 

167.  Hip  Joint  Dislocation. — From  some  extensive  injury,  this 
joint  occasionally  becomes  dislocated,  being  usually  accompanied 
by  a  fracture.  The  leg  seems  much  shorter  than  its  fellow,  and  does 
not  reach  the  ground.  When  the  dislocation  is  forward,  in  front  of 
the  articulation,  the  back  of  the  leg  hangs,  pressing  against  the  front 
of  the  shank  bone  of  the  opposite  leg,  and  when  the  dislocation  is 
backward,  the  front  of  the  leg  presses  against  the  back  of  the  shank 
of  its  fellow.  When  the  muscles  are  so  extensively  lacerated,  and 
the  swelling  is  great,  the  animal  is  usually  destroyed. 


THE    HORSE'S    FOOT.— SHOEING,    &c. 

i68.  THE  horse's  foot  is  made  up  of  soft  and  hard  structures  of  a 
sensitive  and  non-sensitive  nature.  The  external  horny  covering 
or  Hoof  is  non-sensitive,  and  is  made  up  of  the  Wall  or  Crust  and 
Bars,  Sole,  Frog,  and  Frog  Band.  The  Wall  is  that  portion  seen 
when  the  foot  is  placed  flat  on  the  ground,  and  is  divided  into  Toe, 
Quarters,  and  Heels,  at  the  latter  it  turns  inwards,  and  forms  the 
Bars,  which  run  on  each  side  of  the  frog,  on  the  ground  surface, 
towards  the  toe.  The  wall  is  thickest  at  the  toe,  becoming  thinner  as 
it  reaches  the  quarters  ;  while  the  outside  quarter,  or  spread  of  the 
foot  is  more  rounded  than  the  inside,  which  is  nearly  straight  up. 
The  fore  foot  is  more  of  an  oval  shape  at  the  toe  than  the  hind  one, 
which  IS  oblong,  pointed,  and  straighter  up  [Plates  XI.  and  XII). 

169.  The  Wall  (Plate  XI I. ,  No.  2  F)  is  said  to  contain  about  2Sio 
of  moisture,  and,  externally,  has  a  smooth,  fibrous-like  appearance. 
These  so-called  fibres  are,  in  reality,  small  horny  tubes,  filled  with, 
and  matted  together  by,  a  gelatinous  matter  ;  they  run  from  the  top  of 
the  hoof  to  the  bottom,  in  an  oblique  manner,  and  are  secreted  from 
the  blood  by  the  action  of  the  Coronary  Band,  or  cushion,  [Plate 
XII.,  No.  3  K  K)  which  lies  in  the  hollow  groove  running  round  the  top 
arid  inside  of  the  hoof.  The  Perioplic  Ring  or  Frog  Band  [Plate  XII., 
No.  2  G)  is  a  light-coloured,  soft,  horny-like  structure,  which  runs 
round  the  top  and  outside  of  the  foot,  at  the  junction  of  the  hoof  and  skin, 
and  becomes  blended  with  the  bulbs  of  the  frog.  It  is  best  seen  when 
the  foot  is  wet,  and  is  thought  to  have  a  protective  influence  on  the 
newly-secerted  horn,  and  should  never  be  destroyed  by  the  rasp.     The 



1,  2,  3,  4.  Varieties  of  Feet,  page  6o,  par.  177. 

5.  Sole  of  Hoof. 

A.  Ground  Surface  of  the  Wall  at  the  Toe. 

B.  Ground  Surface  of  the  Wall  at  the  Quarter. 

C.  Ground  Surface  of  the  Wall  at  the  Heels,  where  it  turns  and 

forms  the  Bars. 

D.  The  Bar. 

E.  White  line  or  junction  of  the  Wall  and  the  Sole. 

F.  The  Sole. 

G.  The  Frog. 

H.  The  Commissures. 

I.  The  Cleft  of  the  Frog. 

K.  The  Bulb  of  the  Heel. 

L.  Seat  of  Corn. 

6.  Fore-leg  from  Knee,  showing  Bones,  Tendons,  and  Ligaments. 

A.  Flexor  Perforatus. 
A I .  Flexor  Perforatus. 

B.  Flexor  Perforans. 
Bi.  Flexor  Perforans. 
B2.  Flexor  Perforans. 

C.  Metacarpal  Ligament. 

D.  Suspensory  Ligament. 

E.  Insertion  of  Metacarpal  Ligament  into  Perforans. 

F.  Bifurcation  of  Suspensory  Ligament. 

G.  Continuation  of  Suspensory  Ligament. 
H.  Coffin  Bone. 

I.  Extensor  Tendon. 

K.  Knee. 

M.  Metacarpal  Bone. 

N.  Os-Suffraginis,  (large  pastern). 

O.  Os-Coronae,  (small  pastern). 

S.  Splint  Bone. 


internal  portion  of  the  wall  has  a  leaf-like,  or  Laminated,  structure, 
which  dovetails  into  the  sensitive  laminae  surrounding  the  coffin  bone. 
It  has  been  estimated  that  there  are  between  500  and  600  of  these 
non-sensitive  horny  laminae,  and  a  like  number  of  sensitive  ones,  each 
being  again  studded  with  about  100  secondary  ones,  like  the  barbs  of 
a  feather,  making  the  dovetail  more  complete.  These  give  a  surface 
to  the  foot,  estimated  to  be  equivalent  to  eight  square  feet,  or  a  total 
area,  for  the  four  feet,  of  32  square  feet. 

170.  The  Sole  {Plate  XL,  No.  5  F)  is  the  under,  or  ground  portion 
of  the  hoof.and  is  slightly  concave,  filling  up  the  space  between  the 
Bars  (Plate  XL,  No.  5  D)  and  the  ground  surface  of  the  Crust,  or 
Wall.  On  the  ground  surfacfe  a  white  rim  is  seen,  called  the  "  white 
line,"  which  marks  the  union  of  the  sole  with  the  wall  [Plate  XL, 
No.  5  E).  The  sole  consists  of  thin  plates  of  horny  material,  which 
flake,  or  tall  off,  successive!}',  when  they  have  done  their  work,  at  the 
ground  surface.  The  internal  surface  presents  a  sort  of  very  fine 
honey-combed  appearance,  with  little  depressions,  into  which  dip  the 
papillae  of  the  sensitive  sole,  and  by  which  the  horny  matter  is  secreted. 
The  sole  is  supposed  to  contain  about  37/0  of  moisture. 

171.  The  Frog  (Plate  XL,  No.  5  G)  is  the  triangular  elastic  pad 
of  horn,  containing  about  i^yjo  of  moisture,  fitting  into  the  space 
between  the  bars.  It  runs  to  a  point  towards  the  toe,  and  at  the  back 
forms  the  Bulbs  (Plate  XL,  No.  5  K)  of  the  heels.  The  deep  cavities 
between  the  frog  and  the  bars  are  called  Commissures  (Plate  XL, 
No.  5  H)  of  the  frog.  Along  the  middle  of  the  ground  surface  runs 
the  Cleft,  (Plate  XL,  No.  5  I)  corresponding  to  an  elevation  on  the 
internal  surface,  which  is  called  the  Frog-stay,  {Plate  XIL,  No.  2  M) 
and  is  attached  to  the  fatty  frog,  or  sensitive  cushion. 

172.  The  Sensitive  Structures  of  the  foot  are: — ist,  the  coronary 
baud  ;  2nd,  the  sensitive  lamina;  ;  3rd,  the  sensitive  sole  ;  4th,  the  fatty  frog ; 
5th,  tendons  and  ligaments ;  6th,  bones  and  cartilages,  all  of  which  are 
highly  supplied  with  blood-vessels  and  nerves.  The  Coronary 
Band  {Plate  XIL,  No.  3  K  K)  is  situated  in  the  hollow  or  semi-circular 


groove  which  runs  round  the  top  and  inner  aspect  of  the  hoof, 
and  is  attached  to  the  true  shin  by  its  upper  margin,  while  the  under 
portion  is  covered  with  minute  sprout-like  projections  (papillae),  which 
dip  into  the  small  orifices  of  the  wall  and  secrete  the  horn  fibres.  The 
Sensitive  Laminae  or  Leaves  (Plate  XIL,  No.  3  H)  correspond  in 
number  to  those  of  the  non-sensitive  or  horny  laminae  seen  on  the  inside 
of  the  wall  of  the  hoof,  to  which  they  are  firmly  attached.  The  sensitive 
laminae  surrounds  the  bony  structures  of  the  foot,  to  which  they  are 
connected  by  dense  connective  tissue,  and  they  assist  in  the  secretion 
of  horn.  The  Sensitive  Sole  (Plate  XIL,  No.  3  I)  is  attached  to  the 
bottom  of  the  coffin  or  pedal  bone,  and  the  under  surface  next  to  the 
horny  sole  resembles  a  piece  of  fine  velvet,  being  covered  with  small 
projecting  papillae,  which  not  only  secretes  the  horn,  but  also  gives 
attachment  to  the  non-sensitive  sole.  The  Sensitive  Frog,  (Plate 
XII.,  No.  2  D)  sometimes  called  the  fatty  frog,  is  situated  at  the 
back  part  of  the  foot,  and  lies  between  the  wings  of  the  coffin  bone, 
above  the  horny  frog  ;  it  acts  as  a  cushion  by  supporting  the  weight 
in  progression  [see  Side  Bones,  par.  793).  The  Tendons  found  in  the 
foot  are  the  terminal  point  of  the  extensor  and  flexor  muscles  of  the 
limb,  and  the  ligaments  are  those  in  connection  with  the  foot  (Plate 
XIL,  Nos.  1,  2,  and  3). 

173.  In  the  Foot  there  are  Three  Bones  :  — ist. — The  Coffin,  or 

Pedal  Bone.  (Plate  XIL,  No.  2  B)  This  bone  is  crescent  shaped,  the 
body  resembling  the  front  of  the  hoof,  with  an  elevation  in  front  at  the 
top.  The  two  quarters  or  wings  run  backwards  on  each  side,  to 
which  are  attached  the  Lateral  Cartilages,  (Plate  XIL,  No.  3  L  L) 
that  so  often  in  cart-horses  become  ossified,  and  form  Side-bones. 
The  bone  itself  is  very  porous  in  structure,  and  contains  numerous 
fissures,  thus  allowing  the  ramification  of  nerves,  blood  vessels,  &c. 
2nd. — The  Coronary,  or  Short  Pastern  Bone,  (Plate XIL,  No.  2 A) 
which  is  situated  above  the  coffin  bone,  forming  with  it  a  joint,  into 
the  formation  of  which  also  enters, — 3rd — The  Navicular,  or  Shuttle 
Bone,  (Plate  XIL,  No.  2  C)  which — ^just  behind  the  coffin  bone — acts 
as  a  lever  for  the  tendon  passing  over  it. 


174-  Historical. — In  Paleolithic  ages,  there  is  evidence  to  show 
that  the  horse  was  an  object  of  the  chase,  and  a  source  of  food.  In 
Neolithic  remains,  representations  of  it  appear,  but  still,  apparently, 
only  as  a  creature  of  the  chase.  It  is  first  known  to  have  been 
domesticated  by  the  Egyptians,  but  not  until  a  late  period  ;  at  least, 
no  evidence  of  its  having  been  domesticated  can  be  gathered  from  the 
earlier  monuments.  In  the  Old  Testament  (in  which  the  first  mention 
occurs  in  Genesis  xlvii.,  17,  when  Joseph  gave  his  brethren  bread  in 
return  for  horses,  &c.),  the  horse  is  chiefly  referred  to  in  connection 
with  warfare.  In  the  book  of  Job  (xxxix.),  the  war-horse  is  described 
as  rejoicing  in  his  strength,  and  smelling  the  battle  afar  off.  Horses, 
horsemen,  and  chariots,  and  trading  in  horses,  are  referred  to  in  many 
places,  ^.g'.,  II.  Kings,  xviii.,  23;  Ezekiel,  xxvii.,  14;  Zachariah,  vi., 
2,  3  ;  thus  showing  the  general  usefulness  of  the  horse  to  mankind. 
Even  in  the  earliest  ages,  man's  attention  had  been  drawn  to  the  brittle 
nature  of  the  horse's  hoof;  for  in  Judges,  v.,  22,  we  find  it  stated 
that  : — "  Then  were  the  horsehoofs  broken  by  the  means  of  their 
prancings."  In  the  ancient  Greek  and  Roman  Journals,  also,  we  find 
that  armies  had  to  be  disbanded  in  consequence  of  the  horses'  hoofs 
breaking  and  wearing  ;  while  Suetonius  and  Pliny,  as  well  as  other 
historians,  specially  record  the  horses'  frequent  incapacity  to  do  work 
from  the  wearing  of  the  hoof.  The  exact  time,  however,  when  shoes 
were  applied  to  horses'  feet  is  not  known,  but  the  Persians  get  the  credit 
of  being  the  first  to  use  them.  In  a  Mosaic  painting  of  Pompeii,  a  shoe 
is  noticed  on  the  foot  of  the  war-horse  of  Satrapes — B.C.,  333.  In 
the  year  1653,  ^"  i^^^  shoe  was  found  in  the  tomb  of  Childeric, 
King  of  France,  who  died  481  A.D.,  and  William  the  Conqueror  is 
credited  with  having  introduced  the  art  of  shoeing  into  this  country. 

175.  The  horse's  hoof  has  been  a  subject  of  deep  study  for  centuries  ; 
and  I  know  of  no  mechanical  contrivance  which  the  mind  of  man  can 
contemplate  with  greater  wonder  and  admiration.  If  there  is  one 
thing  more  than  another,  which  rias  a  tendency  to  encourage  and 
advance  "  Science  with  Practice  "  it  is  the  art  of  "  horse  shoeing." 
For  the  shoer  to  have  a  knowledge  of  the  different  forms  or  kinds  of 


feet  ;  to  frame  the  various  kinds  of  shoes,  and  attach  them  properly  ; 
and  then  to  give  a  reason  for  his  work,  would  be,  I  think,  one  of  the 
finest  examples  of  "  Science  with  Practice." 

176.  The  horse,  in  its  native  wilds,  or  at  grass,  seldom  has  any  need 
of  protection  for  the  foot  ;  but  the  condition  of  our  roads  and  streets 
is  such  that  it  is  necessary  to  protect  this  beautiful  structure  from 
injury  ;  therefore,  shoeing  becomes  a  necessity,  requiring  science  and 
practice  for  its  proper  application  ;  and  owing  to  the  great  variety  of 
feet  met  with  in  the  different  breeds  of  horses,  and  the  peculiar  formation 
of  some  of  the  hoofs,  horse-shoeing  (with  brains  as  well  as  with  the 
hands)  is  actually  of  much  more  importance  than  it  is  usually  credited 
with.  What  is  the  use  of  a  horse,  however  good  or  well-fashioned,  if 
it  has  not  a  sound  foot  to  stand  upon  ? 

177.  Varieties  of  Feet. — Among  the  different  types  of  feet  the 
following  are  here  noticed  : — 

1.  Sound  Feet. — That  which  is  called  a  good,  strong,  sound  foot, 

has  its  front  wall  inclined  at  an  angle  of  from  45°  to  50°,  and 
has  the  outside  wall  more  rounded  than  the  inner,  which  is 
nearly  straight  up  and  down,  and  has  a  good  concave  sole. 
Although  the  feet  vary  in  colour,  a  bluish  grey  has  the 
preference  (see  Plate  XL,  No.  1). 

2.  Narrow  Feet. — The   next   type  is  similar  to  the  first,  only  the 

heels  are  much  higher,  and  the  quarters,  and  toe,  more  upright. 
Feet  of  this  kind,  although  serviceable,  are,  in  light-legged 
horses,  liable  to  contraction,  and  navicular  disease ;  while  in 
cart-horses  they  are  most  subject  to  side-bones.  The  walls 
and  soles  are  generally  strong  and  hard,  but  this  type  requires 
a  great  amount  of  care  in  shoeing  {see  Plate  XL,  No.  2). 

3.  Flat  Feet. — Some  classes  of  cart  and  harness-horses  have  great, 

flat  feet,  with  very  large  frogs,  and  open  low  weak  heels, 
(showing  that  when  the  frog  meets  the  ground  pressure,  the 
feet  expand  at  the  back),  and  the  sole,  as  a  rule,  instead  of 


being  concave,  is  flat.  Horses  with  feet  of  this  kind  are 
certainly  useful,  but  they  are  best  on  farms.  Such  feet  are 
frequently  affected  with  corns  and  bruises,  and  are  difficult  to 
shoe  {see  Plate  XL,  No.  3). 

4.  Dished    Feet,    or   feet   with    Hollow   Walls    and    Rounded 

(Convex)  Pumiced  Soles  are  somewhat  similar  to  the  last, 
but  more  pronounced,  and  are  more  prone  to  bruises  and 
disease  than  any  other  kind  of  feet,  requiring  very  careful 
shoeing,  with  a  shoe  well  seated  on  the  surface  next  the  sole 
{see  Plate  XL,  No.  4). 

5.  Odd  Feet.- — Curiously  enough,  these  are  often  seen  in  racehorses, 

and,  although  one  is  smaller  than  the  other,  there  is  no 
disease,  and  the  small  foot  stands  as  much  wear  and  tear  as 
its  larger  mate.  These  feet  generally  resemble  varieties  Nos. 
1  and  2,  Plate  XL  A  horse's  feet,  however,  may  become  of 
different- sizes  by  frequently  pulling  the  shoe  off  one  of  them, 
which  is  done  by  the  animal  galloping  round  in  a  circle  the 
inside  fore  shoe  being  apt  to  be  clinked  off  by  the  hmd  one 
on  the  same  side  ;  and  each  time  the  shoe  is  replaced  the  foot 
decreases  in  size  ;  still,  there  is  no  disease.  But  the  foot  may 
also  become  smaller  from  disease. 

178.  Again,  different  kinds  of  shoes  are  required,  according  to 
the  kind  or  breed  of  horse,  and  the  work  it  has  to  do: — 

I.  Racehorses  require  only  a  very  narrow  plate,  covering  the  ground 
surface  of  the  wall,  and  but  slightly  overlapping  the  junction 
between  the  sole  and  wall — or  white  line,  {see  Plate  XV., 
1  A  and  1  B).  The  French  or  Charlier  system  meets  these 
requirements.  In  this  form  of  shoeing,  a  groove  is  made 
round  the  ground  surface  of  the  wall,  into  which  the  shoe 
is  fitted,  there  being  no  covering  on  the  sole.  It  certainly 
gives  the  frog  full  play ;  but  I  am  afraid  it  would  not  answer 
for  animals  in  use  on  our  macadamised  roads  and  streets. 


2.  Hunters  are  generally  shod  with  a  broader  web— having  a  flat  face 

next  the  sole,  which  it  slightly  covers  (giving  support  to  the 
connection  of  the  wall  with  the  sole),  well  seated,  and  grooved 
on  the  ground  surface,  imitating,  as  far  as  possible,  the  bottom 
of  the  foot,  so  as  to  get  a  better  grip  of  the  ground  [see  Plate 
XV.,  2  A  and  2B). 

3.  For  Hackneys  and  Carriage-Horses,  a  shoe  is  generally  adopted 

that  is  well  seated  on  the  upper  surface,  next  the  sole,  with  a 
good  flat  level  bearing  at  the  heels,  and  round  the  bottom 
surface  of  the  wall  [see  Plate  XV.,  Nos.  3  and  2  B);  but  for  a 
good  foot  (as  Nos.  1  ov  2,  par.  177),  a  shoe  prepared  on  the 
lines  of  the  hunter's  shoe  is  to  be  preferred. 

4.  Cart  and  Waggon- Horses  have  shoes  made  similar  to  those  for 

carriage  horses,  but  much  heavier  and  broader,  being  seated 
on  the  surface  next  the  foot.  They  are  generally  turned  up 
at  the  heels  (caulkings),  and  have  a  toe-piece  (see  Plate  XV., 
^A  and  4BJ.  This  turning  up  of  the  heel,  more  particularly 
in  dealing  with  a  young  horse,  is  a  great  mistake.  It  should 
be  shod  flat,  as  the  heels  lift  the  foot  from  its  centre  of 
bearing,  and  the  frog  is  taken  away  from  its  proper  work. 
This  is  fully  explained  under  Side-Bones  (see  par.  793). 

5.  Bar  Shoes  are  used  for  weak- heeled  horses,  or    where   damage 

has  been  done  to  the  quarters.  'I'hey  give  additional  support 
and  pressure  to  the  frog  and  relieve  side  bones  and  corns 
(see  Plate  XV.,  No.  5). 

6.  Round,  or  Rocker  Shoes  are  something  analogous  to  bar  shoes. 

They  are  very  useful  for  weak  feet,  and  also  in  cases  where 
there  has  been  extensive  inflammation  —  Laminitis.  Their 
ground  surface  is  formed  in  the  shape  of  a  rocker,  thin  at  heel 
and  toe,  and  thick  at  the  quarter,  so  that  when  the  horse 
puts  its  heel  to  the  ground^  the  foot  rocks  gently  over,  and 
the  animal  is  assisted  very  much  in  progression  (5^^  Plate 
XV.,  No.  6). 








7-  Three-quarter  Shoes. — When  we  have  disease  of,  or  injury  to, 
either  outside  or  inside  heels,  as  from  corns,  &c.,  a  shoe  is 
made  with  a  bar  to  lie  across  the  frog,  while  the  side  of  the 
shoe  next  the  damaged  part  is  cut  off  to  prevent  pressure  {sec 
Plate  XV.,  No.  7). 

8.  Diamond-toed  Shoes  have  diamond  points,  and  are  used  on  the 
hind  feet,  to  prevent  the  horse  from  "forging,"  or  "clinking" 
— that  is  where  the  toe  of  the  hind  shoe  strikes  the  ground 
surface  of  the  fore  foot  shoe.  A  young  horse,  when  first  put 
to  work,  nearly  always  acquires  this  habit  of  "hammer  and 
pincers,"  as  it  is  commonly  called  ;  but,  as  it  gets  into  step, 
this  in  time,  leaves  it  {see  Plate  XV.,  No.  8). 

g.  Feather-edged  Shoes. — These  are  preventive  shoes,  and  are 
more  frequently  used  on  the  hind  than  on  the  fore  feet.  They 
are  used  for  animals  that  buff  themselves,  by  striking  the 
fetlock  joint,  or  shank,  of  the  opposite  leg.  Some  young 
horses  are  very  subject  to  this.  For  treatment  of  these 
bruises,  see  "  Contused  Wounds  "  (pars.  132  and  133).  The 
shoe  is  made  with  a  feather-edge  on  the  inside,  tapering 
inwards,  on  the  ground  surface,  towards  the  frog  ;  nailed  on 
the  outside,  and  round  the  toe.  Indiarubber  rings,  leather 
pads,  or  boots,  and  woollen  bandages,  are  also  used  to  protect 
the  opposite  leg  from  further  injury  (see  Plate  XV.,  No.  9). 

lyg.  In  all  cases  where  there  is  a  good,  healthy,  well-formed 
foot,  with  concave  sole,  the  surface  of  the  shoe  next  the  foot  ought 
to  be  flat,  so  as  to  give  a  little  pressure  to  the  sole,  and  also  to  support 
the  union  of  the  wall  with  the  sole.  In  weak,  convex  soles,  however, 
the  shoe  should  be  seated  so  as  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  case. 

i8o.  Preparing  the  Foot  for  the  Shoe. — A  young  horse,  when 
first  brought  in  from  grass,  should  be  put  into  a  loose,  open  shed,  for 
ten  days  or  a  fortnight  before  shoes  are  applied  to  the  feet.  The 
ground  surface  of  the  crust,  or  wall  of  the  foot,  should  then  be 
levelled  with  a  rasp,  to  make  a  good  bed  for  the  shoe,  which  should 


invariably  be  a  plain  one,  without  the  heels  being  turned  up  ;  and,  on 
no  consideration,  must  the  shoe  be  applied  too  hot  to  the  foot,  for 
although  horn  is  a  bad  heat  conductor,  yet  I  have,  on  several  occasions, 
seen  founder  (Laminitis)  produced  through  neglect  of  this  caution. 
In  future  shoeing,  i.e.,  re-shoeing,  the  clinches  ought  to  be  carefully 
turned  back,  and,  if  possible,  each  nail  drawn  separately,  thus 
preventing  the  crust  being  broken  ;  the  rasp  may  then  be  run  gently 
round  the  sharp  edges  of  the  crust,  and,  as  the  foot  always  grows  in 
length  at  the  toe  (5^^  Plate  XIII.,  Figs.  A  and  B) — and  very  sparingly 
at  the  heels-  it  must  be  shortened.  This  is  usually  done  by 
cutting  a  piece  from  the  front  of  the  wall,  at  the  toe,  but  to  this 
method  I  have  great  objections.  The  foot  should  be  shortened  by 
dressing  down  the  ground  surface  from  one  quarter  round  the  toe  to 
the  other.  This,  when  properly  done,  gives  a  level  bearing  for  the 
shoe,  preventing  pressure  on  the  heels,  without  having  to  spring  the 
heel  of  the  shoe.  In  paring  the  sole,  only  the  rough  loose  flakes  ought 
to  be  removed,  except  in  Navicular  disease,  where  we  have,  from 
continued  irritation,  an  overgrowth  of  horn  ;  in  which  case  the  sole  must 
then  be  thinned,  by  paring  the  ground  surface  of  the  sole  of  the  foot. 

181.  Farmers,  themselves,  are  very  much  to  blame  in  not  paying 
more  attention  to  their  horses'  feet  ;  no  foot,  no  horse  ;  that  is  to  say, 
no  matter  how  grand  and  good  the  animal  may  be  otherwise,  it  is  of 
very  little  account,  if  it  has  not  sound  feet.  Sometimes  farmers  allow  a 
horse  to  go  three  or  four  months  without  being  re-shod,  by  which 
time,  the  feet  are  so  overgrown,  and  in  such  a  state,  that  it  takes 
months  to  get  them  into  form  again.  It  would  be  much  better 
to  take  the  shoes  off  altogether,  and  then  the  foot,  with  use,  would 
naturally  wear  away.  Shoes  are  best  removed  once  every  four  or  six 
weeks,  and  should  never,  on  any  account,  be  allowed  to  remain  longer 
than  two  months. 

182.  Fitting  the  Shoe. — Before  the  shoe  is  fitted,  the  foot  in  many 
cases  requires  a  certain  amount  of  trimming ;  this  should  be  done  with 
care  and  judgment.  Then  the  shoe  should  be  made  to  tit  level,  and  be 
a  shade  larger  than   the  foot  at  the  ground  surface,  continuing  the 



I.     Section  of  Hoof,  showing  position  and  direction  of  the  two  Front  Nails. 

2.     Shoe  and  Nails,  in  situ,  showing  the  inward  direction  of  the  Nails  when 

driven  into  the  Hoof.     Right  Side  of  Shoe  showing  Clinches  turned  over. 

3.     Toe  Piece  of  No.  i,  showing  marks  of  Nails. 


angle  of  inclination  of  the  wall  of  the  hoof.  As  already  said,  it 
must  not  be  applied  too  hot — ^just  hot  enough  to  make  itself  a  firm 
bed  ;  neither  must  it  be  nailed  to  fit,  as  this  tears  the  hoof. 

183.  Nails  and  Nail-holes. — The  fewer  nails  there  are  in  the 
shoe  the  better;  but  as  a  rule,  four  nails  are  put  on  the  outside,  and 
three  on  the  inside  — more  are  used  at  times,  but  if  the  shoe  is  efficiently 
fitted,  even  a  less  number  may  be  sufficient.  The  nail-holes,  whether 
punched  through  the  racing  or  fullering,  or  stamped, are, as  a  rule,  made 
so  that  the  nails  when  driven,  have  a  decided  inward  bearing  [see  Plate 
XIV.,  Nos.  7,  2,  and  j),  particularly  at  the  toe,  so  as  to  keep  in  line  with 
the  angle  of  the  hoof,  while  the  quarter  and  heel  nails  are  more  nearly 
vertical.  When  the  holes  are  made  too  obliquely,  the  nails  are  apt  to 
break  off  at  the  neck.  Some  feet,  however,  are  so  constituted  that 
the  shoe  has  to  be  nailed  round  the  toe,  instead  of  the  quarter.  In 
driving  the  nail,  care  should  be  taken  not  to  get  into  the  sensitive 
parts,  nor  to  get  so  near  as  to  press  on  them.  This  shows  how 
necessary  it  is  to  fit  the  shoe  properly,  and,  also,  to  make  the  nail- 
holes  at  proper  angles.  After  the  shoe  has  been  attached,  in  dressing 
the  hoof,  some  smiths  persist  in  rasping  the  walls — "  to  make  them 
look  nice,"  they  say.  To  my  eye,  nothing  looks  worse  than  a  rasped 
hoof.  By  the  use  of  the  rasp,  not  only  is  the  outer  covering,  Periop/e, 
or  varnish-like  structure  of  the  hoof  destroyed,  but  some  hundreds  of  the 
little  fibrous  tubes  which  are  seen  running  from  the  top  to  the  bottom 
of  the  hoof,  are  wounded  and  left  exposed  to  the  action  of  the 
atmosphere,  which  makes  the  hoof  turn  hard  and  brittle,  breaking  off 
where  the  nails  are  turned  down  or  clinched.  I  thus,  strongly  say, 
that  the  knife  and  rasp  ought  to  be  used  sparingly,  and  with  great 
caution.     The  hoof  must  not  be  rasped  above  the  clinches  on  any  account. 

184.  Stopping  for  the  Feet. — Numerous  authorities  do  not  favour 
stopping  the  feet  with  articles  of  a  moist  nature.  I  was  my  own 
groom  for  over  20  years,  and  as  I  did  all  my  work  on  the  saddle,  I 
felt  the  full  benefit  of  stopping  the  feet  when  the  roads  were  hard  and 
dry,  for  if  the  practice  was  omitted  the  want  was  readily  noticed  on 
mounting  next  morning.     Therefore,  in  long -continued  frosts,  or  during 



a  spell  of  hot  weather,  where  a  horse  is  doing  a  lot  of  work  on  the  hard 
dry  road,  and  the  moisture  of  the  horn  becomes  exhausted,  I  am  in 
favour  of  stopping  the  feet,  to  keep  them  cool,  moist,  and  pHable. 
By  referring  to  paragraphs  i6g  to  171,  it  will  be  seen  how  much 
moisture  the  different  parts  of  the  hoof  contains,  and  these  quantities 
should  be  maintained.  I  have  never  yet  found  anything  for  this 
purpose  to  beat  cow-dung  and  clay,  in  equal  parts  ;  stuffing  the  bottom 
of  the  feet  with  it  each  alternate  night. 

185.  Leather  Soles  should  not  be  used  except  in  cases  of  injury, 
when  they  become  necessary  ;  for  to  stimulate  and  preserve  the 
healthy  action  of  the  hoof,  air  should  be  allowed  free  access  to  all  parts. 
Exercise,  also,  is  very  essential,  in  order  to  keep  both  the  outside 
and  inside  of  the  hoof  in  sound  condition.  Without  it,  healthy 
circulation  cannot  be  maintained  in  the  foot,  and  the  result  is,  disease  ; 
therefore,  if  a  horse  cannot  be  taken  out  every  day,  it  should  be  turned 
into  a  loose  box,  or  paddock. 

186.  India-rubber  Pads. — In  connection  with  leather  soles,  rubber 
pads  are  now  made  of  various  descriptions  and  sizes,  and  are  found  to 
answer  well.  The  Rubber  Frog  Pad,  for  example,  is  an  artificial 
India-rubber  frog,  fixed  on  a  leather  sole,  which  is  nailed  on  between 
the  foot  and  the  shoe,  and  is  very  uefsul  for  narrow-heeled  fore  feet, 
and  small  or  wasted  frogs.  Anti-Slipping  Pads  are  also  many,  and 
one  of  them  in  common  use  is  a  sort  of  bag  of  India  rubber,  in  the 
shape  of  the  foot,  with  a  corrugated  ground  surface,  and  fixed  within 
the  inner  rims  of  the  shoe.  The  Frog- Bar- Pad  is  another  India- 
rubber  pad,  fixed  on  to  a  stout  piece  of  leather,  the  rubber-bar  of  which 
runs  across  the  back  part  of  the  foot,  and  covers  both  heels  and  frog,  and 
is  nailed  to  the  foot  under  a  short  shoe.  This  is  one  of  the  best  forms 
of  pads,  for  besides  preventing  slipping,  it  is  of  great  service  in  the 
case  of  corns,  weak  heels,  narrow  or  contracted  quarters,  navicular 
disease,  and  chronic  laminitic  feet. 

187.  For  further  particulars  respecting  the  horse's  foot  and  shoeing, 
Mr.  William  Hunting's  "  Art  of  Horse-Shoeing  "  (third  edition)  is 


i88.  The  foot  of  the  horse  is  at  all  times  very  liable  to  injury  and 
disease  ;  and  in  all  cases  of  lameness,  the  foot  should  be  examined  to 
make  sure  that  all  is  right  there,  even  though  the  leg  be  broken. 
The  diseases  or  injuries  to  which  the  feet  of  horses  are  most  subject 
are  pyichs,  corns,  qiiittov,  sidebones,  sandcvack,  seedy  toe,  false  quarter,  thrush, 
canker,  treads,  over-reaches,  groggy  lameness,  and  laniinitis. 

189.  A  Prick  from  Shoeing,  or  otherwise.— This  is  the  most 
common  injury  to  the  foot.  In  shoeing,  if  a  nail  should  unfortunately 
be  driven  into  the  sensitive  part  of  the  foot,  the  owner  ought  at  once 
to  be  told  of  the  misfortune.  At  the  same  time  the  shoe  must  be 
removed,  and  the  foot  put  into  a  bran  poultice,  made  with  cold  water, 
and  kept  constantly  wet  for  a  few  days,  when  the  part  generally  heals 
without  any  bad  effect.  But  as  a  rule  the  nail  is  withdrawn,  and  no 
mention  is  made  of  the  matter  ;  with  the  result  that  the  horse  is  put  to 
work,  and,  in  the  course  of  two  or  three  days,  becomes  lame.  The 
injury  may  be  detected  by  tapping  the  part  with  a  hammer,  or  by 
removing  the  shoe,  and  pressing  the  foot  with  a  pair  of  pincers,  the 
animal  flinching  when  the  inj  iired  part  is  touched.  The  sole  must  then  be 
carefully  dressed  away,  when  a  dirty,  thin,  dark-coloured  fluid  generally 
will  be  met  with  (commonly  called  gravel),  at  the  bottom  of  the  nail- 
hole.  If  left  alone  too  long,  this  fluid  sometimes  works  under  the  sole, 
and,  if  not  liberated,  will  find  its  way  out  at  the  top  of  the  band  of  the 
hoof,  or  at  the  bulbs  of  the  heel.  After  the  escape  of  the  matter,  the 
foo.t  should  be  placed  in  a  cold  bran-poultice,  to  which  a  tablespoonful  of 
carbolic  acid  has  been  added,  until  all  the  inflammation  has  subsided  ; 
then,  after  dressing  with  tow  and  tar  ointment  {see  Sandcrack,  par.  194), 
and  protecting  with  a  leather  sole,  the  shoe  may  be  put  on.  Sometimes 
the  nails  are  driven  too  near,  causing  pressure  of  the  sensitive  parts 
on  touching,  and  making  the  animal  step  short,  or  decidedly  lame. 


Taking  off  the  shoe,  and  poulticing  the  foot,  for  24  hours,  is  all  that 
is  necessary  in  such  cases,  for  cutting  into  the  parts  does  more  harm 
than  good. 

190.  When  a  horse  drops  suddenly  lame  on  the  road,  the  foot  must 
at  once  be  examined,  to  see  whether  it  has  been  injured  by  a 
nail  or  a  piece  of  wire.  If  this  is  found  to  be  the  case,  remove  the 
foreign  body  at  once,  and,  at  the  first  house  on  the  road,  wash  the 
wound  out,  by  pouring  hot  water  on  to  it,  then  heat  the  nail  or  piece 
of  wire  in  the  fire,  and  with  a  pair  of  pincers,  press  it  into  the  hole 
already  made,  thus  cauterising  the  wound  ;  a  little  hard  soap  may  then 
be  pressed  into  the  hole,  after  which,  as  a  rule,  no  further  trouble 
arises,  but,  should  the  animal  become  lame  afterwards,  take  off  the 
shoe,  and  poultice  the  foot,  as  already  stated.  Pricks  from  nails 
are  very  dangerous,  and  should  receive  prompt  attention,  as  Tetanus 
(lock-jaw)  often  arises  from  a  simple  prick  in  the  foot;  yet,  strange  to 
say,  at  the  bottom  of  a  coal-pit — where  wounds  in  the  feet,  from 
gathered  nails,  are  of  frequent  occurence — lock-jaw  is  rarely  or  never 

191.  Corns  are  recognised  by  a  blood-red  stain  in  the  horn,  and 
are  caused  by  a  bruise  or  injury,  with  subsequent  infiltration  of  blood 
through  the  pores  of  the  horn.  They  occur  chiefly  in  flat-footed,  weak- 
heeled  horses,  and  are  generally  found  in  the  fore  feet,  principally  in 
the  inner  corner  of  the  heels,  between  the  wall  and  bars  {Plate  XL, 
No.  5  L).  Hunters  are  great  suff'erers  from  this  class  of  injury, 
owing  to  their  being  shod  with  short-heeled  shoes.  Corns  are  very 
common,  and  as  they  are  looked  upon  as  unsoundness,  in  all  cases  of 
examination  the  shoes  should  be  removed,  and  the  feet  carefully 
searched.  When  they  cause  lameness,  the  shoe  should  be  removed, 
and  the  parts  dressed  out  ;  particularly  if  the  bar  is  too  strong,  and 
doubled  over,  and  pressing  on  the  sole,  for  it  must  then  be  pared  away, 
so  as  to  remove  all  pressure  from  the  part.  At  times,  matter  is  also 
formed,  when  it  must  be  liberated.  Tn  bad  cases,  poultices  have  to 
be  applied,  to  reduce  the  inflammation,  and  a  three-quarter  or  bar 
shoe  (Plate  XV.,  Nos.  5  and  7)  is  found  to  be  necessary  ;  while  the 


India-rubber  bar  pad  is  also  of  great  service.  If  neglected,  the 
inflammation  extends  to  the  mternal  parts  of  the  foot,  when  pus  or 
matter  forms,  and  finds  its  way  out  at  the  top  of  the  hoof,  causing 
much  pain  and  suffering  to  the  animal,  and  perhaps  ending  in  quittor. 

192.  Quittor  is  a  most  painful  and  troublesome  fistulous  disease  of 
the  foot.  Injuries,  of  any  description,  to  the  foot,  may  end  in  quittor. 
It  is  not  often  seen  in  the  country,  but  in  towns  it  is  very  common. 
Railway  horses  are  very  subject  to  it,  owing  to  getting  their  feet  fixed 
in  the  rails,  and  waggons  or  carts  passing  over  them.  The  structure 
of  the  foot  becomes  so  much  implicated  that  the  bone  and  cartilage 
become  diseased,  when  holes,  or  sinuses,  are  formed  at  the  quarter 
and  round  the  band  of  the  hoof.  At  first,  cold  water  poultices  may  be 
of  some  service  in  reducing  the  active  inflammation  ;  but  when  the 
disease  has  become  chronic,  blisters,  caustic  dressings,  and  the  hot  iron 
have  to  be  applied,  while,  as  a  last  resource,  an  operation  has  to  be 
performed,  by  which  the  diseased  bone  and  cartilage  are  removed 
making  the  complicated  sores  into  one  simple  wound.  These  cases 
are  much  too  formidable  for  the  attempts  of  an  amateur, 

193.  Side-Bones  consist  of,  and  arise  from,  the  ossification 
of  one  or  both  of  the  latcval  cartilages,  which  are  situated  at  the 
sides  and  top  of  the  hoof  {see  Plate  VII.,  Nos.  6,  7,  and  8).  They 
are  met  with  in  the  fore  feet,  particularly  in  those  cart-horses, 
which  have  strong  upright  quarters ;  but  they  are  very  rarely 
found  in  flat-footed  horses,  hacks,  or  carria-ge-horses.  The  principal 
causes  are  hereditary  predisposition,  injuries  of  various  kinds,  over- 
reaches, chafing  against  the  sharp  edge  of  a  lea-furrow,  &c.  ;  but, 
in  my  opinion,  the  greatest  evil  of  all  is  the  use  of  high-heeled  shoes, 
removing  the  frog  from  its  ground  pressure,  thus  throwing  the  weight 
on  the  lateral  cartilages.  Above  the  horny,  or  insensitive  fvog,  there 
are  elastic  fibres  running  from  the  inside  of  one  lateral  cartilage  to  the 
inside  of  the  other,  forming  what  is  called  the  fatty  or  sensitive  frog, 
into  which  is  inserted  the  fvogstay,  or  elevation  corresponding  to  the 
cleft  in  the  middle  of  the  ground  surface  of  the  frog.     Now,  when  the 


weight  of  a  horse  is  thrown  on  its  foot,  the  pastern  descends,  the 
lateral  cartilages  yield  and  bend  outwards  at  the  top  of  the  hoof,  about 
the  middle  of  the  cartilage,  whilst  the  top  of  the  cartilage  bends  over 
and  inwards,  acting  like  a  spring,  letting  the  weight  of  the  Hmb  gently 
down  on  to  the  fatty  frog,  which,  in  turn,  presses  on  the  insensitive 
horny  frog,  bringing  it  in  contact  with  the  ground,  and  thus  preventing 
concussion.  But,  when  a  horse  is  shod  with  high,  or  turned  up  heels, 
the  horny  frog  becomes  displaced,  as  it  were,  and  thrown  out  of  work, 
and  all  the  weight  is  put  on  to  the  lateral  cartilages,  which,  in  time, 
through  having  all  their  own  work,  as  well  as  that  of  the  frog 
to  do,  become  ossified,  and  form  side-bones,  and  this  process  may 
go  on,  without  any  inconvenience  or  lameness.  Shoeing-smiths — 
particularly  those  in  the  country — have  the  very  great  fault  of  cutting 
away  the  sides  of  the  horny  frog,  yet  it  ought  never  to  be  touched. 
When  side-bones  cause  lameness,  remove  the  shoe,  and  apply  cold 
water  poultices,  until  the  inflammation  and  pain  has  abated,  then  ease 
the  shoe,  or  substitute  a  bar  shoe  (Plate  XV.,  No.  5)  ;  this  removes  the 
pressure  from  the  quarters,  and  throws  weight  on  the  frog.  Although 
in  a  very  great  proportion  of  cases,  there  is  no  accompanying  lameness, 
yet  the  animals  step  short,  still  they  can  do  their  work  with  little  or 
no  inconvenience;  nevertheless,  they  are  always  considered  as  unsound. 
Both  sides  of  the  foot  may  be  affected  with  side-bone,  or  merely  one. 
When  they  are  very  large,  and  cause  much  lameness,  the  hoof  is  cut 
through,  with  a  special  saw,  at  the  quarter,  from  top  to  bottom,  in 
two  places,  just  below,  and  at  either  side  of  the  side-bone  ;  then,  with 
a  special  shoeing-knife,  the  sole  is  divided  from 'the  crust  at  the  white  line, 
at  the  bottom  of  the  foot,  when  the  piece  becomes  loose,  and,  on  the 
horse  puttmg  its  weight  on  the  foot,  the  saw-cuts  spring  open,  and 
have  to  Le  filled  in  with  beeswax.  A  bar  shoe  is  then  put  on,  a  blister 
applied  to  the  band  of  the  hoof,  and  in  a  few  months  the  foot  expands, 
and  the  horse  goes  sound. 

194.  Sandcrack  is  described  by  many  writers  as  a  solution  of 
continuity  in  the  wall  of  the  hoof.  My  definition  is  : — A  fissure,  or 
separation,  of  the  horny,  fibrous  tubes,  to  a  greater  or  less  extent.     It 


is  more  common  in  the  town  than  in  the  country,  occurring  most 
frequently  on  the  inner  quarters  of  the  fore  feet,  and  at  times  extending 
from  the  top  of  the  hoof  to  the  bottom.  When  sHght,  it  causes  Httle 
or  no  inconvenience  ;  but  when  the  fissure  extends  into  the  sensitive 
parts,  and  any  dirt  gets  in,  inflammation  sets  up,  and  matter  or  pus  is 
formed.  This  must  be  liberated  by  cutting  each  side  of  the  crack, 
dressing  with  carbolic  oil,  and  applymg  poultices  ;  after  getting  rid  of 
this,  a  nick  should  be  made  with  a  hot  fire-iron  across  the  top  of 
the  crack,  or  in  the  shape  of  an  inverted  V,  close  against  the  hair, 
and  the  fissure  dressed  with  tar  ointment  and  tow  {see  Appendix). 
Then  a  tarred  rope  may  be  wound  round  the  hoof,  or  a  leather 
strap  used,  or,  even  in  some  cases,  a  specially  constructed  clasp  may 
be  advisable.  The  shoe  must  be  eased  below  the  crack,  while  cold 
water  cloths,  or  swabs,  put  round  the  hoof  every  night,  have  the  best 
effect  of  anything,  that  I  know  of,  in  making  the  hoof  grow.  To 
counteract  the  brittle  nature  of  the  hoof,  a  mixture  of  one  part  of 
green  tar,  and  three  parts  hard  fat,  or  palm  oil,  melted  together  (see 
Appendix),  and  applied  round  the  top  of  the  hoof  twice  a  week,  will 
also  be  found  to  answer  admirably.  A  great  many  writers  are  against 
this  application,  but,  from  my  own  experience,  I  recommend  its  use. 

195.  Seedy  Toe. — This  arises  from  a  morbid  action  of  the  secreting 
surface  of  the  sensitive  laminae,  inducing  the  formation  of  degenerate 
horn  (which  has  a  crumbling,  sawdust  appearance,  or  when  moist,  is 
of  a  cheese-like  nature),  and  causing  a  separation  of  the  laminae  from 
the  outer  wall  of  the  hoof,  along  with,  when  extensive,  a  bulging  out 
of  the  wall  at  the  part.  It  is  due  to  some  injury  done  to  the  foot — • 
such  as  laminitis,  or  too  much  pressure  by  the  clip  of  the  shoe — and 
is  mostly  found  at  the  toe  of  the  fore  foot,  but  may  occur  at  other  parts 
of  the  hoof  as  well.  The  hind  foot  may  also  be  affected.  When 
seedy  toe  is  suspected,  the  shoe  should  be  removed,  and  all  the 
degenerate  horn  cleared  out  with  a  fine-pointed  shoeing  knife,  then 
some  stimulating  dressing  should  be  applied,  nothing  being  better  than 
the  tar  ointment  recommended  for  Sandcrack  (par.  194).  Tar,  by 
itself,  must   never    be    used,   as    it  is   too  stimulating,  and   causes  a 


crumbling  of  the  horn.  In  examination  for  soundness,  the  shoe 
should  be  taken  off,  as  the  morbid  horn  can  only  be  found  on  the 
removal  of  the  shoe. 

196.  False  Quarter  is  the  result  of  some  extensive  damage  done 
to  the  coronary  band,  or  horn  secreting  body,  from  such  as  stabs, 
treads,  quittor,  &c.  It  is  known  by  a  thin  layer  of  modified  brittle  horn 
on  the  hoof,  chiefly  on  the  sides,  when  the  parts  are  constricted,  and 
form,  where  it  is  connected  to  the  ordinary  horny  hoof,  rifts  or  furrows, 
(resembling  sandcracks)  on  each  side  ;  and  at  times  it  may  overlap 
the  normal  part.  A  horse  with  false  quarter  may  work  equally  as  well 
as  one  with  a  good  sound  foot,  and  without  showing  signs  of  lameness 
if  properly  shod  ;  but  great  care  is,  however,  necessary  in  shoeing. 

197.  Thrush  is  the  term  apphed  to  a  foetid  discharge  from  the  cleft 
of  the  frog,  varying  in  character.  Some  formations  of  feet  are  more 
prone  to  this  than  others.  It  is  generally  produced  by  the  animal 
standing  in  a  wet,  filthy  stable  or  box,  and  can  exist  without  causing 
any  lameness  whatever  ;  in  fact,  I  cannot  call  to  mind  a  single  case  of 
lameness  that  could  be  attributed  to  thrush.  If  neglected,  however, 
it  may  run  on  until  it  implicates  the  sensitive  parts,  and  destroys  the 
healthy  growth  of  horn.  A  change  on  to  good  dry  bedding,  in  the 
first  instance,  bathing  the  parts  nightly  with  salt  and  water,  and 
dressing  with  equal  parts  of  Iodoform  and  Charcoal  mixed  and  pressed 
into  the  bottom  of  the  frog  cleft  with  a  flat  stick — or  squeezing 
a  little  calomel  into  the  cleft — will  generally  have  the  desired  effect. 
Neglected  thrush  may  run  on  into  that  formidable  disease  called 

198.  Canker. — This  is  a  morbid  fungoid  growth  of  horn  at  the 
bottom  of  the  foot,  implicating  the  sensitive  sole.  It  may  be  produced 
by  injuries,  also  by  standing  in  a  filthy,  wet  stable,  or  box,  &c.  ;  greasy- 
legged  horses  being  very  prone  to  it.  Instead  of  the  ordinary  horn, 
little  soft,  spongy,  sprouting  growths,  of  a  greyish  white  appearance, 
are  seen,  which  bleed  on  the  slightest  touch.  It  is  usually  first  noticed 
in  the  commissures  involving  the  bars  and  frog,  and  it  may  extend  all 


A     Signifies  Fore-foot  Shoe. 
B     Signifies  Hind-foot  Shoe 


over  the  sole,  and  affect  one  or  more  feet,  but  it  seldom  causes  much 
lameness.  Being  of  a  very  formidable  nature,  it  is  very  difficult  to 
treat,  and  should  never  be  tampered  with  by  amateurs.  The  animal 
must  at  once  be  put  into  a  dry  box,  as  moisture  encourages  the 
spongy  growths,  which  develop  rapidly.  I  have  been  most  successful 
with  daily  dressings  of  powdered  alum  and  dry  tow,  kept  in  place  by 
a  thin  plate  of  iron  screwed  on  to  a  special  shoe,  at  the  same  time 
placing  the  animal  on  dry  engine  ashes  instead  of  straw,  and  promptly 
removing  all  wet  matters,  such  as  foeces,  urine,  &c.,  as  soon  as 
evacuated  or  observed. 

199.  Treads  and  Over-reaches. — These  are  caused  by  the  hind 
foot  over-reaching  on  to  the  heel  or  quarter  of  the  fore  foot,  or  by  one 
foot  treading  on  its  fellow.  Washing  the  parts  well  with  clean  cold 
water,  removing  all  jagged  edges  of  the  wound,  with  a  pair  of  sharp 
scissors,  and  dressing  with  carbolised  oil,  will  be  found  to  answer  in 
ordinary  cases.  Should  the  underlying  parts  be  damaged,  and  the 
animal  go  tenderly,  and  show  pain,  cold  water  cloths  or  poultices  must 
be  applied  until  the  inflammation  is  reduced. 

200.  Navicular  Disease,  commonly  called  Groggy  Lameness, 

may  be  defined  as  inflammation  and  ulceration  of  the  tendinous  or  inferior 
articular  surface  of  the  navicular,  or  shuttle,  bone,  situated  at  the  back 
of  the  coffin  or  pedal  joint  ;  or  it  may  be  produced  by  laceration  of  the 
fibres  of  the  tendons  passing  over  the  bone,  to  its  insertion  in  the  floor 
of  the  coffin  bone,  setting  up  inflammation  and  adhesion  of  the  parts. 
It  invariably  occurs  in  the  fore  feet,  affecting  chiefly  horses  of  the  light- 
legged  class,  and  is  in  many  cases  due  to  hereditary  causes.  Injury 
from  fast  work,  on  hard  roads,  is  another  frequent  cause  ;  but  by  far  the 
most  common  cause  is  keeping  horses  in  the  stable,  day  after  day, 
without  exercise,  then,  on  taking  them  out,  giving  them  too  much  quick 
travelling,  thus  lacerating  the  tendon,  and  setting  up  inflammation. 
Generally,  the  first  symptom  noticed  is  the  horse  pointing  first  one 
foot  and  then  the  other, — that  is  if  both  are  affected — so  as  to  ease 
the  tendon  as  it  passes  over  the  acute  angle  of  the  bone  ;  but  this 
pointing  must  be  confirmed  by  other  symptoms.     When  brought  out 


of  the  stable,  the  animal  affected  digs  the  point  of  the  toe  into  the 
ground,  stepping  in  a  short  and  stilty  manner,  until  it  gets  warmed 
up,  when  it  goes  fairly  well.  The  shoe  is  also  much  worn  away  at 
the  toe,  and,  as  a  rule,  the  feet  are  very  strong,  high  heeled,  and 
contracted  [see  Plate  XL,  No.  2).  Owing  to  the  constant  irritation 
within  the  foot,  there  is  an  extra  growth  of  horn,  giving  a  box- 
like appearance  to  the  hoof.  The  disease  is  rarely  cured,  yet 
an  animal  can  be  made  to  do  a  great  amount  of  work  by  careful 
attention  to  the  feet,  such  as  frequent  shoeing,  shortening  the  toe, 
and  dressing  the  sole  thin,  to  relieve  pressure,  thus  removing  the 
overgrowth  of  horn,  and  by  shoeing  with  the  India-rubber  bar  pad 
and  short  shoe.  Further,  applying  cold  water  swabs,  nightly,  round 
the  feet,  and  turning  the  animal  into  a  loose  box,  instead  of  allowing 
it  to  stand  in  the  stall,  also  gives  relief.  Blistering,  frog  setons,  and 
unnerving,  are  also  useful,  but,  as  above  stated,  the  disease  is  rarely 
cured.  As  a  preventive,  however,  never  allow  the  animal  to  stand 
in  a  stall  for  days  without  exercise.  If  this  cannot  be  given,  turn  it 
into  a  loose  box. 

20I.  Laminitis. — Inflammation  of  the  sensitive  laminae  of  the  feet 
is  commonly  called  Founder.  The  disease,  which  more  frequently 
affects  the  fore  than  the  hind  feet,  is  a  very  formidable  one.  It  has  a 
great  variety  of  causes,  such  as  drinking  cold  water,  standing  in  a 
draught,  or  getting  too  much  oatmeal  and  water,  when  the  animal  is 
heated  ;  over-feeding  with  boiled  wheat,  or  Indian  corn,  or  gorging  with 
oats  or  potatoes  ;  travelling  on  snow ;  galloping  on  a  hard  road  ; 
applying  a  too  hot  shoe  to  the  fool,  when  shoeing  ;  the  effects  of  too 
large  a  dose  of  physic,  or  from  inflanmiation  shifting  from  one  part  of 
the  body  to  another  (metastasis)  ;  or  by  the  retention  of  the  afterbirth, 
in  mares,  after  foaling,  &c.  It  may  be  acute,  sub  acute,  or  chronic.  The 
Symptoms  noticeable  are  that  the  animal  is  very  unwilling  to 
stir,  the  body  is  thrown  backwards,  putting  the  weight  on  to  the 
hind  legs,  which  are  "propped"  well  forward  under  the  belly,  while 
the  fore  legs  are  extended  well  in  front.  {Plate  XVI.)  It  moves 
with    great    difficulty    and    reluctance,    walking  on    its    heels.       In 




t— i 




c    . 




acute  cases,  the  breathing  is  heavy  and  hurried,  perspiration 
rolls  off  the  body,  eyelids  are  red,  nostrils  distended,  pulse  full  and 
hounding,  and  the  animal  stands  persistently,  rarely  lying  down.  The 
Treatment  consists  of  placing  the  patient  in  a  loose  box,  removing 
the  shoes,  putting  the  feet  into  hot  or  cold  water  bran  poultices, 
which  must  be  kept  constantly  wet,  and  moving  the  horse  frequently 
round  the  box.  The  cause  must  also  be  ascertained.  If  from  over- 
feeding, a  pmt  of  linseed  oil  should  be  given,  while,  in  some  cases, 
blood-letting  is  highly  necessary,  and  very  beneficial.  If  from  an 
overdose  of  physic,  doses  of  carbonate  of  soda — one  ounce  each— may 
be  given  in  well-boiled  thin  oatmeal  gruel.  If  retention  of  the 
cleansing  is  the  cause,  the  membranes  must  be  carefully  removed,  as 
the  smallest  piece  of  the  after-birth  left  in  the  womb  of  the  mare  soon 
undergoes  decomposition,  and  the  septic  material  is  readily  absorbed 
and  carried  through  the  system,  and  in  many  cases  induces  Laminitis 
of  a  septic  character  ;  therefore,  the  womb  must  be  washed  out  by 
means  of  an  injection  of  six  quarts  of  tepid  water,  containing  one 
ounce  tincture  of  iron,  or  some  other  antiseptic,  while  antiseptic 
medicine  should  be  administered  {see  Appendix).  Finally,  round 
rocker  shoes,  as  described  under  "Shoeing"  (par.  178,  No.  6— Plate 
XV.,  No.  6),  must  be  put  on.  At  times,  in  severe  cases  of  laminitis, 
the  foot  has  to  be  opened  at  the  toe,  to  let  out  the  effused  material,  as 
it  is  so  great  in  some  cases,  especially  those  neglected  at  the  first,  that, 
if  not  liberated,  it  causes  the  sole  to  come  down,  producing  great 
deformity  of  the  foot.  Founder  is,  therefore,  by  no  means  a  fit  case 
for  an  amateur  to  dabble  with,  and  should  have  professional  attendance 
from  the  first.  In  severe  cases  of  laminitis,  the  foot  becomes  elongated 
at  the  toe,  the  point  of  the  coffin  bone  is  dislodged  and  drops  down  to 
the  sole  of  the  foot,  and  numerous  irregular  (ribbed)  rings  form  round 
the  hoof.  {See  Plate  XIII.,  C.  and  D.)  Rings,  however,  are  also 
formed  round  the  hoof  from  irregular  nutrition,  caused  by  frequently 
changing  the  animal  from  a  grazing  pasture  to  the  stable,  but  these 
rings  are  more  regular,  and  are  seen  on  all  the  four  feet. 


THE    COW. 

202.  The  Foot  of  the  Cow,  like  that  of  the  horse,  is  made  up  of 
sensitive  and  non-sensitive  tissue  ;  but,  unHke  the  horse,  the  foot  is 
"  cloven,"  i.e.,  divided  into  two  sections  or  toes,  each  containing 
three  bones,  thus  showing  six  small  bones  in  the  foot,  instead  of  three 
as  in  the  horse.  The  non-sensitive  or  horny  part  is  secreted  and 
attached  to  the  sensitive  structures,  similarly  to  that  of  the  horse, 
only  the  laminae  and  villi  are  much  finer.  The  foot  of  the  cow  at  the 
heel  is  deeper,  more  upright,  stronger,  and  broader  at  the  sole  than 
the  foot  of  the  horse,  while  the  claws  are  pointed  and  twist  slightly 
towards  each  other.  The  Wall  is  convex  on  the  outer  part,  and  at 
the  toe  makes  a  very  acute  and  strong  turn  inwards,  and  runs  back 
in  wavy  lines  on  the  inner  aspect  of  the  claw,  where  it  is  met  by  the 
portion  winding  round  the  heel,  to  which  it  is  united  by  a  section  of 
horn  springing  up  from  the  sole — this  is  well  defined  in  the  foot  of  the 
sheep.  The  Horny  Sole  is  flatter  and  smoother  than  in  that  of  the 
horse,  and  is  partially  overlapped  at  the  heels  by  the  wall.  Unlike 
the  horse,  the  cow  has  no  Frog. 

203.  The  cow  is  not  nearly  so  subject  to  disease  of  or  injury  to  the 
foot  as  the  horse.  Great  lameness  is,  however,  often  induced  by 
foreign  bodies,  such  as  pieces  of  iron,  slate,  stone,  wood,  &c.,  getting 
between  the  digits,  and  nails,  wire,  and  sharp  bodies  are  frequently 
found  in  the  sole  of  the  foot.  Therefore,  in  all  cases  of  lameness  the 
foot  should  be  carefully  washed,  and  the  sole  scraped  and  examined, 
and  if  foreign  bodies  are  met  with  they  must  be  removed,  and  the  foot 
put  into  a  cold  water  and  bran  poultice  for  a  day  or  two,  keeping  the 
poultice  moist  by  dashing  cold  water  over  it  three  or  four  times  a  day. 

204.  Foul  in  the  Foot  is  the  most  common  foot  affection  with  the 
cow,  and  consists  of  an  irritative  inflammation  and  ulceration  between 


tlie  digits,  usually  caused  by  the  animal  standing  in  a  filthy,  wet 
box,  or  yard,  or  on  soft,  wet,  marshy  pastures  ;  and  although  I  have 
seen  hundreds  of  cases,  I  have  never  yet  met  with  one  that  could  be 
said  to  arise  from  scrofulous  or  specific  influence.  There  is  acute 
lameness  present,  and  the  foot  is  swollen  round  the  top  of  the  hoof, 
and  there  is  also  a  strong  fceted  smell,  with  ulcerated  sores  of  the  soft 
tissues  between  the  digits.  The  worst  cases  have  been  caused  by 
rough  treatment  and  the  application  of  strong  caustics,  and  I  must 
here  strongly  condemn  the  barbarously  cruel  treatment,  of  pulling  a 
rough  rope  between  the  toes,  and  applying  Butyr  of  Antimony.  This 
latter  dressing  burns  and  destroys  the  parts,  bringing  on  what  is 
termed  "  Bastard  Fotils.''  I  have,  on  many  occasions,  seen  the  bones 
laid  bare  with  such  brutal  treatment.  Simple  soothing  applications 
are  all  that  are  necessary.  The  Treatment  for  Foul  in  the  Foot  is 
very  simple.  The  beast  should  be  removed  to  a  clean  thoroughly  dry 
box  ;  the  parts  washed  with  cold  water,  containing  phenyle,  or  some 
disinfectant,  and  dressed  with  carbolic  oil  and  tow  ;  and  the  foot 
poulticed  for  a  day  or  two  with  bran  and  cold  water,  to  which  a 
tablespoonful  of  carbolic  acid  has  been  added.  This  in  ordinary 
cases  is  all  that  is  required.  But  when  the  ulceration  is  more  extensive, 
and  after  the  inflammation  has  been  reduced  with  the  poultice,  the 
sores  must  be  dressed  with  caustic  powder  {see  Appendix)  and  a  pledget 
of  tow,  smeared  with  the  tar  ointment  {see pay.  794),  should  be  inserted 
and  held  in  its  place  by  a  bandage  put  round  the  top  of  the  foot  and 
between  the  digits,  like  the  figure  of  8,  and  this  gives  great  support. 

205.  Ulcerations  and  damage  of  a  very  serious  character  are  also 
caused  by  Foot  and  Mouth  Disease.  In  many  cases  the  bones  are 
entirely  bare,  through  this  disease,  so  that  repairs  to  the  damaged 
parts  are  most  difficult  to  accomplish.  {See  Eighth  Lecture,  on 
"  Circulation  ").  The  Treatment  for  it  is  similar  to  that  for  "  Foul  in 
the  Foot  "  {par.  204). 

206.  Laminitis. — Founder,  or  Ivjlammaiion  of  the  Sensitive  Tissues  of 
the  Foot,  although  of  frequent  occurrence  in  the  horse,  is  rarely 
seen  in  the  cow,  yet  I  have  had  several  cases,  arising  trom  the  after 


effects  of  difficult  parturition;  also  from  metastatic  inflammation,  i.e. 
inflammation  shifting  from  one  part  to  another,  as  from  the  mammary 
gland  to  the  feet.  Unlike  the  horse,  the  patient  is  inclined  to  lie 
continually,  while  there  is  great  difficulty  in  getting  it  on  to  its  feet, 
when  great  pain  is  evinced,  with  but  slight  constitutional  disturbance. 
Treatment. — Cold  water  pouhices  must  be  applied  to  the  feet,  and 
the  antiseptic  fever  medicine  {see  Appendix)  given  night  and  morning. 

207.  Sore  Feet. — This  is  occasionally  seen  where  cows  have  been 
driven  long  distances  on  a  hard  road — not  so  common  now-a-days 
as  formerly.  Treatment  :  Wash  the  feet  with  some  antiseptic  wash 
{see  Appendix),  cover  the  damaged  part  with  a  small  portion  of  tar,  and 
then  turn  the  animal  into  a  clean  loose  box,  or  good  pasture.  If  great 
lameness  is  present,  with  heat  in  the  foot,  poultice  for  a  day  or  two 
with  cold  water  and  bran. 

208.  Interdigital  Growths  {Fibromata)  are  sometimes  met  with, 
and  are  mostly  seen  in  front,  at  the  top,  and  between  the  digits. 
When  they  get  large  they  cause  the  claws  to  spread  apart,  and  produce 
lameness.  Treatment. — The  animal  must  be  cast,  and  the  tumour 
cut  out  with  a  sharp  knife,  and  the  part  dressed  with  antiseptic  wool 
and  tar  ointment  {par.  794),  kept  in  place  with  figure  of  8  bandage 
{par,  204.) 

209.  Overgrown  Hoofs.— Animals  kept  on  soft  litter — bulls  in 
particular — are  subject  to  this.  The  walls  of  the  hoof  grow,  turn 
on  to,  and  overlap  the  sole,  while  the  toes  get  to  great  length.  This 
overgrowth  rarely  or  ever  causes  lameness,  yet  interferes  with  the 
walking  of  the  animal.  All  that  is  required  is  to  shorten  the  toes  with 
the  Feet  Shears  {Plate  LI.,  No.  2),  then  with  a  rope  over  a  beam 
pull  up  the  foot,  and  with  a  shoeing  knife  dress  off  the  overlapped  wall 
from  the  sole. 


210.  The  foot  of  the  sheep  in  conformation  is  closely  analogous  to 
that  of  the  cow. 

211.  Foot  Troubles  and  Disease  in  Sheep. — Like  cows,  sheep 
are  subject  to  foreign  bodies  getting  fixed  between  the  digits,  to  stabs  or 


pricks  in  the  sole  of  the  foot,  to  ulceration  from  foot  and  mouth  disease, 
to  excoriation  of  the  skin  round  the  band  of  the  hoof  and  between  the 
claws,  to  excessive  travelling  on  hard  roads,  and  to  inflammation  of 
the  blind  duct  or  canal,  found  in  the  front  of  each  sheep's  foot.  When 
lameness  is  observed,  the  foot  should  be  carefully  examined  and 
dressed  where  required,  as  recommended  for  the  cow  {par  203).  The 
commonest  ailment  the  feet  of  sheep  are  subject  to  is  Foot  Rot. 

212.  Foot  Rot  in  Sheep. — From  long  observation,  I  believe  this 
disease  to  be  yexy  inoculative  ;  it  is  most  frequently  seen  amongst 
heavy,  well-bred,  and  well-fed  sheep,  folded  on  long  luxuriant 
grasses,  and  on  soft  velvety  turf.  These  take  too  little  exercise  to  wear 
away  the  ground  surface  of  the  crust  of  the  hoof,  which  gets  too  long, 
turns  round,  overlaps  and  presses  the  sole,  setting  up  inflammation, 
and  the  formation  of  matter,  sometimes  at  the  band  of  the  foot,  at 
other  times  at  the  sole,  or  between  the  digits.  The  matter  formed 
separates  the  horn  from  the  sensitive  parts,  when  dirty-looking  sores 
and  sprouty  growths  are  developed.  Sheep  affected  with  foot  rot  should 
on  no  account  be  taken  on  to  a  farm,  or  amongst  a  flock  where  the 
disease  has  never  existed.  I  could  relate  case  after  case,  where  the 
malady  has  been  carried  in  this  way.  Some  pastures  are,  however, 
more  prone  to  the  developement  of  the  disease  than  others,  while  on 
the  bare  rocky  mountain  slopes,  and  the  gritty  sandy  banks  adjoining 
the  sea,  the  malady  is  seldom,  if  ever,  seen. 

213.  The  Treatment  for  Foot  Rot  is  to  first  separate  the  lame 
sheep  from  the  sound  ;  next  have  the  lame  ones  turned  up,  and  their 
feet  examined  and  dressed  every  fifth  or  sixth  day.  All  dead  or  broken 
horn  should  be  carefully  dressed  off"  with  a  sharp  knife,  being  careful 
not  to  cut  too  deep  or  make  the  part  bleed,  then  the  sores  should  be  dressed 
with  a  strong  solution  of  blue  vitrol  or  crude  carbolic  acid,  or  a  mixture 
of  equal  parts  of  the  two,  and  the  sheep  so  treated  should  be  turned  on 
to  some  sharp  fallow  for  three  or  four  hours  every  day.  When  the 
disease  is  verj'  rife,  and  a  large  number  of  sheep  are  affected,  a  strong 
solution  of  sulphate  of  copper  may  be  put  into  a  trough  and  the  sh.eep 
driven  through  it  every  fourth  or  fifth  day.     Arsenic  is  also  used  in 


a  similar  way  ;  but  I  strongly  advocate  the  spreading  of  crushed  rock 
salt  to  about  four  inches  thick  on  the  floor  of  a  good-sized  open  shed 
or  loose  box,  and  the  animals  being  put  in  to  paddle  amongst  it  three 
or  four  hours  every  day.  To  prevent  the  occurrence  of  this  complaint, 
the  sheep  ought  to  be  turned  on  to  some  good,  sharp  fallow,  for  three 
or  four  hours  daily. 

THE    DOG. 

214.  The  dog's  foot  differs  very  materially  from  that  of  the  horse, 
cow,  and  sheep,  by  having  four  toes  and  horny  appendages  or  claws — 
with  a  fifth,  or  dew-claiv,  on  the  inner  side  of  the  leg,  a  little  above  the 
foot.  Strange,  this  fifth  appendage,  or  dew-claw,  is  found  on  the  fore 
leg  of  dogs  of  ever}'  class,  but  not  often  seen  on  the  hind  limbs,  and 
are  mostly  observed  on  curs,  retrievers,  and  mongrel-bred  dogs,  and 
sometimes  they  are  double.  All  sporting  dogs,  however,  are,  as  a  rule, 
exempt  from  them.  These  dew-claws  are  sometimes  attached  to  the 
jimb  merely  by  the  skin — or  by  a  bony  connection.  The  ground  surface 
of  the  dog's  foot  is  protected  by  five  firm  dense  elastic  pads,  one 
under  each  toe  and  one  at  the  back  ot  the  foot. 

215.  Dev^^-Claws. — These,  when  large,  should  be  cut  off  the  hind 
legs,  as  they  are  of  very  little  use  and  apt  to  get  torn,  and  cause 
troublesome  sores  ;  they  are  readily  removed  by  clipping  them  off  with 
a  pair  of  sharp  scissors  or  bone  forceps.  Stop  the  bleeding  with  a  pad 
of  medicated  cotton  wool  and  bandage  and  leave  this  on  for  24  hours  ; 
then  leave  the  wound  to  the  antiseptic  dressing  of  the  dog's  tongue. 

216.  The  Claws. — Dogs  that  are  petted,  and  pass  the  principal 
part  of  their  time  trotting  about  on  carpets,  have  their  claws  growing 
to  such  a  length  that  in  some  cases  the  horny  toe  turns  round  and  up, 
and  penetrates  the  pad  at  the  bottom  of  the  foot,  causing  great  pain, 
lameness,  and  inflammation.  When  this  is  observed,  the  feet  should 
be  put  into  warm  water  to  soften  the  horn,  and  the  extra  growth  of  the 
nails  clipped  off  with  a  pair  of  strong  scissors  or  a  pair  of  hand- spring 
pruning  shears. 


217.  The  Pads  of  the  Foot  are  subject  to  injuries  from  prods  and 
cuts,  with  nails,  thorns,  glass,  &c.  The  foot  should  be  carefully 
examined,  and  if  any  foreign  body  is  found  it  must  be  removed,  and 
the  parts  washed  with  a  solution  of  chinosol  or  izal.  If  much 
inflammation  be  present,  put  on  a  linseed  meal  poultice  and  muzzle 
the  dog  for  24  hours  or  more,  then  dress  the  woimd  with  tincture 
of  benzoin  once  or  twice  a  da}'. 

218.  The  Interdigital  Space  sometimes  becomes  excoriated  and 
inflamed,  and  when  this  is  seen  wash  the  feet  with  izal  or  chinosol 
solution  night  and  morning,  and  dust  the  sores  with  a  little  fine 
powdered  fuller's  earth. 

219.  Sore  Feet.— At  the  beginning  of  the  season,  when  the  feet  of 
sporting  dogs  are  soft,  they  are  apt  to  become  tender  and  sore,  in  which 
case  they  should  be  well  washed,  cleared  of  all  grit  and  dirt,  and  then 
dressed  with  oil  of  cloves,  creasot,  or  tincture  of  iron  ;  but  as  a  rule  the 
dog  has  more  confidence  in  the  antiseptic  treatment  of  his  own 
tongue,  which  generally  answers  much  better  than  any  application 
that  may  be  used. 

THE     PIG. 

220.  It  is  not  often  that  veterinary  aid  is  requested  to  examine  and 
treat  injuries  and  diseases  of  the  feet  of  the  pig  ;  yet,  like  the  cow  and 
the  sheep,  foreign  bodies,  such  as  stones,  bones,  wood  and  nails, 
occasionally  become  fixed  between  the  digits,  but,  as  a  rule,  these  can 
be  removed  by  the  owner  or  his  servant.  When  Foot  and  Mouth 
Disease  was  rife,  pigs  were  great  sufferers  from  the  malady,  more 
particularly  sucking  pigs,  and  when  made  to  move,  it  was  pitiable  to 
hear  them  scream  and  to  see  them  pick  up  their  feet.  The  excoriation 
and  ulceration  round  the  top  and  between  the  digits,  were  in  many  cases 
very  extensive,  and  so  severe  was  the  pain  that  many  died  from  sheer 
exhaustion.  The  Treatment  was  clean  dry  bedding,  with  drachm 
doses  of  chlorate  of  potash  in  the  food,  night  and  morning,  for  adult 
animals,  also  dressing  the  feet  with  antiseptic  lotion,  made  with  a 
weak  solution  of  sulphate  of  zinc,  or  sulphate  of  copper  and  carbolic 
acid,  which  was  sprayed  over  the  feet  with  a  syringe,  twice  a  day. 




221.  As  some  of  the  organs  of  digestion  of  non-ruminants,  and  those 
of  ruminants,  present  marked  differences  from  one  another,  and  the 
derangements  and  diseases  to  which  they  are  subject  are  still  more 
dissimilar,  I  shall  deal  with  the  stomach  and  bowels  of  each 
separately,  while  the  accessory  organs  of  digestion,  with  their  diseases, 
will  be  considered  in  Part  II. 

222.  With  reference  to  the  Horse,  the  digestive  organs  consist  of — 

ist. — The  Mouth. — This  comprises  the  lips;  the  cheeks;  the  hard 
palate,  or  roof,  (Plate  XVII.,  No.  1 )  which  is  in  the  form  of 
ridges,  or  bars,  running  from  side  to  side,  between  the  upper 
molar  teeth,  with  a  longitudinal  line  in  the  middle;  the  soft 
palate,  at  the  back  of  the  mouth — a  sort  of  dense  curtain, 
hanging  between  the  mouth  and  throat,  which,  from  its  size, 
does  not  allow  the  horse  to  breathe  through  the  mouth  ;  the 
tongue,  and  the  teeth.  Owing  to  the  importance  of  the  last- 
named,  they  are  specially  dealt  \yith  in  a  separate  lecture 
(Lecture  VII. — The  Teeth.)  The  mouth  is  also  lined  by 
mucous  membrane. 

2nd. — The  Salivary  Glands  (situated  in  the  region  of  the  mouth. — 
There  are  three  pairs  of  these,  namely,  the  parotid  glands,  (Plate 
XVIII.,  Fig.  D.J  just  below  each  ear  ;  the  sublingual, 
underneath  the  tongue  ;  and  the  sub-maxillary  below,  and 
within  the  angle  of  the  lower  jaw.  There  is  also  situated,  in 
the  mucous  lining  of  the  mouth,  the  labial,  buccal,  and  mucous 






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3rd.— The  Pharynx,  or  throat  (Plate  XVII.,  No.  4;.— This  is  a 
muscular  tube,  Hned  by  mucous  membrane,  and  connects  the 
mouth  with  the  oesophagus. 

4th.— The  (Esophagus,  or  gullet  (Plate  XVII.,  No.  5;.— This  is  the 
canal  which  leads  from  the  throat  to  the  stomach,  is  lined  by 
mucous  membrane,  and  the  walls  are  made  up  of  longitudinal 
and  circular  involuntary  muscle  and  connective  tissue. 

5th.— The  Stomach,  (Plate  XVII.,  No.  6)  is  the  connecting  medium 
between  the  gullet  and  small  intestine.— It  inclmes  to  the 
left  of  the  anterior  portion  of  the  abdominal  cavity.  The 
stomach  of  the  horse  is  very  small  compared  with  the  size  of 
the  animal,  and  greatly  resembles  a  bag-pipe  in  shape.  It 
has  three  coats  ;  outside  serous  ;  middle  muscular,  of  three 
sections;  and  inside  mucous,  of  two  parts,  i.e.,  one  white 
cuticular,  resembling  the  surface  skin,  and  connected  with  the 
opening  of  the  gullet,  which  enters  the  stomach  on  the  left 
side,  by  the  cardiac  orifice;  the  other,  pale  pink,  villous  or 
velvety,  on  the  right  side  of  the  stomach,  and  this  is  the 
true  digestive  portion,  being  continued  into  the  small  intestine, 
by  the  opening  termed  the  pyloric  orifice. 

6th.— The  Small  Intestine  of  the  Horse  (Plate  XVII. ,  No.  9). 

This  comprises  the  duodenum,  2  feet  long;  the  Jejunum,  30  feet 
long  ;  and  the  ileum,  40  feet  long.  The  total  capacity  of  the 
small  intestine  is  estimated  to  be  about  11  gallons. 

7th.— The  Large  Intestine  of  the  Horse  (Plate  XVII.,  Nos.  10, 
n,  and  12). — This  is  divided  into  the  OBCum,  or  blind  gut, 
(commonly  called  the  water  bag,)  3  feet  long,  having  a  capacity 
of  4  gallons  ;  the  colons,  large  and  floating,  20  feet  long,  with 
a  capacity  of  12  gallons  ;  and  the  rectum,  which  is  the 
termination  of  the  intestinal  canal,  2  feet  long,  and  with  a 
capacity  of  3  gallons.  The  estimated  average  length  of  a 
horse's  intestines  is  97  feet,  and  total  capacity  30  gallons. 
Like  the  stomach,  the  walls  of  the  intestines  have  three  coats  : 


the  outside  serous  ;  middle  muscnlav  (longitudinal  and  circular) ; 
the  inside  covered  with  epithelium  and  a  mucous  membrane, 
and  well  studded  throughout  with  various  glands. 

223.  Besides  the  above-named,  which  are  found  not  only  in  the  horse, 
but  also  in  the  pig  and  dog,  and  in  a  general  sense  also  in  cattle  and 
sheep,  there  are  also  the  accessory  digestive  organs,  that  perform 
functions  which  assist  digestion,  that  is  to  say,  they  convert  the 
food  into  such  a  state  that  it  can  be  absorbed  and  taken  into  the 
blood,  and  conveyed  to  the  different  parts  of  the  system,  to 
be  assimilated  for  nourishment.  {See  Eighth  Lecture,  Circulation — the 
Lymphatic  System.)  Such  accessory  digestive  organs  are  the  Liver; 
the  Spleen  ;  the  Pancreas,  or  sweetbread  ;  and  the  Portal  Vein  ; 
all  of  which  will  be  further  noticed  under  the  Digestive  Organs, 
Part  II. 

224.  The  Processes  of  Digestion  are  as  follows,  and  in  the  order 
given  : — 

ist, — The  food  is  taken  into  the  mouth  ;  in  tlie  horse,  it  is  gathered 
in  by  the  mobility  of  the  upper  lip,  called  the  prehensile 
property,  when  it  is  siezed  by  the  incisors  or  front  teeth. 

2nd. — It  is  then  pushed  between  the  back  (molars)  teeth  by  the 
tongue  ;  the  cheeks  assist  the  tongue  in  keeping  it  there, 
while  it  is  masticated,  or  chewed,  by  these  teeth. 

3rd. — During  this  process  of  Mastication,  the  salivary  glands  pour 
out  saliva  (an  alkaline  fluid,  secreted  from  the  blood).  This 
moistens  the  food,  thus  making  it  easier  to  swallow,  and,  also, 
acts  chemically  on  a  small  proportion  of  the  starchy  matter, 
converting  it  into  sugar,  by  the  action  of  a  special  ferment 
in  the  saliva. 

4th. — The  food,  having  been  well  masticated,  is  formed  by  the  tongue 
and  cheeks  into  a  bolus,  which  is  passed  to  the  back  of  the 
mouth,  where  it  is  seized  by  the  action  of  the  muscles  of  the 


pharynx,  and  pressed  into  the  gullet,  down  which  it  is 
propelled,  by  the  progressive  contraction  of  the  involuntary 
muscular  fibres  of  that  canal,  into  the  stomach. 

5th. — In  the  stomach,  it  is  mixed  with  gastric  juice — a  fluid  of  an 
acid  character — which  again  acts  chemically  upon  it.  For 
the  better  accomplishment  of  the  process,  the  food  is  being 
constantly  rolled  about,  or  "  churned,"  by  the  action  of  the 
different  muscular  coats  of  this  organ.  The  flesh-forming 
matters — albuminoid  portions,  or  pvoteids — are  here  converted 
into  the  more  soluble  peptones,  and  a  portion  of  the  nutritive 
elements  is  absorbed,  and  carried  into  the  portal  vein,  and 
thence  to  the  liver^;  while  the  rest  of  the  food  is  converted  into 
a  soft-soap  like  material  called  chyme. 

6th. — The  chyme  is  next  passed  on  into  the  small  intestine.  Here 
it  is  met  by  the  bile  (which  the  liver  is  constantly  secreting), 
the  pancreatic  juice,  or  intestinal  saliva  (formed  by  the 
pancreas),  and  by  the  juices  of  the  various  small  intestinal 
glands.  The  pancreatic  juice,  which  is  alkaline,  and  somewhat 
resembles  saliva,  has  a  powerful  action  on  fats,  converting 
them  into  a  such  a  form  that  they  are  capable  of  being 
absorbed,  while  the  bile  assists  in  the  emulsification  of  the 
fats.     The  bile  also  appears  to  act  as  a  natural  purgative. 

7th. — The  different  kinds  of  food  having  now  been  acted  upon  by  the 
fluid  secreted  by  the  salivary  glands  and  stomach,  i.e.,  saliva 
and  gastric  juice,  as  well  as  by  the  bite,  pancreatic,  and  intestinal 
fluids,  the  chyme  is  converted  into  a  milky  emulsion,  called 
chyle.  While  this  process  is  going  on,  a  portion  of  the  new 
material  is  absorbed  by  the  vessels  of  the  intestines,  and 
carried  to  the  portal  vein,  and  so  to  the  liver. 

8th. — By  the  action  of  the  muscular  walls  of  the  bowels,  the  cliyk  is 
forced  along  the  intestinal  track,  when  numerous  little 
bodies  called  villi,  which  are  studded  all  over  the  lining 
membrane,  select  more  of  tlie  available  nutritive  material. 


and  this  is  carried  by  the  lymphatic  vessels  into  a  receptacle, 
lying  under  the  backbone,  in  the  lumbar  region,  and  called 
the  Receptaculum  Chyli ;  here  it  meets  with  other  material 
absorbed  from  the  posterior  parts  of  the  body,  and,  along 
with  this,  is  carried  by  the  Thoracic  Duct  into  the  blood, 
b}'  one  of  the  Veins  (just  before  it  enters  the  right  side  of 
the  heart),  and,  by  means  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  is 
then  distributed  to  all  parts  of  the  body. 

gth. — The  unabsorbed  residue,  being  that  which  is  indigestible,  or  in 
excess  of  requirements,  passes  along  the  intestines,  and  is 
expelled  by  the  rectum,  as  faeces. 

225.  I  may  here  mention  that  a  horse  should  never  be  watered  after 
feeding,  as  it  has  a  very  small  stomach.  It  is  generally  believed  that 
if  you  give  a  feed  of  oats,  and  then  a  drink  of  water,  in  close 
succession,  the  water  will  wash  the  oats  in  front  of  it  right  along  the 
72  feet  of  small  intestines  into  the  cwcuin,  or  blind  gut.  The  food  has 
therefore  no  chance  of  being  digested,  consequently  fermentation 
occurs.  Whether  this  is  so  or  not  ma}'  be  an  open  question,  but  from 
the  smallness  of  the  stomach,  there  can  be  no  hesitation  is  stating  that 
a  horse  can  drink  more  water  at  a  time  than  would  fill  that  organ  ; 
therefore,  it  is  a  safe  rule  always  to  give  water  before  feeding.  In 
cold  weather,  let  the  horse's  drinking  water  stand  in-doors  for  some 
hours  before  use,  to  take  the  "  chill  "  off,  and  then  give  from  half  to 
one  pailful,  or  so,  before  its  food. 


226.  The  Lips  of  animals  are  liable  to  many  injuries,  as  they  may  get 
torn  with  nails,  hooks,  thorns,  &c.  ;  and  are  also  subject  to  warts,  or 
angle-berries.  These  growths,  if  large,  may  be  cut  off  with  a  knife, 
or  pair  of  scissors  ;  if  very  small  and  numerous,  an  application  of 
acetic  acid,  twice  a  week,  may  be  found  beneficial.  The  angles  of  the 
mouth  are  occasionally  lacerated  in  the  horse  by  the  rough  usage 
of  the  bit— for  this,  rest  and  the  application  of  some  antiseptic  dressing 
is  all  that  is  required. 

227.  The  roof  of  the  mouth  is  often  also  the  seat  of  injury.  In 
cows  and  dogs  particularly,  pieces  of  turnip,  wood,  nails,  leather,  bones, 
tin,  &c.,  are  apt  to  become  fixed  here.  The  animal  foams  at  the 
mouth,  cannot  feed,  and  loses  flesh.  When  such  symptoms  are  shown, 
a  close  examination  should  be  made,  and  if  there  is  a  foreign  body, 
it  should  be  removed  at  once.  When  a  horse  is  casting  its  front  teeth, 
or  nippers,  the  gums  and  bars,  behind  the  upper  teeth,  usually  become 
swollen.  It  does  not  feed  well,  and  is  said  to  have  got  Lampas,  or  more 
commonly  "  Lampers."  Long  ago,  a  lamper  iron  used  to  be  ke[)t  by 
blacksmiths.  This  was  made  red-hot,  and  the  inflamed  bars  were 
burned  ;  but  it  was  a  most  unnecessary  and  cruel  operation.  The 
congested  gums  are  only  the  natural  effects  of  shedding  the  milk  teeth. 
If,  however,  the  gums  are  very  much  swollen,  a  few  slight  cuts  with  a 
sharp  knife  across  the  bars — but  not  too  deep — will  give  relief;  and 
half  an  ounce  of  saltpetre,  in  a  mash,  should  be  given  every  night  for 
a  week.     {See  Lecture  VII. — The  Teeth). 

228.  The  Soft  Palate  of  the  horse  (or  fleshy  curtam,  which  hangs 
behind  the  hard  palate)  is  occasionally  damaged,  from  various  causes. 
For  instance,  it  may  get  bruised  when  a  ball  is  given  on  the  sharp  end  of 

a  stick,  and  this  may  cause  troublesome  abscesses.  Balls  should  never 
be  given  on  sticks.  Use  the  hand,  failing  which,  a  balling  gun,  or  a 
balling  iron,  may  be  used.  ' 

229.  Lower  Jaw, — The  space  between  the  corner  nippers  and  the 
first  molar  teeth,  in  young  horses,  when  being  broken  in  to  work,  is 
frequently  injured,  by  the  use  of  a  big  heavy  breaking  bit,  particularly 
when  the  horse's  head  is  bridled  in  too  tight,  and  the  bones  at  this  part 
are  in  many  cases  so  much  damaged  that  pieces  flake  off — exfoliate — 
or  have  to  be  removed  by  an  operation.  The  parts  so  injured  must  be 
dressed  once  a  day,  with  antiseptic  lotion  {see  Appendix),  and  the  bit 
should  be  kept  out  of  the  mouth,  until  the  parts  are  healed. 

230.  The  Tongue,  which,  in  the  horse,  is  much  broader  at  the 
point  or  apex  than  in  the  cow,  has,  in  all  animals,  important  functions 
to  perform,  being  the  organ  of  taste,  and  also  helping  the  animal  to 
swallow,  &c.  It  is  a  fine,  delicate,  muscular  organ,  well  supplied  with 
nerves,  and  extremely  sensitive.  It  is  very  easily  injured  through  ill- 
treatment  whilst  being  handled  by  ignorant  people,  when  it  is  liable  to 
be  torn,  become  paralyzed,  and  mortify  ;  or  it  may  even  be  pulled  out. 
The  entire  horse,  "  Pickpocket,"  for  instance,  had  his  tongue  torn  away 
while  being  given  a  ball.  This  happened  on  the  groom  taking  hold 
of  the  tongue,  when  the  horse  reared  up,  and  left  a  large  portion  of 
the  tongue  in  the  man's  hands.  On  two  occasions,  I  have  had  to  cut 
about  four  inches  off  the  end  of  the  tongue  of  a  horse,  through  its  being 
damaged  ;  one  being  too  much  pulled  on  giving  a  ball,  the  other  by 
putting  on  a  twitch.  In  each  case  the  member  was  partially  paralyzed, 
and  hung  out  of  the  mouth,  and  was  so  much  nipped  and  bitten  by 
the  front  teeth — incisors — that  it  became  quite  black,  and  mortified. 
It  was  cut  off  at  the  line  of  demarcation,  and  did  well ;  but  afterwards, 
on  drinking,  both  animals  plunged  their  heads  up  to  the  eyes  in  water 
before  they  could  suck  any  up. 

231.  Glossitis,  or  inflammation  of  the  tongue,  ma}'  be  due  to  injuries 
of  various  kinds,  such  as  putting  a  twitch  on  the  tongue — -which  ought 
never  to  be  done, — or  giving  strong  medicinal  agents,  undiluted. 
Inflammation  of  the  tongue  may  also  arise  from  some  unforseen  cause, 

A    B 





Temporal  Artery. 


Bile  Duct. 


Branch  of  Facial  Nerve. 


The  Stomach. 


Sub-maxillary  Artery  Vein  and 



Parotid  Duct. 


Posterior  Aorta. 


Parotid  Gland. 


Posterior  Vena  Cava. 


Division  of  Jugular  Vein. 


Right  and  Left  Kidneys 


Trachea  or  Windpipe. 

.  i.i- 







Anterior  Vena  Cava. 


Portion  of  the  Rectum. 


Lobes  of  Lungs — Three  on  right ; 



Two  on  Left. 


Cowper's  Glands. 


The  Heart. 



a.a.    The  Diaphragm. 


Urethra  laid  open. 

6.-    Lobes  of  the  Liver. 


Fossa  in  Glans  Penis. 


and  I  have  seen  this  occur  on  several  occasions,  both  in  horse  and 
cow,  when  the  inflammation  has  been  so  extensive,  and  the  tongue  so 
much  swollen,  and  so  hard,  that  the  mouth  was  pressed  open  with  the 
tongue  protruding  out  of  the  front  of  the  lips  for  four  or  five  inches, 
while  saliva  ran  from  the  mouth,  and  the  animal  breathed  with  great 
difficulty,  being, in  fact,  so  threatened  with  siiffocation  that  tracheotomy 
had  to  be  performed.  These  cases  are,  as  a  rule,  not  noticed  until  the 
disease  is  so  far  advanced  that  there  is  no  chance  of  any  successful 
treatment,  for  the  mouth  is  so  full  with  the  swollen  tongue  that  medicine 
cannot  be  administered.  Treatment:  In  such  cases,  the  tongue  has  to 
be  scarified — that  is,  cut  by  plunging  a  lancet  or  a  very  sharp  pen-knife 
into  the  protruding  portion,  and  the  mouth  washed  with  boracic 
antiseptic  lotion — (see  Appendix), — the  lotion  being  injected  into  the 
mouth  with  an  enema  syringe.  The  tongue,  in  many  instances,  also 
becomes  hard  or  indurated  from  chronic  inflammation  of  its  substance 
and  when  in  this  state  has  to  be  scarified  with  the  lancet,  and  dressed 
daily  with  tincture  of  iodine. 

232.  The  Fraenum — the  guide  or  bridle  of  the  tongue — is  the 
membrane  by  which  the  tongue  is  attached  to  the  lower  jaw,  and 
occasionally  it  is  torn  by  the  bit  getting  under  the  tongue,  and  being 
roughly  pulled  at  by  the  rider  or  driver.  I  have  seen  some  bad  cases 
of  this  kind.  For  Treatment:  Keep  the  bit  out  of  the  mouth  until 
the  parts  are  healed,  and  wash  the  mouth,  night  and  morning,  with  the 
boracic  acid  lotion  (see  Appendix.) 

233.  Ulcers  on  the  tongue  are  sometimes  met  with  in  the  horse, 
and  are  generally  due  to  injuries  occasioned  by  the  sharp  edges  or 
irregular  wear  of  the  teeth.  Cows  and  sheep  suffer  from  this  even 
more  than  horses  (see  Digestive  Organs,  Part  II. — Foot  and  Month  Disease.) 
For  Treatment  :  Wash  the  mouth  with  the  boracic  acid  lotion,  and,  if 
the  teeth  are  at  fault,  dress  with  the  tooth  rasp.  (Lecture  VII. — Teeth.) 

234.  Dogs  and  Cats  frequently  pick  up  needles  and  pins,  or  sharp 
bones,  which  penetrate  the  tongue.  The  animal  shov^^s  signs  that 
something  is  wrong  in  the  mouth,  by  rubbing  the  floor  with  the 
cheeks,  or  poking  the  side  of  the  face  with  the  fore  paws,  the  saliva, 


at  the  same  time,  running  from  the  mouth.  When  this  is  noticed, 
examine  and  remove  the  offending  object.  A  common  cause  of  injury 
to  the  tongues  and  mouths  of  horses  and  cattle  is  due  to  the 
administration  of  drugs — such  as  turpentine  and  ammonia — in 
unsuitable  vehicles.  Turpentine  should  be  given  in  linseed  oil, 
or,  if  oil  is  not  handy,  milk  makes  a  good  substitute,  or  it  may 
be  beaten  up  with  eggs  and  water.  Never  give  turpentine  in  cold  water  ; 
but  ammonia,  on  the  other  hand,  should  be  diluted  with  plenty  of 
cold  water,  when  administered.  If  strong  ammonia  has  been 
administered  by  mistake,  wash  the  mouth  out  with  vinegar  and  water. 
Spirits,  such  as  whisky,  should  always  be  diluted  with  the  same  quantity 
of  cold  water,  for  I  have  known  of  extensive  injury  having  been  done 
to  the  mouth,  by  giving  raw  spirits.  The  tongues  of  horses  and 
cattle  are  often  injured  by  thorns,  pins,  needles,  bones,  or  broken 
teeth  ;  and  are  also  affected  by  morbid  growths,  such  as  actinomycosis. 

235.  Actinomycosis,  or  wooden  tongue,  is  developed  from  the  '■'■ray 
fungus,''  a  small  vegetable  organism.  It  usually  attacks  the  thick  part  of 
the  tongue,  also  the  bones  of  the  upper  and  lower  jaw,  but  the  tongue 
is  the  principal  organ  affected.  In  the  cow,  which  is  the  animal  most 
subject  to  the  malady,  as  the  case  progresses,  the  patient  will  be 
found  rolling  that  organ  about,  holding  its  nose  slightly  up  when 
attempting  to  swallow,  and  seeming  to  have  great  difficult}^  in  getting 
the  food  passed  between  the  molar  teeth,  or  rolled  about  for  mastication. 
Saliva  also  flows  freely  from  the  mouth,  the  patient  loses  flesh  rapidly, 
but,  as  a  rule,  is  not  hidebound  ;  and,  on  examining  the  mouth,  the 
tongue  is  found  to  be  very  much  enlarged,  and  hard  in  places,  causing 
considerable  loss  of  power. 

236.  In  the  Treatment  of  actinomycosis,  iodide  of  potassium,  given 
in  two-drachm  doses,  night  and  ujorning,  in  a  pint  of  cold  water  ; 
scarifying  the  tongue  with  a  sharp  knife  ;  and  also  applying  tincture  of 
iodine  to  the  indurated  parts,  occasionally  has  a  good  effect,  but,  from 
my  experience,  the  sooner  the  beast  is  slaughtered  the  better.  One 
peculiar  case  I  had  was  a  cow  that  was  losing  flesh  very  fast.  Her 
lower  jaw  was  constantly  on  the  move,  and  the  tongue  was  hanging 


partly  out  of  the  mouth,  as  if  paralyzed.  Saliva  flowed  freely,  and 
there  was  frothing  round  the  lips,  presenting  in  fact  all  the  symptoms 
of  something  sticking  amongst  the  teeth,  or  in  the  tongue,  or  an  attack 
of  actinomycosis  ;  but  examination  showed  that  neither  was  the  case. 
At  times  she  fed,  but  swallowed  with  great  difficulty;  never  chewing  the 
cud,  and  occasionally  vomiting  the  food.  I  ordered  herto  be  slaughtered, 
when  a  large  darning-needle  was  found  sticking  in  the  passage  between 
the  second  and  third  stomachs.  Yet,  the  animal  neither  swelled,  nor 
had  any  cough. 

237.  Stomatitis  Pustulosa. — Young  calves,  five  or  six  weeks  after 
birth,  also  sheep  and  lambs,  occasionally  suffer  from  small  enlarge- 
ments, resembling  carbuncles,  which  form  on  the  tongue  and  on  the 
inside  of  the  cheeks,  terminating  in  ulcers,  with  thick  granular  matter 
at  the  bottom  of  them.  Occasionally  the  outside  of  the  cheeks  are 
enlarged,  when  a  quantity  of  frothy  saliva  flows  from  the  lips,  and  the 
little  animal  does  badly.  These  enlargements  are  thought  by  many 
to  be  due  to  drinking  hot  milk.  On  looking  into  the  mouth,  ulcers  will 
be  seen  on  the  mside  of  the  cheeks,  corresponding  with  the  enlarge- 
ments on  the  outside.  Treatment  :  When  the  thick  granular  matter 
is  seen,  it  should  be  scooped  out,  and  the  wounds  dressed  with  tincture 
of  iron  and  water,  or  boracic  acid  lotion,  while  30  grains  of  chlorate 
of  potash  may  be  given,  with  advantage  in  the  milk,  night  and  morning; 
or  table-spoonful  doses  of  Parishes'  food,  which  is  recommended  to  be 
given  once  a  day,  with  two  table-spoonfuls  of  cod-liver  oil.  The  external 
application  of  iodine  ointment  {see  Appendix)  to  the  enlargements, 
generally  has  good  effect. 

238.  Aptha  or  Thrush. — Young  calves  and  lambs  are  also  subject 
to  this  complaint.  On  examining  the  mouth,  sometimes  numerous 
small  blebs,  or  vesicles  are  seen,  filled  with  a  thin  watery  fluid,  which 
leave  little  ulcers  when  they  burst.  In  other  cases,  the  mouth  is 
very  red  and  hot,  with  the  mucous  lining  peeling  off,  and  this  prevents 
the  young  animals  from  sucking  and  feeding,  while,  in  cases  of  the 
lamb,  it  sometimes  affects  the  teats  of  the  dam,  and  sets  up  inflammation 
of  the    udder.       Thrush    is   generally    thought    to    be   due    to  some 


derangement  of  the  digestive  organs.  Treatment  :  For  lambs,  two 
scruples  each  of  carbonate  of  magnesia,  carbonate  of  soda,  powdered 
rhubarb  and  powdered  ginger,  should  be  given  in  a  little  cold  water, 
night  and  morning;  and  for  calves,  double  the  above  dose  may  be 
given,  also  the  mouth  should  be  washed  with  the  boracic  lotion,  two  or 
three  times  a  day  (see  Appendix).  Further,  place  blocks  of  rock  salt  on 
the  pastures,  for  the  animals  to  lick,  or  in  the  manger  for  the  calves. 

239.  The  Pharynx,  or  throat,  (Plate  XVII.,  No.  4)  Uke  the  mouth 
and  tongue,  is  subject  to  injuries  of  many  kinds.  For  example, 
the  horse  may  choke  by  some  food  sticking  just  at  the  top  of  the 
gullet ;  or  pharyngitis  may  occur.  This  is  sometimes  the  effect  of  some 
foreign  body  irritating  the  pharynx  ;  at  others  it  is  the  accompaniment 
of  a  severe  cold.  When  the  throat  becomes  much  congested  and 
inflamed,  the  animal  is  unable  to  swallow,  and,  on  attempting  to 
drink  water,  a  portion  is  returned  through  the  nostrils.  If  the 
inflammation  is  at  all  persistent,  the  chances  are  that  the  horse  will 
ultimately  become  a  "  roarer."  In  very  severe  cases,  where  the 
effusion,  or  cedema,  has  so  swelled  the  inside  of  the  throat  that  there 
is  a  danger  of  asphyxia,  tracheotopiy  has  to  be  performed.  This  is  done 
by  cutting  out  a  portion  of  two  rings  of  the  windpipe,  in  front,  and 
inserting  a  tube,  suitable  to  the  size  of  the  animal.  Treatment  :  In 
cases  of  a  mild  character,  stimulating  embrocations,  or  mild  blisters — 
[see  Appendix) — may  be  applied  round  the  throat,  from  the  root  of  one 
ear  to  the  root  of  the  other,  and  three-drachm  doses  of  chlorate  of 
potash,  with  two  table-spoonfuls  of  treacle,  should  be  given  in  a 
sloppy  mash  of  bran,  night  and  morning.  Some  years  ago,  I 
had  a  very  severe  case,  which  had  been  under  the  care  of  an 
unqualified  man,  who  treated  it  for  influenza.  On  examination,  I 
found  a  large  thorn,  composed  of  three  branches,  the  middle  one  about 
ten  inches  long,  and  the  two  shorter  ones  each  about  seven  inches  in 
length,  sticking  in  the  throat.  This  I  pulled  out,  after  it  had  been  there 
three  weeks;  but  the  animal  eventually  turned  a  "roarer,"  when  I 
performed  tracheotomy.  The  horse  is  still  alive,  is  wearing  the  tube, 
has  done  well  ever  since,  and  worked  daily  for  the  last  twelve  years. 


240,  Cattle  —  particularly  shorthorns  —  suffer  very  much  from 
scrofulous  or  tubercular  abscesses,  or  masses  of  matter,  between  the 
back  of  the  throat  and  neck  bones — post-pharyngeal  abscesses.  These 
cause  the  animal  to  make  a  great  noise — a  kind  of  snoring — in  the 
breathing,  so  much  so,  at  times,  that  tracheotomy  has  to  be  performed, 
thus  allowing  free  respiration,  until  the  abscess  is  ready  to  open, 
which  may  be  done  through  the  mouth.  I  have  operated  on  a  number 
of  these  cases  through  the  mouth,  with  the  small  finger  Embryotomy 
knife.  As  soon  as  the  patient  is  better,  it  should  be  fattened  right 
away,  and  sent  to  the  butcher.  Tumours,  with  long  necks — polypi — are 
also  found  m  the  throat,  producing  somewhat  similar  symptoms  to  the 
abscesses  just  described,  but  they  are  readily  twisted  out  by  the  hand. 

241.  Choking. — Some  horses,  especially  those  that  are  greedy 
feeders — if  the  com  is  not  carefully  spread  out  on  the  bottom  of  the  manger — 
will  take  too  big  a  mouthful,  and  choke  themselves.  Sometimes  a 
piece  of  turnip  or  potato  sticks  in  the  gullet,  but  this  is  very  rare  in 
the  horse.  The  symptoms  of  choking  in  the  horse  are  rather  peculiar ; 
the  animal  stands  in  a  crouching  position  with  the  hind  legs  forward 
under  the  belly,  while  the  head  and  neck  are  extended,  and  saliva 
flows  from  the  mouth,  the  nose  is  pointed  up  and  straight  out,  with 
the  back  of  the  head  seemingly  pulled  backward  and  down  giving  a 
remarkable  convexity  to  the  lower  portion  of  the  neck.  The  action  of 
the  muscles  of  the  neck  every  now-and-again  gives  the  impression  that 
the  patient  is  trying  to  eject  the  lodgment,  and  the  horse  occasionally 
gives  a  peculiar  scream,  and  falls  down  on  the  knees.  In  this  case,  all  that 
can  be  reached  by  the  hand  must  be  removed,  and  the  animal  given  a 
drench  of  warm  water,  or,  better  still,  thin  oatmeal  gruel,  which  induces 
the  action  of  the  gullet.  Cattle,  however,  are  more  subject  to  choking 
than  horses.  They  foam  at  the  mouth,  and  soon  begin  to  swell  up  on 
the  left  side,  switching  the  tail  and  stamping  the  feet,  and  this  action 
is  accompanied  by  diarrhoea.  Treatment  :  If  the  obstruction — 
usually  a  potato  or  turnip — can  be  felt,  an  attempt  should  be  made  to 
work  the  foreign  substance  up  again  into  the  mouth,  by  putting  one 
arm  round  the  cow's  neck,  and  with  the  fingers  on  each  side  of  the 


gullet,  below  the  offending  body,  pressing  it  firmly  and  forcibly  into  the 
mouth.  If  this  method  does  not  succeed,  and  the  object  cannot  be 
withrawn  by  the  hand,  the  turnip-rope  may  be  used.  This  should 
always  be  done  very  carefully,  and  not  in  a  hurry,  especially  if  the 
animal  resists.  Should  there  be  a  quantity  of  gas  in  the  stomach, 
and  the  patient  much  swollen,  it  may  die  a  mechanical  death,  owing 
to  the  pressure  of  the  the  gas  on  the  diaphragm,  the  lungs,  and  heart, 
before  it  can  be  relieved.  If  there  is  any  likelihood  of  this  happening, 
the  stomach  must  be  punctured,  so  as  to  liberate  the  gas.  This  may  be 
done  with  a  trocay  and  canula,  or,  in  extreme  cases,  even  with  a  knife, 
by  plunging  it  into  the  stomach,  half-way  between  the  last  rib  and  the 
haunch-bone,  on  the  left  side,  then  turning  it  crosswise,  when  the  gas 
will  rush  out.  A  little  treacle  and  brown  paper,  placed  over  the  opening 
in  the  side,  as  soon  as  the  knife  is  withdrawn,  is  all  that  is  required  for 
the  wound  made,  and  it  is  seldom  that  any  bad  effects  follow.  1  have 
met  with  cases  where  the  offending  body  has  dropped  into  the  stomach, 
after  the  pressure  of  the  gas  was  removed. 

242.  The  CEsophagus,  or  gullet,  is  subject  to  stricture  and 
dilatation,  as  well  as  to  the  formation  of  tubercular  tumours  ;  and  to 
injuries  by  pins,  wires,  and  needles  becoming  fixed.  All  these  cause 
periodical  swellings  on  the  left  side,  the  same  as  in  choking,  and  are 
very  troublesome.  The  probang,  or  turnip-rope  may  be  passed  several 
times  a  day,  but  the  treatment  scarcely  ever  produces  satisfactory 

243.  Derangement  of  the  Stomach  of  the  horse  arises  from  many 
causes,  such  as  injudicious  feeding,  or  over-feeding  with  too  much  badly 
cooked  food,  as,  for  example,  boiled  wheat  and  barley,  neither  of  which 
should  be  left  to  cool  and  then  warmed  up  again — a  common  and 
very  dangerous  practice  with  many — as  it  turns  sour  and  ferments. 
Wheat  and  barley  should  always  be  used  newly  boiled.  Another  cause 
of  stomach  derangement  arises  from  the  animal  bolting  the  food  without 
chewing  it,  thus  preventing  the  food  being  properly  mixed  with  the 
salivary  secretions,  and,  consequentl}^  fermentation,  or  generation  of 


gases  takes  place,  which  may  even  distend  the  stomach  till  it  ruptures. 
Colicky,  griping  pains  may  be  present  ;  but  occasionally  cases  are  met 
with  when  no  such  symptoms  are  shown,  the  animal  standing  quite 
still,  hanging  its  head,  blowing  fast,  and  having  its  stomach  greatly 
distended.  If  this  is  not  quickly  relieved,  the  mechanical  pressure 
of  the  gas  may  cause  death  by  suffocation.  Treatment  :  In  such  cases, 
at  the  commencement,  one  or  two  ounces  of  bicarbonate  of  soda 
should  be  given  in  a  pint  of  water,  with  half  a  pint  of  whisky  ;  this 
may  neutralize  the  gas,  and  give  the  stomach  a  fillip  as  well ;  or  two  to 
four  ounces  hypo-sulphite  of  soda  dissolved  in  one  pint  of  cold  water, 
given  with  two  ounces  of  essence  of  ginger  has  a  good  effect.  Should 
this  not  give  relief,  then  the  gas  will  have  to  be  drawn  off  with  a  fine 
trocar  and  caniila  (Plate  LI.,  No.  5)  which  has  to  be  passed  in,  on  either 
side  (preferably  the  right),  between  the  last  rib  and  haunch  ;  on  the 
trocar  being  removed,  the  gas  escapes  through  the  cannla,  giving 
instantaneous  relief.  This  operation  should  be  done  by  a  professional 

244.  Rupture  of  the  Stomach. — This  fatal  lesion  is  occasionally 
the  result  of  some  of  the  causes  named  in  the  preceding  paragraph  (No. 
243),  and  may  take  place  with  or  without  inflammation.  In  old 
subjects  it  is  thought  to  be  due  to  degeneration  of  the  walls  of  the 
stomach,  but  one  of  the  principal  causes  is  when  the  stomach  is  much 
distended  with  gas  from  fermentation  of  the  food,  and  the  patient 
throws  itself  about,  as  in  colic.  When  the  rupture  takes  place,  there 
is  a  sudden  and  great  prostation  of  the  animal,  breathing  is  short  and 
quick,  nostrils  are  dilated,  a  cold  clammy  perspiration  bedews  the 
body,  accompanied  by  trembling  and  quivering  of  the  muscles, 
particularly  of  the  fore  limbs,  heavy  sighs,  and  seeming  fear  to  move,  in 
fact  the  animal  stands  obstinately  until  it  drops  and  dies.  Sometimes 
volumes  of  gas  are  to  be  seen  regurgitating  up  the  gullet  towards  the 
mouth,  and  in  some  cases  there  is  an  attempt  to  vomit,  but  I  have  met 
with  several  cases  where  both  regurgitation  of  gas  and  vomiting  have 
been  seen  without  any  rupture,  and  the  cases  have  recovered.  When 
rupture  takes  place,  nothing  can  be  done  ;  the  great  point  is  to  try  to 
prevent  it.     First  and  foremost  try  judicous  feeding,  then,  when  cases 


of  intestinal  disturbance,  with  colicky  pains  and  gas  distention  of  the 
belly  are  observed,  lose  no  time  in  getting  the  patient  relieved,  by 
administering  the  medicinal  agents  named  in  paragraphs  243  and  250. 
{See  also  appendix.) 

245.  Stomach  Staggers  in  the  Horse.—  In  hot,  dry  weather, 
more  particularly  on  hilly  ground,  where  there  is  a  second  year's 
growth  of  rye  grass,  the  horse  is  sometimes  attacked  with  this  malady. 
As  in  cattle  suffering  from  the  same  complaint,  too  early  ripening  of 
rye  grass  is  supposed  to  be  the  cause.  The  horse  has  an  unsteady 
gait,  as  if  about  to  fall,  first  on  one  side,  and  then  on  the  other,  swinging 
its  head  backwards  and  forwards.  If  in  the  stable,  it  may  be  found 
with  its  nose  pressed  on  the  bottom  of  the  manger,  and  forehead 
against  the  wall,  or  steadying  itself,  with  the  nose  fixed  between  the 
bars  of  the  hay-rack.  The  breathing  is  slow  and  laboured,  and  the 
pulse  full  and  slow.  With  its  simple,  single  stomach,  the  horse  is 
much  better  to  treat  than  the  cow.  Treatment  :  From  four  to  six 
quarts  of  blood  may  be  taken,  to  relieve  the  acute  symptoms,  which, 
with  a  four  to  six  drachm  dose  of  aloes  {see  appendix — Physic  Balls) 
usually  sets  matters  right.     For  treatment  of  cow,  see  Part  II. 

246.  Indigestion  is  common  both  in  hor.-es  and  cattle,  but  more 
particularly  in  the  former,  especially  those  that  are  being  fed  up  for 
shows  or  for  the  market,  and  it  generally  occurs  from  over-feeding.  The 
horse  shows  no  pain,  but  simply  loses  its  appetite.  Treatment  : 
Give  3  drachms  of  aloes,  with  3  drachms  of  bicarbonate  of  soda,  in  the 
form  of  a  ball,  when,  if  the  animal  does  not  pick  up,  mineral  and 
vegetable  tonics  may  be  resorted  to.  (See  appendix.)  The  best  thing, 
however,  is  to  let  the  animal  find  out  its  own  tonic.  In  one  case 
which  came  under  my  care,  the  horse  had  been  given  all  sorts  of  tonic 
medicine  without  any  good  effect,  and  finally  selected  for  itself  the 
young  shoots  of  thorn  trees,  eating  these  with  a  great  relish,  whilst  it 
would  take  no  other  food,  unless  mixed  with  these.  They  were 
evidently  just  the  fillip  the  stomach  was  in  need  of;  the  tannic  acid 
contained  in  the  thorn,  being  the  very  thing  nature  required  ;  since 
that  time,  in  the  spring  and  summer  months,  I  have  used  them  with 


great  success,  chopping  them  up  and  giving  them,  mixed  with  dry  oats 
and  bran.  In  other  cases,  the  animals  will  fancy  the  green  parts  of 
gorse  (common  whins),  and  in  winter  or  early  spring,  when  an  animal 
— the  horse  in  particular — is  slowly  recovering  from  some  debilitating 
complaint,  such  as  influenza,  &c.,  and  very  shy  about  taking  its  food, 
whins  chopped  up  and  mixed  with  its  food  answers  splendidly,  or  a 
good  stem,  cut  with  a  quantity  of  bushy  sprigs  on  it,  hung  up  in  the 
box,  for  the  animal  to  pick  at  when  inclined,  will  induce  a  sickly  horse 
to  eat  when  all  other  things  have  failed. 

247.  Crib-biting  is  not  really  a  disease,  but  a  form  of  indigestion, 
or  merely  a  bad  habit.  The  horse  gets  hold  of  the  side  of  the  crib, 
the  bar  of  a  gate,  or  any  other  handy  object,  with  its  teeth,  and  by 
arching  its  neck,  gulps  in  air,  thus  filling  the  stomach  with  wind. 
This  habit  is  often  due,  in  the  first  instance,  to  idleness.  The  front 
portions  of  the  incisor  teeth  of  horses  with  this  habit  get  gradually 
worn  round,  but  this  is  also  seen  in  horses  that  bite  at  the  manger  or 
stall  on  being  groomed.  The  best  remedy  I  know  of,  is  to  use  the  new 
iron  fittings  (made  by  Musgraves,  Belfast)  in  which  the  front  of  the  crib 
is  of  iron,  and  too  broad  for  the  horse  to  get  a  hold  of.  Brick  troughs, 
with  a  broad  mould  on  the  top  ;  a  strap  round  the  neck  ;  or  feeding 
the  animal  from  the  ground,  are  all  useful,  and  worthy  of  a  trial. 

248.  Windsucking  in  the  horse  is  a  similar  complaint  to  crib- 
biting,  and  is  also  a  bad  habit.  To  testa  horse  for  windsucking,  the 
following  can  be  tried  : — Put  a  handful  of  soft  sugar  into  the  animal's 
mouth,  and  leave  it  for  ten  minutes  or  so.  If  a  windsucker,  you  will 
generally  find  it  standing  with  its  nose  elevated,  its  neck  strangely 
arched,  and  making  a  peculiar  and  distinctly  characteristic  noise,  or 
the  tongue  may  be  noticed  curled  and  protruding  in  front  of  the  lips, 
and  the  animal  sucking  for  dear  life.  Some  horses  only  show  the 
habit  when  a  sloppy  mash  is  given  to  them,  when  they  suck  in  the  air 
with  the  mash,  making  a  peculiar  noise.  Crib-biting  and  windsucking 
are  both  considered  an  unsoundness. 

249.  Ulceration  of  the  Stomach  is  happily  rare,  and  when  it 
occurs  there  are  no  positive  symptoms.     The  horse  does  not  vomit  in 



such  cases  as  does  a  human  being,  but  drops  o£f  its  food  ;  it  loses 
flesh,  shows  no  pain,  becomes  hide  bound,  with  a  staring,  dirty  coat  ; 
is  languid  ;  and  finally  dies.  Treatment  is  of  little  use.  Sub-nitrate 
of  bismuth  may  be  given  night  and  morning,  in  two  drachm  doses, 
with  vegetable  tonics ;  or  25  drop  doses  of  strong  hydrochloric  acid, 
in  one  pint  of  cold  water,  night  and  morning,  can  be  tried.  1  have 
seen  three  cases,  but  they  did  no  good  under  treatment. 

250.  Gastritis,  or  inflammation  of  the  stomach,  is  commonly 
caused  by  eating  rough,  coarse,  indigestible  food,  and  from  the  effect 
of  mineral  poisons,  such  as  arsenic,  or  mercurial  salts  ;  or  it  may  be 
induced  by  drinking  water,  charged  with  free  sulphuric  acid,  sulphate 
of  iron,  or  strong  alkalies  ;  or  by  feeding  on  mouldy  grain  ;  while,  at 
other  times,  it  is  due  to  worms  and  bots.  It  usually  proves  fatal  in 
a  very  short  time.  The  horse  shows  great  pain,  lying  down,  rolling 
about,  and  perspiring  freely,  with  no  intervals  of  rest  ;  the  nostrils 
dilating  widely,  and  are  red  inside  ;  the  under  side  of  the  eyelid  is  also 
dark  red  ;  the  breathing  is  fast  and  heavy  ;  whilst  there  is  an  anxious 
look  in  the  face.  The  animal  soon  becomes  exhausted,  trembling  all 
over,  with  cold  clammy  sweats,  and  finally  drops  and  dies.  Treat- 
ment :  To  relieve  the  pain,  four  ounces  of  laudanum,  in  a  pint  of 
linseed  oil,  may  be  given  at  once  ;  blankets,  wrung  out  of  hot  water, 
should  be  rolled  round  the  body,  with  a  piece  of  stair  carpeting 
wound  above  them.  But  professional  advice  ought  to  be  sent  for  at 
the  very  onset,  as  hypodermic  injections  of  morphia  and  atropine  are 
very  beneficial  in  this  complaint. 

251.  If  the  inflammation  and  subsequent  death  is  due  to  a  mineral 
poison,  such  as  arsenic,  or  to  strong  mineral  acids,  or  to  alkaline 
poison,  the  post  mortem  shows  the  inside  of  the  stomach  raised  up, 
swollen,  and  of  a  ripe  red  plum  colour  ;  ulcerations  may  also  be 
present,  whilst  the  pain  evinced  during  life  will  have  been  excruciating 
and  acute.  But  when  it  is  due  to  the  fungi  of  mouldy  grain,  the  pain 
is  slight,  with  occasional  colicky  pains,  and  a  quick  small  pulse.  The 
horse,  in  these  cases,  sometimes  fingers  on  for  days  in  a  dull,  listless, 
sickly  fashion,  occasionally  affected  with  partial  paralysis.     The  post 


mortem  exhibits  patches  of  congestive  inflammation  of  the  stomach,  and 
of  the  intestinal  canal.  In  vegetable  poisoning,  such  as  from  eating 
rhododendron,  yew,  &c.,  the  half-dried  twigs  of  which  are  more 
dangerous  than  the  green  growing  branches,  the  animal  exhibits  little 
or  no  pain,  but  suffers  greatly  from  sickness,  accompanied  by  coma, 
whilst  death  is  very  sudden.  Treatment  :  Give  half-pint  doses  of 
brandy,  mixed  in  one  pint  of  hot  coffee ;  or  a  table-spoonful  of 
carbonate  of  soda  and  one  wine-glassful  of  aromatic  spirits  of  ammonia, 
given  in  one  pint  of  cold  water,  every  five  or  six  hours,  and  followed  up 
by  one  pint  of  raw  linseed  oil.  The  post  moytem  in  cases  of  vegetable 
poisoning  reveals  the  lining  of  the  stomach  to  be  much  paler  than 
normal,  without  any  signs  of  inflammation,  unless  the  plants  are  of  an 
acrid  nature,  when  congestive  inflammatory  patches  are  seen. 
Further  reference  is  made  to  vegetable  poisoning  in  the  Sixth  Lecture 
— The  Digestive  Organs,  Part  II. 

252.  Bots  (Plate  XXXVII.,  Nos.  7,  8,  9J.- Amongst  horses  in  the 
country,  the  stomach  is  very  often  infested  with  these  small  grubs — 
the  larvae  of  the  gad-fly — (much  resembling  the  bumble-bee),  which 
deposits  its  eggs  at  hay  and  harvest  time,  in  little  yellow  tenacious 
spots  on  the  horse's  fore  legs  or  shoulders.  The  eggs  are  hatched  by 
the  heat  of  the  body,  and  this  causes  an  itching  sensation  at  the  root 
of  the  particular  hair  to  which  each  eo;g  is  attached  ;  in  consequence 
of  this,  the  horse  licks  the  parts,  and  the  ova,  thus  gaining  the  mouth, 
pass  into  the  stomach,  and  fasten  themselves  on  to  the  cuticular, 
rarely  the  villous,  portion  of  it.  It  is  only  in  the  horse's  stomach 
that  these  larvae  will  develop,  this  being  their  proper  winter  habitat. 
Here,  then,  the  ova  turn  into  larvae,  or  grubs,  which,  when  spring 
comes  again,  loosen  their  hold,  pass  away  with  the  faeces,  and  fall 
upon  the  ground,  when  they  turn  into  chrysalides,  and,  in  due  course 
of  time,  form  the  perfect  fly — CEstnis  Eqiii — ready  to  perform  another 
circular  tour.  A  large  number  and  variety  of  medicines  have,  from 
time  to  time,  been  tried,  }7et  there  is  no  real  known  remedy  for  bots. 
They  seldom  cause  the  death  of  a  horse,  as  nature  thickens  the  coats 
of  that  part  of  the  stomach  to  which  they  are  attached,  so  that  they 
cannot  get  through.     Sometimes,  however,  after  leaving  the  stomach, 

and  in  their  passage  through  the  intestines,  they  may  attach  themselves 
to  the  lining  membrane,  and  set  up  irritation,  and  inflammation  of 
the  bowels,  which  might  kill  the  horse.  When  present  in  large 
numbers,  and  attached  to  the  inner  coat  of  the  stomach,  they,  however, 
cause  the  horse  to  lose  flesh  greatly,  during  the  Winter  and  Spring 
months.  The  best  method  for  their  removal  is  to  give  the  anmial 
some  new  grass,  when  the  bots,  if  they  are  fully  developed,  seem 
to  realise  by  their  natural  instinct,  that  it  is  time  for  their  next 
transformation — that  is,  into  chrysalides — to  take  place,  and  begin  to 
pass  out.  (For  symptoms  and  treatment,  see  par.  254).  The  best 
preventive  to  be  adopted  is  to  run  a  horse-singeing  lamp  over  the  legs 
and  shoulders  of  the  horse,  in  harvest  time,  as  soon  as  the  little 
tenacious  yellow  spots  are  seen. 

2CO.  Worms. — Parasites  found  infesting  the  various  organs  and 
parts  of  the  bodies  of  domestic  animals  may  be  said  to  be  legion.  For 
a  full  description  of  the  diff'erent  kinds, their  names, habits, size, form, &c., 
Dr.  Fleming's  translation  of  Neumann's  Parasites  and  Parasitic  Diseases 
of  Domesticated  Animals  can  be  consulted  with  interest.  Some  of  the 
most  common  worms  found  in  the  intestines  of  the  horse  are  the 
Nematoda,  or  round  worms.  The  common  parasites  are — ist.  The 
Ascaris  Mcgalocephala  (Ascaris  Lnmbricoidcs),  a  large  round  white  worm 
varying  from  seven  to  sixteen  inches  long,  found  in  the  stomach  and 
small  intestine.  It  is  also  common  to  the  ass  and  mule.  2nd,  Oxynris 
Corvula,  a  small  curved  worm,  from  one  and  a  half  to  two  inches  long, 
thick  and  curved  at  the  front  with  a  fine  pointed  tail,  found  in  the  large 
intestine,  and  generally  known  as  the  maw-ivorm.  3rd,  The  Strongylus 
Armatus,  or  armed  strongyle,  a  straight  worm,  in  length  from  one  to  two 
inches,  and  although  mostly  found  coiled  up  in  the  walls  of  the  large 
intestine — Ccrcum  and  Colon, — and  in  the  intestinal  canal,  it  is  also 
found  in  the  blood-vessels,  scrotum,  &c.,  and  is  one  of  the  most 
numerous  of  the  parasites  found  in  the  horse.  4th,  Strongylus 
Tetracanthiis,  a  spindle-shaped  worm,  varying  in  size  up  to  one  and  a 
half  inches  in  length,  and  found  embedded  in  the  mucous  membrane  of 
the  intestinal  canal. 

254-  Any  one,  or  a  combination  of  the  above-named  worms  may 
be  present  in  large  quantities  in  tiie  alimentary  canal  without  causing 
any  disturbance  or  derangement  to  the  system,  and  without  any 
external  sign  to  denote  their  presence  ;  but  when  really  very  numerous 
they  cause  great  emaciation,  particularly  during  the  Winter  and  early 
Spring  months,  when  the  following  symptoms  may  be  noticed  :  Staring 
coat;  irregular  appetite  ;  dulness  ;  languor;  legs  trailed  on  moving  ; 
belly  tucked  up,  with  occasional  diarrhoea,  and  a  great  loss  of  flesh.  If, 
on  examination,  nothing  can  be  found  to  account  for  the  poor  anaemic 
condition  of  the  horse,  it  may  be  concluded  that  worms  are  the 
cause — more  particularly  if  the  animal  has  been  out  grazing  on  an 
unsound  pasture,  or  if  the  Autumn  months  have  been  wet.  Tape 
Worms  are  rarelj^  found  in  the  horse.  Treatment. — Two  ounces 
of  turpentine  mixed  with  one  pint  of  linseed  oil  can  be  given  every 
seventh  or  eighth  day — until  four  doses  are  given — and  in  the  interval, 
give  nightly  one  tablespoonful  each  of  flowers  of  sulphur  and  common 
salt.  When  the  animal  is  very  much  emaciated,  one  drachm  doses 
of  sulphate  of  iron  may  be  added  with  great  advantage  (see  Appendix)^ 
and  good  nutritious  food,  such  as  boiled  barley  and  bran,  eggs  and 
milk  mixed,  also  linseed  jellies  should  be  given,  with  milk  to  drink. 
The  strength  must  be  kept  up  by  nutritious  and  easy  digestible  foods. 

255.  From  personal  observation,  I  am  led  to  hold  the  opinion  that 
the  ova  or  eggs  from  which  some  of  these  parasites  are  developed  are 
deposited  on  the  ground,  along  with  the  dung,  during  the  Summer 
months,  and  that  they  undergo  some  transformation  outside  of  the 
body  of  the  host,  in  which  the}'  are  fully  developed.  For  after  wet 
seasons,  horses  out  at  grass  during  August  and  September  are  generally 
found  affected  with  worms  and  parasites,  which  show  their  effects  in 
W' inter  and  earl}'  Spring.  November  is,  therefore,  the  proper  time  to 
treat  such  cases,  before  they  become  too  well  developed.  One  table- 
spoonful  each  of  flowers  of  sulphur  and  common  salt  should  be  given 
in  a  mash  of  oats  and  bran,  once  every  day  for  a  fortnight,  both  in  the 
stable  and  at  grass.  The  land  on  which  the  animal  feeds  should 
be  dressed  with  a  quantity  of  roughly-crushed  rock  salt,  say  eight  to 
ten  cwt.  per  acre.     Although  salt  is  the  best  and  safest  germicide  we 


have  in  nature,  not  nearly  enough  of  it  is  applied  to  the  land.  Every 
year,  the  above  quantity,  at  least,  should  be  put  on  the  grazing  land, 
lea  ground,  and  the  meadows.  This  will  not  only  check  parasitic 
diseases  in  horses  and  cattle,  but  will  also  prevent  many  of  the  insect 
ravages  and  diseases  of  crops  ;  as  for  example,  anbury,  or  club  root,  in 
turnips.      But  to  do  good,  a  continued  aumial  application  is  required. 

256.  Colic  [Plate  XIX.,  A.)  is  of  two  kinds — Spasmodic  and  Flatulent, 
or  the  two  may  be  combined.  Spasmodic  Colic  is  caused  by  spasm 
or  cramp  of  the  muscular  coat  of  the  intestines,  more  particularly  the 
small  intestine.  It  arises  from  a  variety  of  causes,  such  as  drinking 
cold  water  when  the  animal  is  heated  ;  improper  food,  such  as  wet 
grass  ;  roots  ;  worms  ;  sudden  chills,  &c.  When  first  attacked,  the 
horse  wriggles  the  body  from  side  to  side  ;  sniffs  the  ground  ;  paws 
with  its  fore  feet  ;  cringes  on  its  hind  legs  ;  bends  its  knees,  and  then 
throws  itself  down  ;  rolls  about  ;  balances  itself  on  its  back  ;  perspires 
freely  ;  and  looks  back  at  its  side,  and  at  times  sits  on  its  haunches  like 
a  dog.  This  may  go  on  for  a  few  minutes,  or  half  an  hour,  when  the 
pain  leaves  the  animal  for  an  interval,  and  it  stands  or  lies  perfectly 
quiet.  In  a  short  time,  however,  the  pain  returns  again.  No  time 
must  be  lost  in  getting  relief,  as  injury  sometimes  follows  by  the  horse 
knocking  itself  about,  or  the  spasm,  if  severe,  may  eventually 
terminate  in  a  loop  or  knot  in  the  bowel,  or  it  may  be  telescoped, 
from  the  excessive  contraction  of  the  longitudinal  and  circular 
muscular  fibres  of  the  intestine.  Treatment  :  From  two  to  four 
ounces  of  laudanum,  along  with  two  ounces  of  turpentine,  in  a  pint  of 
linseed  oil,  may  be  given  at  once,  and  if  no  abatement  is  noticeable, 
repeat  half  the  quantity  of  laudanum  and  oil  in  half  an  hour.  Apply 
hot-water  blankets  to  the  belly,  and  give  warm  water  injections. 
Bleeding",  to  the  extent  of  six  to  eight  quarts,  has,  in  some  cases,  a 
very  beneficial  effect,  but  do  not  be  too  long  in  getting  professional 
assistance,  for  hypodermic  injections  of  morphia  and  atropine  are  here 
again  of  the  greatest  service   (see  Appendix). 

257.  Flatulent  Colic  is  caused  by  the  intestines  becoming  blown 
up    by    gas,    generated    from    the    fermentation    of   food,   and  occurs 



A.— HORSE    IN    COLIC. 



principally  in  the  large  intestines.  The  symptoms  greatly  resemble 
those  of  Spasmodic  Colic,  but,  in  addition,  the  animal  is  much 
swollen.  If  it  is  in  great  pain,  a  similar  draught  to  that  described 
under  Spasmodic  Colic  may  be  given,  and  tobacco  injections  thrown 
into  the  rectum.  (Unroll  from  eight  to  ten  inches  of  twist  tobacco, 
and  put  in  a  quart  of  boiling  water,  strain,  and  when  as  warm  as  new 
milk,  i.e.,  g8°  to  ioo°  F.,  give  as  an  enema).  If  this  does  not  give  relief, 
veterinary  aid  should  at  once  be  summoned,  when,  possibly,  the 
intestines  may  have  to  be  punctured  to  allow  the  gas  to  escape,  as  in 
Par.  243.  Sometimes  two  ounces  of  bi-carbonate  of  soda,  in  a  pint  of 
water,  with  half  a  pint  of  whisky,  will  be  found  to  answer  very  well, 
when  the  annual  is  not  fnuch  pained.  (Foy  further  Treatment,  see 
Appendix.)  Both  Flatulent'  and  Spasmodic  Colic,  if  not  attended  to, 
may  run  on  and  terminate  in  enteritis,  or  fatally. 

258,  Enteritis,  or  Inflammation  of  the  Bowels,  is,  as  a  rule, 
a  very  fatal  disease  in  the  horse,  death  frequently  taking  place  in  five 
or  six  hours.  The  symptoms,  at  the  onset,  are  much  the  same  as  those 
exhibited  in  colic,  with  this  exception,  that  in  enteritis,  there  are  no 
intervals  of  rest,  the  pain  being  continuous.  There  is  a  peculiar  dejected 
appearance,  and  an  anxious  expression  on  the  animal's  face ;  the 
nostrils  are  dilated,  and  very  red  inside,  and  excessive  perspiration 
covers  the  body,  followed  by  cold,  clammy  sweats.  At  length,  the 
pain  disappears,  the  animal  stands  quietly,  trembling,  and  sighing 
heavily ;  the  pulse,  which  at  first  was  full  and  bounding,  now  becomes 
small,  weak,  and  scarcely  perceptible,  when  the  patient  finally  drops 
and  dies. 

259.  Numerous  lesions  of  the  horse's  bowels  also  occur,  such  as 
large  clots  of  blood  found  between  the  outer  and  inner  walls  of  the 
intestines,  the  symptoms  of  which  are  of  a  sub-acute  nature.  Loops 
or  Knots  are  also  met  with,  and  in  these  cases  a  rent  has  been  made 
in  the  mesentery,  or  net — generally  caused  by  the  horse  rolling  and 
tossing  about  in  colic — and  through  this  a  portion  of  the  small 
intestine  is  pushed,  becoming  strangulated,  and  filled  with  dark, 
congested  bloody   fluid.     The   expression   of  pain,  in  such  cases,  is 


something  terrible  to  behold,  the  animal  being  dangerous  to  go  near. 
Again,  we  have  Twists  occurring,  where  one  portion  of  the  bowel  gets 
rolled  over  another  ;  but  the  pain  here  is  not  quite  so  violent  as  in 
Loops.  Occasionally,  through  the  presence  of  worms,  or  action  of  a 
spasm,  a  part  of  the  small  intestine  becomes  telescoped,  that  is,  drawn 
inside  the  neighbouring  part.  I  have  a  specimen  invaginated  to  the 
extent  of  23  inches  (Plate  XX.,  A).  Here  again,  the  pain,  though 
acute,  is  not  nearly  so  severe  as  in  Loops.  Tumours  m  the  mesentery 
are  sometimes  formed,  having  a  long  neck,  which  gets  twisted  round 
apart  of  the  small  intestine,  thus  producing  strangulation.  All  these 
are  accompanied,  as  I  have  said,  with  more  or  less  severe  colicky 
pains,  and,  as  a  rule,  terminate  fatally. 

260.  The  Treatment  for  Enteritis  and  lesions  in  the  intestines  is 
the  same  as  recommended  for  Gastritis  (par.  250),  while  hypodermic 
injections  of  morphia  and  atropine  are  most  to  be  depended  on. 
For  a  number  of  years,  I  have  noticed  in  lesions  of  the 
intestines,  that  about  an  hour  before  death  the  animal  commences 
to  walk  round  and  round  incessantly,  until  it  drops  and  dies,  which 
symptoms  I  have  not  seen  in  inflammation  of  the  stomach,  or 
bowels,  although  large  quantities-  of  opiates  have  been  given. 

261.  Large  Intestine. — I  have  frequently  met  with  cases  of  co/^^^s/m 
inflammation  of  the  lining  membrane  of  the  large  colon  in  which  the 
walls  of  the  intestine  become  intensely  thick,  and  jelly-like.  These 
cases,  in  my  opinion,  much  resemble  Weed  (Lymphangitis),  in  the 
fore  or  hind  legs,  and  may  be  induced  by  giving  a  horse  affected  with 
weed  a  large  dose  of  aloes,  which  acting  too  strongly  on  the  alimentary 
canal,  causes  the  disease  to  shift  from  the  leg  to  the  bowels.  I  make 
it  a  rule,  in  very  acute  cases  of  weed,  to  use  aloes  very  sparingly, 
and  then  only  in  solution,  and  combined  with  linseed  oil.  The  large 
intestine  may,  however,  be  attacked  with  this  inflammatory  action 
primarily,  and  without  Weed  being  present  ;  active  treatment  must 
then  be  adopted — sedative  medicine,  such  as  opium,  hypodermic 
injection  of  morphia,  with  hot  blankets  round  the  body  (par.  250). 


262.  Concretions,  or  Calculi,  occur  in  the  large  intestine,  and, 
occasionally,  are  of  a  great  size.  They  are  composed  of  dust,  and 
phosphate  of  ammonia,  magnesia,  or  lime  ;  some  are  hard  as  a  stone, 
and  very  smooth  ;  others  are  soft  and  convoluted.  Millers'  horses  are 
most  subject  to  these.  As  long  as  the  calculi  remain  quiet  in  the 
pouches,  or  part  of  the  intestine  in  which  they  were  formed,  no  ill 
effects  are  seen  ;  it  is  only  when  displaced  that  they  produce  pain,  and 
usually  death.  The  symptoms  exhibited  resemble  those  of  knots, 
twists,  &c.,  (par.  259)  but  are  not  nearly  so  acute  (Plate  XIX.,  B). 
As  a  rule,  in  all  cases  of  bowel  displacement  and  obstruction,  from  calculi, 
the  animal  cannot  keep  injections,  oy  drink  water;  in  fact,  it  strains  very 
much  when  enemas  are  given. 

263.  The  following  is  an  analysis  of  a  calculus — one  of  six — passed 
by  my  own  cob,  "  Quicksilver,"  and  analysed  by  Professor  Sibson, 
London  : — 


Fatty  Matter 
*Animal  Matter 
*Ammonia,  Magnesia,  Phosphate 


Alkaline  Salts 

Silica        • .  . .  '. . 







*Containing  Nitrogen,  from  Animal  Matter  and  Combined  Ammonia  5.10 

*Equal  to  Ammonia   ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  6-19 

Specific  Gravity        ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  1-71 

March  2nd,  1894. 

The  cob  is  still  to  the  fore,  and  is  23  years  old,  full  of  fire,  with  plenty 
of  "  stamp,  style,  and  fashion."  It  has  never  shown  any  symptoms  of 
pain,  nor  ever  been  off  its  food.  When  in  the  stable,  prior  to  passing 
the  Calculi,  I  frequently  found  this  animal  standing  in  an  oblique 
fashion  in  the  stall,  with  its  near  hind  leg  forward,  and  the  front  of  the 
oft  hind  leg  stretched  across  the  back  of  the  near  shank,  the  toe  of  the 
off^  hind  foot  constantly  in  motion,  until  the  stone  into  which  the 
masterpost  of  the  partition  was  fixed,  as  well  as  the  oak-sword,  or 
plate,  at  the  bottom  of  the  partition,  were  worn  away.     All  the  balls 


were  passed  within  fourteen  days,  being  found  among  the  faeces.  The 
largest  one  is  6h  inches  in  circumference,  very  smooth,  and  quite 
round.     The  cob  has  never  had  an}'  medicine. 

264.  CalcuH  are  of  three  kinds,  viz. : — Phosphatic,  Oathair,  and  Mixed. 
The  Phosphatic  are  those  described  above  ;  the  Oathair,  very  large, 
and  oblong  in  shape,  are  made  up  almost  entirely  of  the  beard  of 
grain,  are  much  convoluted,  and  are  known  as  the  "  Mulberry"  ; 
whilst  the  Mixed  partake  of  the  nature  of  both  the  foregoing,  but  are 
of  various  shapes  and  sizes,  and  only  slightly  convoluted. 

265.  Constipation  is  due  to  the  large  bowel  becoming  impacted 
with  food,  when  the  intestine  loses  tone  and  becomes  partially  paralysed. 
We  may  have  it  with  or  without  flatulence.  One  of  the  greatest 
causes  of  constipation  I  have  met  with  in  the  horse  is  a  slight  feed  of 
new  grass  or  clover — fog  partially  dried.  The  indications  are  slight 
colicky  pains  ;  the  animal  lies  down,  and  may  remain  quiet  for  three 
or  four  hours,  occasionally  screwing  itself  on  its  belly,  getting  up, 
stretching,  and  standing  with  the  hind  legs  well  backwards,  taking  a  bite 
of  food  now  and  again,  when  the  spasm  of  pain  returns.  Treatment  ; 
A  draught  of  from  three  to  five  drachms  of  aloes  (according  to  the 
animal's  size),  in  solution,  mixed  with  one  pint  of  linseed  oil,  is  the 
best  remedy.  This  should  be  accompanied  by  warm  water  injections 
given  every  two  hours.  In  all  cases  of  bowel  complication,  the 
sj'mptoms  at  the  onset  are  very  much  alike,  and  the  great  point  is  to 
get  the  animal  relieved  from  pain  as  soon  as  possible,  by  administering 
sedatives,  such  as  opium,  chlorodyne,  chloral,  or,  best  of  all,  hypodermic 
injections  of  morphine  and  atropine.  I  have  found  the  following  to 
answer  admirably : — carbonate  of  ammonia,  chloral  hydrate,  four 
drachms  each  ;  carbolic  acid  (B.P.),  30  drops;  mix,  and  make  into  a 
ball,  with  the  aid  of  linseed  meal  (see  Appendix),  and  administer  every 
four  or  six  hours,  if  necessary. 

266.  Diarrhoea,  or  Purging. — This  is  a  fluid  or  semi-fluid  discharge 
of  the  contents  of  the  bowels,  and  may  be  acute,  siib-ncnie,  and  intennittent. 
Acute   Diarrhoea  in  the  horse  is  very  rare,  but  very  dangerous,  and 

may  be  due  to  some  deleterious  material,  either  in  the  alimentary  canal 
or  the  system,  and  of  which  Nature  tries  to  relieve  herself  by  a 
spontaneous  diarrhoea,  in  which  case  the  animal  is  very  sickly  and 
dejected — standing  quiet,  breathing  quickly,  pulse  hurried  and  weak, 
tongue  furrowed  and  breath  foetid,  the  inside  of  the  eye-lid  is  of  a  dirty 
orange  colour,  and  great  thirst  is  present  ;  the  faecal  discharge  varies  in 
colour,  from  dirty  brown  to  grey,  with  a  very  offensive  smell. 
Treatment — Great  care  is  necessary,  for  if  the  diarrhoea  is  too  suddenly 
checked,  inflammation  of  the  bowels  may  result,  generally  with  a  fatal 
termination,  or,  the  irritation  may  be  transmitted  to  the  fore  feet,  and 
set  up  Laminitis — Founder.  My  treatment  for  this  form  of  diarrhoea 
is  to  give  one  ounce  each  of  carbonate  of  magnesia,  carbonate  of  soda, 
aromatic  spirits  of  ammonia,  and  essence  of  ginger,  with  half  an  ounce 
of  laudanum  or  chlorodyne  in  one  and  a  half  pints  cold  water  (see 
Appendix),  repeating  the  dose  every  four  or  six  hours,  if  necessary, 
also  using  well-boiled  oatmeal  gruel  strained  through  cheese-cloth  or 
open  seed-bag  sacking;  one  quart  of  the  warm  strained  gruel  mixed 
with  one  quart  of  cold  water  being  offered  frequently  to  the  patient  to 
drink.  When  the  animal  shows  signs  of  recovery,  a  handful  of  dry 
oats  and  bran  mixed  can  be  put  before  it,  with  a  small  quantity  of 
well-drawn  clover  hay  to  pick.  Sub-acute  Diarrhoea  may  arise 
from  injudicious  feeding  with  improper  food,  or  a  too  hearty  draught 
of  cold  water  when  heated,  or  from  eating  wet  grass,  or  from  over 
excitement,  particularly  in  long-middled,  short-ribbed,  narrow-made, 
washy-looking  horses.  Careful  feeding  of  such  animals  is  necessary, 
while  the  medicine  mentioned  under  acute  diarrhoea  should  be  given. 
Intermittent  Diarrhoea  is  seen  in  young  animals  when  casting 
the  crown  of  their  molar  teeth,  or  from  the  presence  of  worms  in 
the  alimentary  canal.  Examine  the  mouth  and  remove  the  crowns 
of  the  milk  teeth,  and  give  occasional  doses  of  15  oz.  raw  linseed  oil, 
mixed  with  one  to  one  and  a  half  oz.  turpentine,  repeating  once  every 
sixth  or  seventh  day  till  four  or  five  doses  are  given.  Superpurgation 
is  often  cau'sed  in  the  horse  by  giving  an  over-dose  of  purging  medicine, 
and  such  frequently  ends  in  Laminitis.  Treatment  in  this  case  is  the 
same  as  for  acute  diarrhoea. 


267.  Dysentery,  or  Bloody  Flux,  is  known  by  a  blubbery  fluid 
discharge  from  the  bowels,  mixed  with  blood.  Although  very  common 
in  cattle,  is  very  rare  in  the  horse,  at  least  in  this  country.  (For  Treatment 
see  Appendix.) 

268.  Hernia,  or  Rupture,  may  take  place  at  various  points,  as, 
for  instance,  the  diaphragm  may  be  ruptured,  and  a  portion  of  the 
intestines  be  pushed  through  into  the  chest,  such  ruptures  generally 
terminatmg  fatally.  Or,  again,  the  "  belly-rind  "  maj^  become  broken, 
and  the  intestines  escape  under  the  skin.  In  this  case,  sew  a  bandage 
tightly  round  the  body,  to  support  the  bowels,  until  the  rupture  is 

269.  Scrotal  Hernia  is  very  common  in  young  foals  ;  but  in  95 
per  cent,  of  the  cases,  the  bowel  returns  to  its  proper  place  before  the 
animal  is  twelve  months  old.  Another  very  common  hernia  is  that  of 
the  navel — umbilical  hernia,  as  it  is  called.  The  best  remedy  for  this 
is  to  apply  a  special  truss,  when  the  foal  is  first  taken  from  its  mother  ; 
or  it  may  be  reduced  by  an  operation. 

270.  The  Rectum.— I  have  seen  a  number  of  cases  where  this 
intestine  was  damaged  by  a  stick,  or  other  foreign  body,  being  passed 
up  by  malicious  individuals,  with  the  result  that  troublesome  abscesses 
have  formed,  causing  great  swelling  and  straining.  These  cases  are 
best  diagnosed  by  passing  the  hand  into  the  rectum,  when  the  lesion 
may  be  felt.  When  full  of  matter — -pus — they  have  to  be  cut  into, 
through  the  walls  of  the  bowel.  The  principal  injury,  however,  is 
found  in  the  mare,  when,  in  being  delivered,  one  of  the  foals"  feet  is 
pushed  through  the  roof  of  the  vagina  into  the  rectum,  resulting  in  a 
troublesome  fistula  ;  or  the  rectum  and  vagina  may  be  torn  into  one. 
In  these  cases  there  is,  as  a  rule,  extensive  inflammation  and  sloughing 
of  the  parts.  Occasionally  we  meet  with  cases  of  Eversion  of  the 
Rectum,  caused  b}''  impaction  through  some  error  of  feeding,  when, 
on  attempting  to  pass  the  faeces,  the  rectum  becomes  turned  out.  In 
such  cases,  it  must  be  well  washed  in  tepid  water  and  replaced  at  once, 
whilst  warm  water  injections  should  be  given  three  or  four  times  a  day. 


dieting  the  animal  on  soft  food,  such  as  bran  mashes,  &c.  When 
neglected,  it  mortifies,  becomes  black,  and  has  to  be  cut  off,  which 
is  rather  a  formidable  operation. 

271.  Paralysis  of  the  Rectum  is  occasionally  met  with,  when 
the  rectum  becomes  impacted  with  faecal  matters,  which  the  animal 
has  no  power  to  expel  ;  and  this  may  be  due  to  an  injury  to  the  spine 
or  to  degeneration  of  the  muscular  and  nervous  tissue  of  the  walls  of  the 
bowel,  or  to  fracture  of  the  pelvic  or  tail  bones.  When  first  noticed,  the 
external  parts  around  the  opening  into  the  bowel  under  the  tail  is 
observed  to  be  very  much  distended  with  the  fasces  and  pressed  out 
behind,  may  be  to  the  size  of  a  man's  head  ;  yet,  the  patient,  as  a  rule, 
feeds  well,  and  shows  little  or  no  inconvenience.  When  this  is  seen, 
the  faecal  matter  has  to  be  removed  by  hand,  about  every  four  or  five 
hours  ;  as  the  case  advances,  the  bladder  and  penis  become  implicated, 
and  the  urine  is  seen  dribbling  on  to  the  ground.  The  penis  finally 
becomes  pendulous,  powerless,  and  swollen,  when  it  has  to  be 
supported  by  a  bandage  round  the  body,  for  which  an  old  lace  or  net 
curtain  answers  best.  Treatment  is,  however,  rarely  successful,  but 
drachm  doses  each  of  sulphate  of  iron  and  nux  vomica  can  be  given 
once  a  day,  in  a  mash  ;  a  blister  applied  to  the  loins  ;  and  an  infusion 
of  oak  bark  injected  into  the  bowel,  once  or  twice  daily,  may  also  be 
tried,  but,  generally  speaking,  the  animal  has  to  be  destroyed. 


272.  The  arrangement  of  the  alimentary  canal  of  the  dog  is  rather 
peculiar.  The  stomach  is  pear-shaped,  slightly  curved,  and  very 
simple  ;  the  bowels  are  short,  and  nearly  all  of  the  same  size,  while  the 
caecum  is  almost  rudimentary.  From  the  guzzling  propensity  of  the 
majority  of  dogs,  the  crushing  and  bolting  of  partially  chewed  bones, 
and  the  cramming  of  the  stomach  with  raw,  putrid,  filthy  flesh,  it  is 
strange  that  the  dog  does  not  suffer  more  from  derangements  of  the 
stomach  and  bowels.  The  great  point  in  the  dog's  favour  is  that  he  can 
readily  eject  matters  from  an  overloaded  stomach.  Although  numerous 
writers  have,  from  time  to  time,  written  at  some  length  on  the  various 

derangements  and  diseases  of  the  stomach  and  bowels  of  the  dog,  I 
can  only  say  that  in  country  practice  they  are  very  rare.  Those  that 
are  mostly  met  with  are  Indigestion,  Costivencss,  Impaction  of  the  Rectum, 
Diarrhcca,  Worms,  and  Liver  Disorders. 

273.  Indigestion  is  mostly  seen  in  old,  fat  and  pampered 
dogs.  The  symptoms  are  a  morbid  appetite,  foul  breath,  and  a  great 
fancy  for  eating  or  chewing  foreign  bodies,  such  as  rope,  wood,  rags, 
&c.,  accompanied  by  costiveness.  When  these  are  observed,  the  dog 
should  be  carefully  watched,  and  sparingly  and  regularly  fed. 
Treatment  :  The  following  tonic  alterative  medicine  can  be  given — 
ten  grains  each  of  powdered  aloes,  rhubarb,  bicarbonate  of  soda,  and 
extract  of  gentian,  made  up  into  a  small  ball  or  pill  and  given  once 
every  other  day,  if  necessary.  The  above  dose  is  for  an  adult  collie  or 
spaniel,  and  larger  and  smaller  doses  ought  to  be  regulated  accordmg 
to  the  age,  size,  and  breed  of  the  dog. 

274.  Costiveness. — The  fasces  of  the  dog  are,  as  a  rule,  of  a  very 
dry  nature,  and  usually  expelled  with  a  great  amount  of  straining,  due 
to  the  great  fondness  the  dog  has  for  eating  bones,  without  a  sufficiency 
of  other  food  to  counteract  the  dry  costive  effect.  The  symptoms  are 
somewhat  analagous  to  those  given  in  the  preceding  paragraph  (273), 
but  on  pressure  being  applied  to  the  belly,  with  the  fingers  behind  the 
ribs,  the  bowels  feel  hard  and  stiff,  and  pain  is  generally  evinced. 
Treatment  :  Purgatives  must  be  given  with  great  caution ;  the  medicine 
named  m  par.  273  can  be  given,  followed  by  small  doses  of  syrup  of 
buckthorn  and  castor  oil,  but  the  most  reliance  must  be  placed  on 
enemas,  and  nothing  is  better  than  two  ounces  of  glycerine  mixed  in 
half  a  pint  of  warm  water,  and  injected  into  the  bowels  once  every 
eight  hours. 

275.  Impaction  of  the  Rectum. — This  arises  from  causes  similar 
to  those  given  in  above  paragraph  {274),  and  a  similar  Treatment 
has  to  be  adopted — only  the  hard  impacted  matter,  which  generally 
contains  sharp  pieces  of  bone,  has  to  be  removed  with  the  finger, 
well  oiled,  assisted  by  the  warm  water  and  glycerine  injections. 


276.  Diarrhoea,  or  a  discharge  of  the  contents  of  the  bowels  in  a 
fluid  or  semi-fluid  condition,  is  often  seen  in  the  dog  without  any 
constitutional  disturbance,  and  greatly  depends  on  the  what  the  animal 
has  been  eating.  Treatment  :  Should  the  purgation  become  trouble- 
some, a  dose  of  castor  oil — from  one  tea-spoonful  to  two  table-spoonfuls 
— with  5  to  30  drops  of  laudanum,  according  to  age  and  size  of  dog, 
may  be  given  ;  this  may  be  all  that  is  required,  but  if  necessary,  follow 
up  with  5  to  20  grains  subnitrate  of  bismuth,  10  to  60  grains  carbonate 
of  soda,  and  10  to  60  grains  carbonate  magnesia,  according  to  age 
and  size.     Mix  and  give  in  a  little  warm  milk  twice  a  day. 

277.  Worms. — From  the  uncleanly  feeding  habits  of  the  dog,  the 
digestive  organs  become  a  veritable  harbour  for  worms,  of  which 
there  are  a  great  variety.  The  kmds  mostly  met  with  are  the  Ascans 
Marginata,  or  common  round  worm,  and  the  Tape  Worvts.  The 
Ascaris  Marginata  varies  in  size  from  two  inches  to  six  inches, 
and  are  generally  found  in  the  stomach  and  small  intestines,  while 
occasionally  they  are  vomited  up.  Young  puppies  are  frequently 
infested  with  these  worms  as  early  as  a  fortnight  old  and  upwards, 
the  eggs  from  which  they  are  developed  coming  from  the  intestines  of 
the  mother.  They  get  located  under  the  tail  and  round  the  opening 
into  the  bowels,  and  are  transferred  from  there  to  the  teats  by  the 
tongue  of  the  mother,  and  from  there  suckled  into  the  stomach  by  the 
young  puppies.  For  these  young  animals,  small  doses  of  Santonin — 
from  half  to  one  grain  given  every  four  or  six  days,  in  a  little  milk — 
answers  best. 

278.  The  Cystic  Worms. — Taenia  or  Tape  Worms,  of  which 
there  are  several  kinds,  are  numerous  in  the  dog.  Symptoms  of  the 
presence  of  worms  vary  a  great  deal ;  sometimes  constipation  is  present, 
at  other  times  intermittent  diarrhoea,  variable  appetite,  loss  of  flesh, 
rough  staring  coat,  gummy  eyes,  and  a  dry  nose,  in  fact  the  animal  is 
all  out  of  sorts.  Treatment  :  In  all  cases,  particularly  when  the  skin 
is  much  affected,  a  dose  of  worm  medicine  should  be  given.  I  have 
tried  different  kinds  of  formulas,  but  what  I  find  to  answer  best  is  as 
follows  : — Powdered  areca  nut,  from   10  to  60  grains  ;  calomel,  from 


half  grain  to  three  grains  ;  and  tartar  emetic,  half  grain  to  three  grains, 
made  into  a  ball  with  fluid  extract  of  male  shield  fern,  to  be  given 
after  fasting,  followed  up  with  a  dose  of  castor  oil. 

279.  Liver  Disorders. — [See  Lectnye  V I. ,  Digestive  Organs,  Part  II.) 

THE     PIG. 

280.  Considering  the  scav'enging  habits  and  the  filthy  conditions 
under  which  pigs  are  generally  brought  up,  it  is  a  great  wonder  they 
do  not  suffer  more  from  affections  of  the  digestive  organs.  The 
ailments  most  commonly  met  with  are  Gastritis,  or  inflammation  of 
the  stomach,  Constipation,  Diarrhcsa,  Worms,  and  Protrusion  of  the  Rectum. 

281.  Gastritis. — Inflammation  of  the  stomach  is  generally  caused 
by  consuming  irritating  indigestible  substances,  drinking  salt  brine, 
the  presence  of  worms,  &c.  When  attacked,  the  animal  is  very  restless, 
refusing  all  foods,  vomiting,  and  has  a  great  thirst,  while  sometimes 
the  attack  is  accompanied  bydiarrhcea  or  constipation.  Treatment: 
When  constipation  is  present,  small  doses  of  castor  oil  in  milk  can  be 
given  every  six  or  eight  hours  ;  if  the  pain  be  severe,  a  tea-spoonful  of 
chlorodyne  and  5  to  10  drops  of. pure  carbolic  acid  may  be  added; 
warm  water  and  glycerine  enemas  should  be  given  every  six  or  eight 
hours,  and  flannels  wrung  out  of  hot  water  ought  to  be  rolled  round 
the  body,  with  a  waterproof  covering  above.  When  diarrhoea  is  present 
small  doses  of  castor  oil,  containing  from  20  to  30  drops  of  laudanum, 
should  be  given  at  the  onset,  followed  up  with  20  grains  each  of 
bismuth,  bicarbonate  of  soda,  magnesia,  and  cassia,  given  in  a  little 
warm  milk,  every  six  or  eight  hours,  if  required.  Young  pigs  often 
suff'er  from  gastritis  when  fed  on  unboiled  or  unscalded  Indian  meal  ; 
when  thus  fed  they  are  also  liable  to  take  fits;  Indian  corn  meal  or 
maize  meal  should  not,  therefore,  be  given  to  very  young  pigs.  Sharps 
or  parings,  with  bran,  well  scalded  or  boiled,  answer  better. 

282.  Constipation  in  pigs  is  generally  caused  by  injudicious 
feeding,  or  through  overfeeding  on  too  much  dry  food.  Sows  that 
are  close  on  pigging  also  often  suffer  both  before  and  after  parturition 


from  obstinate  constipation.  Treatment  :  If  there  is  one  tiling  more 
than  another  that  I  advocate  for  this  ailment  it  is  croton  oil.  I  know 
of  no  other  animal  that  can  stand  dosing  with  croton  oil  like  the  pig, 
and  I  have  frequently  given  from  5  to  30  drops  of  croton  oil,  mixed  with 
I  to  2  ounces  of  olive  oil  and  half  a  pint  of  milk.  Warm  water  enemas 
must  be  given  three  or  four  times  in  the  24  hours,  while  two  quarts  of 
cold  water  in  which  a  dessert-spoonful  of  bicarbonate  of  soda  has  been 
dissolved  can  be  offered  to  drink,  and  this  should  be  changed  every 
four  or  five  hours. 

283.  Diarrhoea,  or  Scour,  is  occasionally  seen  in  the  adult 
animal,  and  is  generally  the  result  of  some  offending  matter  in  the 
alimentary  canal  or  system  ;.  in  fact  scour  is  at  times  nature's  own  cure. 
When  seen,  a  dose  of  castor  oil  and  laudanum  may  be  given  at  the  onset, 
followed  up  with  bicarbonate  of  soda  and  bismuth  (see  appendix).  Young 
pigs  are  great  sufferers  from  Diarrhoea  when  sucking,  and  it  is  mostly 
due  to  damp  floors,  bad  drainage,  and  scarcit}'  of  good  dry  bedding  ;  in 
fact,  the  want  of  good  sanitation .  Treatment  :  First  clean  out  the  sty ; 
thoroughly  wash  down  the  walls  and  floor  with  boiling  water  and 
carbolic  acid  ;  then  lime-wash  the  walls.  A  good  dry  bed  should  be 
made  of  short  straw  or  chaff,  and  the  mother  given  teaspoonful  doses 
of  bicarbonate  of  soda  three  times  a  day  in  her  food. 

284.  Worms. — As  a  rule  pigs  do  not  suffer  so  much  from  worms 
in  the  intestinal  canal  as  might  be  supposed,  considering  the  animal's 
filthy  habits  ;  there  are,  however,  several  kinds  of  worms  found  in  the 
pig,  the  most  common  being  the  Ascavis  Snilla,  a  worm,  creamy  white 
m  colour  and  varying  from  three  to  seven  inches  in  length,  which  is 
found  in  the  stomach  and  small  intestine,  and  is  of  the  nematode 
or  round  worm  order.  Symptoms  :  When  infected  with  worms,  the 
animal  is  restless,  and  hide-bound,  with  the  skin  dirty,  dry,  and  scaly, 
the  belly  is  tucked  up,  and  the  back  arched  ;  there  is  occasional 
diarrhoea,  and  vomiting,  and,  when  the  worms  are  numerous, 
convulsions  or  fits.  Treatment  :  The  medicines  named  for  worms 
in  the  dog  (par.  278)  can  be  given  in  a  little  milk,  or  the  powders  can 
be  mixed  in  castor  oil  and  milk,  and  administered  by  the  aid  of  a  clog 



with  a  wooden  sole,  or  a  strong  shoe  with  a  hole  cut  in  the  leather  at  the 
toe  {see  Plate  L  1,  No.  3).  Press  the  clog  into  the  mouth  of  the  pig, 
and  pour  the  medicine  inside,  when  it  will  be  swallowed  without  the 
danger  of  choking.  Daily  doses  of  one  to  two  teaspoonfuls  of  flowers 
of  sulphur  answer  well  for  worms,  while  turpentine  in  doses  varying 
from  one  teaspoonful  to  one  tablespoonful  mixed  with  oil  and  milk,  or 
beaten  up  with  an  egg  and  given  as  described  above  also  has  a  good 

285.  Protrusion,  or  Eversion  of  the  Rectum  is  sometimes  met 
with  in  young  pigs,  but  most  frequently  in  sows  after  parturition. 
When  seen,  the  parts  must  be  thoroughly  washed  with  tepid  water  and 
sanitas,  smeared  with  extract  of  belladonna  and  returned,  and  then 
kept  in  its  place  by  stiches  of  tape  put  across  the  opening. 

286.  Imperforate     Anus.       Calves,    Lambs,    and    Pigs    are 

occasionally  born  with  the  end  of  the  bowel  covered  up,  and  blinded 
by  a  continuation  of  the  skin  over  the  opening.  On  manipulating 
with  the  fingers,  the  hard  faeces  are  felt  underneath.  It  is  very  easy, 
with  a  sharp  knife,  to  cut  through  the  skin  into  the  canal,  and  to  dress 
the  wound  daily  with  antiseptic  mixture  (see  appendix)  until  the  parts 
are  healed,  when  the  animal,  as  a  rule,  generally  does  well. 


1.  Cavity  of  the  Mouth,  with  6  Molar 


2.  Tongue. 

3.  Roof  of  Mouth  showing  Ridges. 

4.  Pharynx  or  Throat. 

5.  iEsophagus  or  Gullet. 

6.  First  Stomach  or  Paunch. 

7.  Left  Upper  Portion  of  Paunch. 

8.  Right  Lower  Portion  of  Paunch, 
g.  Spleen. 

10.  Second  Stomach  or  Honeycomb 

11.  Colon. 

12.  Caecum. 

13.  Rectum. 

14.  Anus. 

15.  Bladder. 

16.  Neck  of  Bladder. 

17.  Vagina. 

18.  Turbinated  Bones  in  Nostrils. 

19.  Entrance  to  Larynx. 

20.  Trachea  or  Windpipe. 

21.  Thyroid  Glands. 

22.  Left  Lung. 

23.  Diaphragm. 

24.  Sternum  or  Breast  Bone. 

25.  Section  of  Udder. 
26.26.  Milk-collecting  Ducts. 

27.  27.  Milk  Sinus. 

28.  28.  Duct  of  Teat. 



287.  The  organs  of  digestion  in  Ruminants,  prior  to  the  stomach  itself, 
present  few  differences  from  those  of  the  Non-ruminants.  Certainly, 
the  mouth  does  contain  distinctions  ;  for  whereas  that  of  the  horse  has 
incisor  teeth  in  both  upper  and  lower  jaws — six  in  each — cattle  and 
sheep  possess  them  in  the  lower  jaw  only,  their  place  in  the  upper 
one  being  taken  by  a  fibro-cartilaginous  pad.  Canine  teeth  are  also 
only  found  in  the  lower  jaw,  and  they  closely  resemble  incisors  in 
shape  ;  they  are  placed  close  to  the  corner  incisors,  there  being  no 
interval  between  canine  and  incisors  as  is  the  case  in  the  horse.  The 
tongue,  too,  is  of  a  different  shape,  being  short  and  pointed,  and, 
instead  of  having  a  smooth  surface,  it  is  extremely  roughened  by 
little  papillae.  It  is  also  the  prehensile  agent.  The  soft 
palate,  though  present,  is  much  less  developed  than  in  the  horse. 
When  we  come  to  the  stomach,  however,  we  encounter  wide 
differences.  Cattle  and  sheep  have  four  stomachs,  or,  to  be  more 
precise,  a  stomach  divided  mto  four  compartments. 

The  1st  is  the  Rumen,  or  Paunch — Plate  XXII.  A. a. a. a. 

The  2nd  is  the  Reticulum,  or  Honeycomh — Plate  XXII.  A.c. 

The  3rd  is  the  Omasum,  or  Manyplies — Plate  XXII.  A  .d. 

The  4th  is  the  A  bomasum  or  True  Digestive  Stomach — Plate  XXII.  A  .e. 
The  first,  second,  and  third  stomachs  are  compartments  for  storing 
and  preparing  the  food,  more  particularly  the  cellulose  portions  of  it, 
for  digestion  by  the  fourth. 

288.  The  First  Stomach,  The  Rumen  (Plate  XXII.,  B.A.A.A.,), 
which  is  the  largest  of  the  four  stomachs,  and  lies  on  the  left 
side,    occupies,   in   the    adult    animal,    about    three-quarters    of    the 


whole  abdominal  cavity.  It  has  strong  muscular  bands  running  in 
the  walls,  in  various  directions,  to  assist  and  control  its  actions,  and 
is  very  strong;  It  is  also  lined  with  cuticular  membrane,  which  is 
studded  all  over  with  little  projections,  or  papillae. 

289.  The  Second  Stomach,  The  Honeycomb  (Plate  XXII.,  B.C.), 
which  is  the  smallest  of  the  four  stomachs,  is  also  lined  with  cuticular 
membrane,  that  is  pitted  all  over  with  little  cells,  giving  it  a  resemblance 
to  honeycomb,  and  is  covered  with  papillae.  This  stomach  acts  as  a 
sort  of  sifting  machine,  as  in  it  we  find  sand,  stones,  nails,  pins,  needles, 
and  all  sorts  of  foreign  bodies — sifted  out  of  the  food  before  being  sent 
to  the  third  stomach. 

290.  The  Third  Stomach,  The  Manyplies  (Plate  XXIL,  B.D.), 
has  its  lining  membrane  arranged  in  a  peculiar  manner,  forming  a 
large  number  of  leaves,  or  folds,  hence  its  name,  Psalteriiim  or  Omasum — 
manyfolds,  or  manyplies.  The  leaves  run  lengthwise,  and  extend 
from  one  end  to  the  other,  one  border  being  free,  while  the  other  is 
attached  to  the  wall  of  the  stomach.  Between  the  large  leaves  there 
are  smaller  ones,  all  being  covered  with  small  projections,  or  papillae. 
The  function  of  this  stomach  is  to  press  and  triturate  the  food  before 
it  passes  into  the  fourth  stomach. 

291.  The  Fourth  Stomach,  The  Abomasum  (Plate  XXIL,  B.E.),  is 
the  true  digestive  stomach,  and  in  the  calf  it  is  much  the  largest.  The 
interior  presents  the  appearance  of  large  folds,  running  lengthwise 
over  its  surface,  and  this  mucous  membrane  is  soft,  velvety,  and  of 
a  pale  pink  hue.  Here  the  food  is  chemically  acted  upon,  as  described 
in  paragraph  224 — No.  5,  Lecture  V. 

292.  Rumination,  or  Chewing  the  Cud. — This  process  consists 
of  returning  the  coarsely  masticated  food,  stored  in  the  Rumen,  back 
into  the  mouth,  to  be  there  re-masticated  and  properly  mixed  with  saliva. 
Some  portions  of  the  food  are  returned  several  tmies,  whilst  others 
only  require  one  chewing.  My  view  of  rumination  differs  considerably 
from  that  of  some  other  writers,  and  is  as  follows: — The  animal  fills  the 
paunch  with  food  of  various  kinds,  principally  of  a  bulky  nature,  taking 


No.  1.     External  appearance  of  Cow's  Stomach. 

No.  2.     Internal  appearance  of  Cow's  Stomach. 


No.  1.     External  appearance  of  Cow's  Stomach. 

I. A. A. A.  First  Stomach,  Rumen  or  Paunch. 

B.  Esophagus  or  Gullet. 

c.  Second  Stomach,  Recticulum  or  Honeycomb. 

D.  Third  Stomach,  Omasum  or  Manyplies. 

£.  Fourth,  True  Stomach,  or  Abomasum. 

F.  Pyloric  Portion  of  Fourth  Stomach. 

No.  2.     Internal  appearance  of  Cow  s  Stomach. 

A.A.A.     First  Stomach,  Rumen  or  Paunch,  showing  Pouches,  Muscular  Bands 
and  Papillae. 

B.     ^Esophagus  or  Gullet  laid  open. 

c.     Second  Stomach,  Recticulum,  everted  to  show  the  honeycombed  cell 

D.  Third  Stomach,  showing  the  Leaves. 

E.  Fourth  Stomach,  with  its  numerous  folds 

F.  .(Esophageal  Canal  leading  to  Fourth  Stomach. 

G.  .S;sophageal  Canal  entering  the  Fourth  Stomach. 
H.  Small  Intestine. 


little  or  no  trouble  to  masticate  it.  Then,  when  the  animal  has  had 
its  fill,  it  rests  and  commences  to  chew  the  cud.  Small  pellets  or 
boluses  are  formed  by  the  churning  motion  of  the  rumen.  These 
pellets  are  then  passed  to  the  second  stomach,  where  the  fine  portions, 
such  as  meals,  cakes,  and  bran,  are  sifted  out,  and  carried  at  once 
to  the  third  stomach,  while  the  rougher  portions  are  formed  into  a 
bolus  and  thrown  up  the  gullet,  into  the  mouth,  to  be  properly  chewed 
and  insalivated.  This  process  over,  it  is  again  swallowed,  and  sent 
back  into  the  paunch ;  thus,  some  portions  of  the  food  are  re-masticated 
several  times,  while  foreign  bodies,  such  as  sand,  nails,  &c.,  as  already 
mentioned,  are  left  in  the  second  stomach.  My  idea  of  this  process 
originated  many  years  ago,  on  performing  Rumenotomy — that  is, 
cutting  into  the  stomach,  and  removing  its  contents.  On  putting  my 
hand  through  the  opening  in  the  left  side,  I  found  in  the  upper  and 
back  part  of  the  rumen  a  number  of  small  pellets  of  food,  varying  in 
size  from  that  of  a  nut  to  a  good-sized  apple,  and,  I  came  to  the 
conclusion  that,  by  the  action  of  the  muscular  bands  found  in  the  walls 
of  the  paunch,  these  pellets  were  rolled  up  and  carried  over  the  top  of 
the  food  lying  in  the  bottom  of  the  paunch  to  the  second  stomach,  to 
be  there  sifted,  as  already  stated  (pav.  289).  None  of  the  compartments, 
except  the  rumen,  is  large  enough  to  hold  all  the  cud  that  the  animal 
chews,  at  once,  and  the  second  stomach,  which  is  said  by  some  to  be 
the  water  bag,  is  so  small  that  it  would  not  hold  a  tenth  part  of  the 
quantity  of  water  which  an  animal  drinks  at  a  time. 

293.  The  Small  Intestine  in  cattle  is  much  less  in  diameter 
than  that  of  the  horse,  yet  it  is  about  twice  as  long,  being  about  140 
feet  in  length.  The  large  intestine  is  about  36  feet  in  length.  The 
Caecum,  or  first  portion  of  large  intestine,  is  very  simple,  and  oblong 
in  shape,  its  free  or  blind  end  is  rounded,  and  without  any  bands" or 
furrows.  It  joins  the  colon  at  its  other  extremity,  where  it  also  receives 
the  insertion  of  the  small  intestine.  The  Colon,  or  second  portion  of 
large  intestine,  is  narrow  and  without  bands  or  furrows,  and  is  arranged 
in  irregular  coils,  and  finally  ends  in  the  Rectum. 

294.  Sheep. — T\\Q  Alimentary  canal  in  sheep  resembles  that  of  cattle 




295. — While  in  the  horse,  the  large  intestine  is  the  organ  most 
frequently  affected  ;  cattle  suffer  principally  from  derangements  and 
diseases  of  the  four  stomachs. 

296.  Hoven,  or  Tympanites. — This  complaint  is  due  to  the 
distension  of  the  rumen  with  gases,  is  of  very  frequent  occurrence,  and 
is  both  acute,  chronic,  a.nd  inteymiUent .  The  causes  are  many;  but  one,  the 
most  common,  is  due  to  cattle  being  turned  on  to  the  clover  fog 
and  gorging  themselves.  Hoven,  from  such  a  cause,  is  very  acute 
and  dangerous,  and  frequently  fatal  if  not  speedily  relieved.  Eating 
too  much  wet  grass  or  frosted  turnips,  or  drinking  cold,  frosted  or 
snow  water  are  also  frequent  causes  of  tympanites.  For  the  Treat- 
ment of  such  cases,  nothing  answers  better  than  one  wine-glassful 
of  turpentine  in  one  pint  raw  linseed  oil.  Should  this  not  give 
immediate  relief,  the  patient  must  be  punctured  on  the  left  side  with 
a  trocar  and  canula  {see  Plate  LI.,  No.  6) ;  if  this  instrument  is  not  to  be 
had,  then  plunge  the  large  blade  of  a  pocket  knife  into  the  stomach 
and  turn  it  cross  ways,  when  the  gas  will  escape.  Fermentation  of  food 
is  another  common  cause,  and  nothing  is  worse  for  this  than  an  over- 
feed of  potatoes,  followed  by  a  hearty  drink  of  cold-water.  A  beast 
that  has  unfortunately  gained  access  to  a  potato  heap,  and  gorged  itself, 
should  not  be  allowed  any  water  for  three  or  four  days.  It  should 
be  fed  on  small  quantities  of  rough  straw,  as  distension  from  this  cause 
is  extremely  dangerous,  the  contents  being  of  a  yeasty  character. 
Treatment  in  such  a  case  is  to  adminster  two  ounces  bicarbonate  of 
soda  in  one  pint  of  cold  water  and  one  pint  of  whisky  ;  or  four  ounces 
of  hyposulphite  of  soda  in  the  same  quantity  of  water  and  spirit.  If 
this  does  not  give  speedy  relief,  then  the  trocar  and  canula  must  be 
inserted  into  the  side,  and  the  hyposulphite  of  soda  and  water,  as 
above,  or  a  solution  of  chloride  of  lime,  be  injected  into  the  stomach 


through  the  canula  by  a  small  enema  syringe.  Choking  with  potatoes, 
turnips,  &c.,  also  causes  the  stomach  to  be  distended  with  gas. 
(See  par.  241.)  When  the  animal  picks  up  foreign  bodies,  such  as 
stones,  bones,  leather,  wood,  &c.,  or  has  tumours,  abscesses,  or  hair 
balls  in  its  stomach,  there  are  periodical  or  intermittent  distensions 
about  every  five  or  six  hours.  These  are  very  difficult  to  treat. 
Tablespoonful  doses  of  chloride  of  lime,  in  milk,  or  two  ounces  hypo- 
sulphite of  soda,  in  water,  at  times  gives  relief  in  such  cases. 
Sometimes  the  stomach  becomes  blown  up  from  rupture,  stricture,  or 
dilatation  of  the  gullet,  or  from  a  rent  in  the  rumen.  In  these  cases, 
the  sooner  professional  advice  is  got,  the  better  for  the  animal,  and 
the  owner  as  well. 

297.  Impaction  of  the  Rumen. — Plenalvia. — Grain  Sickness. — This 
derangement  occurs  in  stall-fed  animals,  more  particularly,  if  they  have 
had  an  excess  of  dry  food,  such  as  meals  (of  doubtful  quality),  or  frosted 
turnips.  The  walls  of  the  stomach  become  paralysed,  and  their 
actions  are  suspended.  Sometimes  there  is  gas  present,  and  the  left 
side  of  the  animal  is  seen  to  be  distended.  Symptoms  :  On  pressing 
the  fingers  into  the  flank,  between  the  last  rib  and  haunch-bone,  the 
stomach  is  felt  to  be  full  and  hard,  and  at  times  slightly  "  drummy." 
The  animal  stands  perfectly  still,  emitting  a  peculiar  "  grank,''  or 
''grunt."  The  head  is  extended,  nose  slightly  lowered,  and  back 
arched,  while  there  is  a  thoughtful  expression  on  the  face.  The  pulse 
may,  or  may  not,  be  disturbed,  but  I  have  never  seen  any  indication 
of  colicky  pains,  as  described  by  some.  The  appetite  is  entirely  gone, 
and  rumination  is  suspended  ;  while  in  the  milch  cow,  the  secretion  is 
stopped.  There  is  generally  slight  diarrhoea  at  the  onset,  but  this  soon 
stops,  and  then  no  faeces  are  passed  for  some  days.  Treatment  :  If  gas 
is  present,  one  pint  of  linseed  oil  and  two  ounces  of  turpentine  should 
be  given  first,  followed  up  in  an  hour  or  so  by  10  to  16  ounces  of 
Epsom  salts,  along  with  two  ounces  each  of  powdered  ginger  and 
sweet  peppers,  or  other  aromatics.  These  should  be  given  in  a  quart 
of  thin  gruel,  mixed  with  another  pint  of  oil.  Owing  to  the  distension, 
the  walls  of  the  stomach  become  paralysed,  and  are  unable  to  perform 
their  function  ;  the  derangement  often  being  further  aggravated  by  the 

owner  over-dosing  the  animal  with  too  many  sickly  purgatives  instead 
of  administering  warm  stimulating  tonics  and  cordials,  which  are 
mostly  required  after  the  first  purgative  has  been  given.  These  cases 
require  time  and  patience,  as  they  are  very  difficult  to  manage.  After 
all  medicines  have  failed  in  this  complaint,  I  have  been  very  successful 
with  an  old-fashioned  remedy,  namely,  3  to  3^  pounds  of  fat  bacon,  cut 
up  into  small  pieces,  and  boiled  for  two  or  three  hours  in  water,  along 
with  the  addition  of  6  ounces  of  salt,  then  mixed  with  a  quart  of  milk,  and 
given  as  a  drench.  This  must  be  put  in  with  a  horn — as  indeed  ought 
all  cattle  drenches — -and  a  few  gallons,  or  so,  of  bran  or  hay  tea,  or 
cold  water  should  be  placed  for  the  animal  to  drink.  I  have  rarely 
seen  this  mixture  fail  in  having  the  desired  effect,  where  no  organic 
lesion  was  present,  and  I  find  it  answers  much  better  than  repeated 
doses  of  raw  linseed  oil. 

298.  When  the  rumen  has  become  very  much  impacted  by  the 
animal  getting  loose  in  the  byre,  and  gorging  itself  with  corn,  or  other 
foods,  medicine  has  little  or  no  effect.  Good  results  are  sometimes 
had  by  cutting  into  the  stomach,  on  the  left  side,  making  an  opening 
about  six  or  eight  inches  long,  and  emptying  the  rumen  with  the 
hand.  This  operation  is  called  Rimienotoviy ,  and  should  be  performed 
only  by  a  fully  qualified  professional  man,  as  there  are  several 
important  points  to  be  observed,  before,  during,  and  after  the 
operation.  When  the  rumen  has  been  distended  either  with  gas  or 
food,  and,  after  relief  has  been  given  it  will  be  some  considerable  time 
before  the  stomach  regains  its  normal  tone,  and  the  animal,  therefore, 
has  to  be  fed  with  great  care  and  judgment.  In  such  cases  of 
distension,  if  the  animal  is  a  cow  in  calf,  she  is  almost  sure  to  abort. 

299.  Vomition  or  Vomiting,  while  not  of  frequent  occurrence  in 
either,  is  oftener  found  in  cattle  than  the  horse.  It  has  been  said 
that  the  horse  cannot  vomit  ;  but  I  have  seen  this  occur,  at  least,  on 
three  occasions,  when  the  animal  dropped  on  its  knees,  pressed  its 
nose  on  the  ground,  with  side  movements  of  the  head,  and  food  came 
out  of  both  nostrils  and  mouth.  There  was  no  rupture  of  either  the 
gullet  or  stomach,  as  the  animals  in  question  lived  and  did  well  for 

years  after.  At  times,  the  feeding  trougli,  in  front  of  cattle,  is 
found  full  of  vomited  matter.  This  derangement  is  generall}'  due  to 
foods  containing  an  excess  of  starchy  matter,  as  potatoes  ;  from 
chronic  disease  of  the  stomach  ;  or  from  obstruction  of  the  small 
intestine.  For  Treatment  :  Ounce  doses  of  bicarbonate  or  hypo- 
sulphite of  soda,  with  half  a  pint  of  whisky,  in  water,  three  or  four 
times  a  day,  can  be  recommended,  along  with  linseed  jelly,  or  skim- 
milk,  containing  half-pint  doses  of  lime-water,  to  drink. 

300.  The  Second  Stomach. — There  are  no  set  symptoms  to 
indicate  any  derangement  of  this  compartment.  As  already  stated,  it 
is  a  receptacle  for  all  kinds  of  foreign  bodies — some  of  which,  such  as 
darning  needles,  shawl  pins,  pieces  of  wire,  occasionally  pass  through 
its  wall,  thence  through  the  diaphragm  to  the  lungs  and  heart  (see 
Lecture  VIII.  on  Civculation).  In  cases  of  derangement  of  the  paunch 
the  second  stomach  may  also  be  implicated. 

301.  Indigestion,  or  Impaction  of  the  Third  Stomach. — 
Fardel  Bound. — Cattle,  when  hard  fed  in  stalls,  or  in  spring, 
getting  a  chill  at  grass,  or  through  eating  a  mixture  of  old,  dead, 
and  new  sprmg  grass,  or  the  deciduous  stipules,  or  "  bud  scales  " 
falling  from  oak  trees  ("  yak-buds,"  Cumberland,)  frequently  suffer 
from  indigestion  and  constipation.  Here  rumination,  the  action 
of  the  bowels,  and  the  secretion  of  milk,  are  suspended.  The 
animal  stands  in  an  extremely  stiff  and  listless  fashion,  emitting  a 
continuous  grunt  and  grinding  its  teeth,  while  on  pressure  being  applied 
to  the  spine,  behind  the  shoulders,  it  is  likely  to  fall  on  its  knees, 
uttering  painful  groans.  The  function  of  the  manyfolds  being  stopped, 
the  leaves  of  the  organ  become  partially  paralysed  from  impaction  of 
the  food.  Any  of  the  causes  affecting  the  rumen  may  also  occasion 
derangement  of  this  pouch,  and  a  somewhat  similar  Treatment 
must  be  adopted  (par.  297).  Small  doses  of  purgative  medicine,  with 
cordials  (see  appendix),  and  from  12  to  15  ounces  of  linseed  oil,  or  castor 
oil,  may  be  given,  with  advantage,  every  six  or  eight  hours,  following' 
up  this  treatment  by  offering  small  quantities  of  rough  oat-sheaf,  dry 
hay,  cabbage    leaves,  &c.,   to    induce    and    encourage    the   action    of 

the  stomach.  Occasionally  foreign  bodies,  such  as  stones,  nails,  &c., 
find  their  way  through  the  opening  into  this  stomach,  and  stick  there. 
I  remember  one  case,  in  which  a  flat  stone  got  tightly  fixed  in  the 
entrance  :  the  animal  had  a  continuous  dry,  barking  cough,  held  its 
head  and  nose  straight  out,  and  would  not  touch  food  or  water.  I 
ordered  it  to  be  slaughtered,  and  found  the  stone  in  the  position 
named.  The  cough,  in  this  instance,  was  reflex,  caused  by  pressure 
on  a  branch  of  the  Vagus  nerve.  In  another  case,  five  stones, 
a  penny  piece,  and  a  nail  were  the  instruments  of  obstruction. 
While  in  a  third,  a  salmon  fish-hook  was  fixed  through  three  of  the 
leaves  of  this  compartment.  Inflannnation  of  the  first,  second,  and 
third  stomachs  is  very  rare,  either  in  cattle  or  sheep. 

302.  The  Fourth,  or  Digestive  Stomach,  suff^ers  most  from 
inflammation  (Gastritis)  and  is  frequently  caused  by  the  drinking  of 
strong  acids,  or  through  mineral,  alkaline,  or  fungoid  poisons,  &c.  As 
already  stated,  the  first  three  stomachs,  being  merely  preparatory  to, 
and  sifting  machines  for,  the  fourth,  are  lined  by  cuticular  membrane, 
resembling  the  outer  skin,  so  that  poisonous  materials  rarely  have  much 
effect  on  them ;  but  when  the  poison  reaches  the  fourth  stomach,  with 
its  fine  velvety,  mucous  membrane,  and  digestive  function,  it  soon 
establishes  its  action.  I  have  knovv'n  arsenic  to  have  been  taken  by 
cattle,  which  showed  no  ill  effect  till  the  fourth  and  up  to  the  eighth 
day,  when  the  poisonous  action  set  in,  killing  them  in  from  four  to  six 
hours.  The  abdominal  pain,  perspiration,  and  excitement,  in  these 
cases,  were  something  frightful  to  see;  the  animals  became  quite 
frantic,  then  dropped  down,  and  died  suddenly.  Drinking  water  from 
streams  wherein  coal  wash  has  been  discharged,  is  said  to  have 
an  injurious  effect  on  this  stomach,  causing  great  emaciation,  hide- 
bound, diarrhoea,  and,  eventually,  death.  I  have  been  engaged 
in  several  litigations  relative  to  this,  and  must  say  that  I  have 
never  yet  found  any  injurious  effects  arise  from  cattle  drinking  the 
black  coal  water ;  but  should  the  washed  material  from  the  sides  of 
the  burning  refuse  banks  adjoining  the  coal  pit- — charged,  as  it  is 
with  free  sulphuric  acid,  and  sulphate  of  iron — get  into  a  stream, 
and    animals  be   allowed   to  drink   this  water  for  any   length  of  time. 


chronic  inflammation  of  this  stomach,  and  of  the  bowels,  with  great 
emaciation  and  diarrhoea,  is  the  result,  followed  by  a  slow  lingering 
death,  from  inanition.  Irritation  and  inflammation  of  this  stomach  is 
at  times  also  set  up,  by  the  irritating  husks  of  castor  or  croton  beans, 
and  other  deleterious  seeds  having  been  incorporated  in  feeding  cakes. 
Moulded  cakes,  particularly  undecorticated  cotton  cake,  have  also  a 
very  injurious  and  frequently  fatal  action  on  this  stomach.  Small 
Worms — Strongylus  Contortus,  and*  other  thread-like  worms, 
which  infest  the  lining  membrane  of  this  stomach,  and  intestines  of 
both  cattle  and  sheep,  also  cause  great  irritation,  exhaustion,  diarrhoea, 
and  extreme  emaciation,  and  this  is  particularly  the  case  in  young 
animals,  in  cold  wet  seasons  (par.  312).  Treatment  : — First  find  out 
the  cause,  and  if  possible  remove  it,  and  follow  the  recommendation 
laid  down  in  paragraph  250.  The  post  mortem  appearance  of  the  stomach 
resembles  that  exhibited  in  the  horse,  as  noted  in  paragraph  251 . 

303.  Lead  Poisoning  is  sometimes  met  with,  and  is  caused  by  the 
animal  picking  up  spent  bullets  near  rifle  ranges,  or  grazing  on  lands 
near  lead-smelting  works,  but  it  is  most  frequently  seen  on  pastures 
where  town  rubbish  has  been  spread,  or  where  the  scrapings  of  paint 
tins  and  tea  lead  have  been  deposited  ;  sometimes  it  is  due  to  the 
animal  getting  to  tins  of  white  lead  and  eating  the  contents.  I  have 
seen  three  cases  from  this  latter  cause.  The  salts  of  lead  are  very 
sweet,  and  cattle  eat  them  with  great  relish.  Lead  poisoning  is  both 
acute  and  chronic.  In  the  acute  cases  the  attack  is  sudden,  and 
resembles  stomach  staggers  (par.  305)  at  first,  or  the  latter  stages  of 
milk  fever,  [Lecture  X.,  Nervous  System),  accompanied  by  paralysis  and 
coma.  Treat.ment  is  generally  of  very  little  avail  ;  sixty-drop  doses 
of  sulphuric  acid,  largely  diluted  with  cold  water,  might  be  pumped 
into  the  stomach,  to  act  on  the  lead  chemically,  and  form  the  insoluble 
sulphate  of  lead  ;  and  this  should  be  followed  up  by  half-pint  doses  of 
raw  linseed  oil,  every  six  or  eight  hours.  In  chronic  lead  poisoning, 
the  animal  just  dwindles  away,  blue  lines  being  noticed  round  the 
gums.  Thirty-drop  doses  of  sulphuric  acid,  with  one  drachm  of 
sulphate  of  quinine,  given  in  one  pint  of  cold  water  twice  a  day,  is  in 
such  cases  useful. 


304.  Vegetable  Poisons. — Plants  of  a  poisonous  nature  are  many, 
and,  considering  their  distribution,  it  is  astonishing  that  there  are 
not  more  fatal  cases.  Some  of  the  most  common  and  well-known 
poisonous  plants  are  as  follows  :  —  Hemlock  [Conium  Maciilatum). 
Fools'  Parsley  {^thusa  Cynapium).  Water  Hemlock  or  Cowbane 
[Cicnta  Virosa).  Water  Dropwort  or  Dead  Tongue  [CEnanthe 
Crocata).  Deadly  Nightshade  [Atropa  Belladonna).  Fox  Glove 
{Digitalis  Purpurea).  Monkshood  [Aconitnm  Napellus).  Yew  Tree 
{Taxus  Baccata).  Rhododendron  [Ponticum).  The  half-dried  twigs 
of  the  yew  tree  and  rhododendron,  as  already  stated,  are  more 
acute  and  dangerous  than  the  green  branches  (par.  251).  The 
water  dropwort,  or  dead  tongue,  is  sometimes  mistaken  for  the 
water  hemlock,  or  cowbane,  both  plants  are,  however,  poisonous  to 
cattle,  and  great  care  should  be  taken,  when  ditches  are  being  cleaned 
out,  that  the  roots  of  these  plants  are  gathered,  dried  and  burnt,  as 
when  half  dried,  cattle  are  very  fond  of  them.  The  green  leaf  of 
the  foxglove,  in  the  winter  months,  when  the  ground  is  covered  with 
snow,  is  also  dangerous  to  sheep,  and  should  be  cut  down  and  removed 
from  pastures  on  which  sheep  are  grazing.  Vegetable  poisons  usually 
prove  fatal  on  account  of  the  peculiar  arrangement  of  the  stomach 
compartments  of  cattle  and  sheep,  which  permits  of  large  quantities 
of  the  poisonous  material  being  gathered  before  the  poisonous  action 
is  established,  thus  rendering  treatment  of  little  avail.  The  symptoms 
of,  and  treatment  for,  vegetable  poisoning  are  discussed  m 
paragraph  251 .  Acorns.  Although  pigs  eat  acorns  with  impunity, 
yet  when  taken  in  excess  by  horses  and  ■  cattle  they  are  very 
dangerous,  causing  indigestion  and,  at  times,  death.  When  plentiful, 
they  should  be  gathered  off  the  ground. 

305.  Stomach  Staggers  is  most  frequently  seen  in  the  summer 
months,  more  particularly  in  dry  seasons,  and  where  cattle  are  grazed 
on  hilly  pastures,  or  on  first  and  second  years'  crop  of  seed  grass  ;  it  is 
not  nearly  so  rife  on  old-laid  pastures.  It  is  thought  to  be  caused  by 
the  rye-grass  aborting,  or  seeding  prematurely,  but  an  overfeed  of  green 
rye  corn  will  cause  the  identical  same  symptoms.  No  doubt,  the  heat  of 
the  sun,  and  the  dryness  of  the  grass,  in  the  first  place  have  much  to  do 


with  it,  through  inducing  acute  indigestion  with  head  symptoms  ;  wliile 
in  the  second  place  some  pecuhar  chemical  action  seems  to  take  place 
just  when  the  rye  is  blooming,  so  that  if  large  quantities  are  consumed 
about  this  time,  the  rye  has  a  peculiar  toxic  action,  producing  delirium, 
followed  by  coma.  Symptoms  :  If  a  milch  cow,  she  suddenly  drops  off 
her  milk  ;  stops  feeding  and  chewing  the  cud  ;  the  hair  looks  dingy  and 
on  end  ;  the  sides  appear  flat,  the  belly  tucked  up,  and  the  patient  is 
very  listless.  This  goes  on  for  36  or  48  hours,  when  the  pupil  of  the  eye 
is  noticed  to  be  dilated,  and  the  eye  has  a  starry  appearance  ;  the 
breathing  is  slow  and  heavy,  and  the  anunal  stands  over  on  its  fetlocks. 
At  the  commencement,  there  is  slight  diarrhoea,  followed  by  consider- 
able constipation,  due  to  the  want  of  nervous  energy  in  the  stomachs 
and  bowels.  If  large  dosfes  of  purgative  medicine  have  been  given, 
there  may  be  a  watery  discharge  from  the  bowels,  but  httle  or  no  faeces. 
At  this  stage,  the  animal  begins  to  press  its  head  against  the  wall,  and 
snores  loudly  ;  or,  when  let  out,  seems  quite  blind,  rushing  forward 
or  backward,  and  tumbling  over  any  object  which  may  be  in  the  way. 
Treatment  :  The  administration  of  strong  saline  purgatives,  such  as 
Epsom  or  Glauber's  salts,  are  to  be  strongly  condemned.  In  the  first 
stages,  raw  linseed  oil,  in  from  8  to  10  ounce  doses,  mixed  with  one 
drachm  of  quinine  and  a  teacupful  of  whisky,  should  be  given  every  six 
or  eight  hours  ;  plenty  of  boiled  gruel,  linseed  jelly,  and  bran,  or  hay 
tea  and  cold  water,  should  be  offered  the  animal  to  drink,  the  object 
being  to  get  some  food  into  the  stomach,  to  neutralize,  or,  at  least, 
modify,  the  action  of  that  which  is  causing  the  complaint.  Once  the 
patient  begins  to  press  its  head  against  the  wall,  the  best  plan  is  to 
have  it  slaughtered. 

306.  As  already  stated,  the  arrangement  of  the  intestines  of  cattle 
is  quite  different  to  that  of  the  horse  ;  they  are  much  smaller,  but 
a  great  deal  longer.  On  account  of  cattle  being  of  a  less  excitable 
temperament,  they  do  not  suffer  so  much  as  the  horse  from  bowel 
complaints,  but  are  more  prone  to  stomach  derangements.  Occasion- 
ally we  have  spasmodic  colic,  manifested  by  the  animal  kicking  at 
its  belly,  lying  down  and  getting  up  frequently,  and  switching  and 
twisting  the  tail.    These  cases  are  sometimes  readily  enough  relieved. 


but,  at  others,  may  go  on  for  some  days.  Treatment  :  From  8  to  12 
ounces  of  linseed  oil  should  be  given,  mixed  with  half  to  two  ounces 
each  of  veterinary  chlorodyne  and  turpentine,  and  half  the  quantity 
repeated  in  six  or  eight  hours,  if  necessary. 

307.  Enteritis,  or  inflammation  of  the  bowels,  in  cattle,  is 
happily  very  rare.  The  animal  lingers  on  for  four  to  six  days, 
whereas  in  the  horse  it  would  prove  fatal  in  as  many  hours;  nor  do 
cattle  exhibit  the  acute  symptoms  seen  m  the  horse,  but  lie  continuously, 
breathing  quickly,  with  a  sharp  moanmg  grunt,  and  appearmg  very 
much  depressed.  Treatment  :  Chlorodyne  from  4  drachms  to  2 
ounces,  or  the  same  quantity  of  laudanum,  in  8  to  12  ounces  raw 
linseed  oil,  can  be  given  every  4  to  8  hours,  and  blankets  wrung  out  of 
hot  water  should  be  rolled  around  the  body,  with  a  waterproof 
covering  on  the  top. 

308.  Gut-tie  is  a  more  common  complaint,  but,  unlike  the  horse, 
cattle  bear  this  very  patiently,  lingering  on  for  six  or  seven  days  where 
it  would  only  take  a  like  number  of  hours  for  a  horse  to  fight  itself  to 
death.  Gut-tie  is  due  to  some  false  membrane  forming  in  the  abdominal 
cavity,  and  getting  attached  to,  or  encircling,  some  part  of  the  intestines. 
It  is  mostly  found  in  young  bullock-stirks,  yet  I  have  seen  three  cases  in 
young  heifers.  The  animal  stops  feeding,  twitches  the  hind  quarters 
and  tail,  crosses  one  hind  leg  over  the  other,  and  occasionally,  with  pain, 
passes  a  small  quantity  of  bloody  mucus.  If  let  out,  it  has  a  great 
tendency  to  walk  backwards,  and,  if  near  a  bank,  will  back  its  hind  legs 
on  to  the  top,  and  stand  with  its  fore  feet  in  the  ditch  :  this  appears 
to  give  great  relief.  Treatment  :  It  is  dangerous  in  this  ailment  to  give 
large  doses  of  purgative  medicine.  Small  doses  (5  to  8  ounces)  of  linseed 
oil,  with  one  ounce  of  chlorodyne,  may  be  given  every  six  or  eight 
hours,  to  keep  the  patient  quiet,  but  hypodermic  injections  of  morphia 
and  atropine  are  most  to  be  relied  upon.  Another  remedy  recom- 
mended is  to  cut  into  the  right  flank,  pass  the  hand  through  the 
opening,  and  endeavour  to  find  the  cord,  and  divide  it,  if  possible,  but 
this  operation  should  only  be  attempted  by  a  professional  expert.  In 
one  case,  that  of  a  bullock,  I  passed  my  hand  as  far  up  the  rectum  as 


possible,  and,  when  working  along,  felt  a  cord  outside  the  bowel.  I 
gave  it  three  gentle  pulls,  when  it  broke  ;  the  animal  got  immediate 
relief,  and  did  well. 

309.  Before  going  any  further,  I  must  add  a  word  of  caution,  which 
is,  never  to  horn  gruel  into  an  animal  recovering  from  an  illness,  as  is 
too  frequently  done.  If  the  patient  will  drink  gruel,  milk,  or  cold 
water,  give  it,  and  entice  it  to  eat  with  all  sorts  of  tit-bits  of  food — 
oat-sheaf  for  preference,  wheat,  or  barley-straw — so  as  to  induce 
chewing  the  cud,  which  the  horning  in  of  nutriment  is  the  very  best 
thing  to  prevent  and  therefore  retards  recovery.  Again,  while 
injections  are  very  serviceable  in  bowel  complaints  in  the  horse,  they 
are  of  little  or  no  use  to  cattle. 

310.  Diarrhoea,  or  Scour,  is  acute,  chronic,  and  mtermitteni,  and  a 
very  common  complaint  in  cattle.  It  is  due  to  a  variety  of  causes, 
such  as  eating  frosted  turnips,  coarse  indigestible  or  wet  grasses,  or 
from  worms,  liver  flukes,  and  scrofula,  or  tubercolosis.  Young  cattle, 
rising  two  years  old,  suffer  most,  in  which  case  the  common  cause  is 
turning  them  out  on  to  grass  in  wet  autumns,  or  on  to  oat-stubble, 
where  the  oats  have  been  shaken  and  have  germinated  on  the  ground. 
These  corn  growths  are  very  dangerous  both  to  young  cattle  and  sheep, 
and  should  be  avoided,  as  they  harbour  the  ova  of  intestinal  and  other 
worms.  The  crowns,  or  shells,  of  the  temporary  teeth  not  coming  off 
at  their  proper  time  is  also  another  great  inducement  to  diarrhoea  in 
young  stock.  The  mouth  should  therefore  be  examined,  and  the  shells 
removed,  (Lecture  VII.,  Teeth).  Worms — the  strongylus  contortus,  found 
in  the  lining  membrane  of  the  fourth  stomach  and  intestines — and 
flukes  found  in  the  liver, — constitute  other  chief  causes  of  scour  ;  and 
this  arises  through  animals  being  turned  out  on  to  strong,  wet  lands 
in  summer  and  autumn.  Derangement  and  Disease  of  the  liver 
of  various  kinds  are  often  also  the  means  of  producing  scour.  So, 
seeing  that  there  is  such  a  multitude  of  causes,  it  is  of  the  greatest 
importance  to  the  owner,  as  well  as  to  the  veterinary  surgeon,  to  find 
the  cause,  and  treat  accordingly. 


311.  Upon  no  consideration  should  diarrhcea  be  stopped  suddenly,  as 
it  may  be  due  to  some  hidden  ailment,  which  Nature  is  trying  to  relieve 
in  her  own  way.  Treatment  :  Eight  to  twelve  ounce  doses  of  linseed 
oil,  along  with  from  half  to  two  ounces  each  of  chlorodyne  and 
aromatic  spirits  of  ammonia,  may  therefore  be  used  in  the  first  stages 
with  great  advantage,  foUov/ing  it  up  with  vegetable  and  alkaline 
tonics  ;  while,  at  times,  the  preparations  of  iron  are  useful  (see  Appendix). 
Good  nutritious  food,  of  an  easily  digestible  character,  should  also  be 
given,  such  as  crushed  oats,  bran,  and  linseed  cake,  milk,  and  linseed 
jelly ;  and,  upon  no  consideration,  should  a  small  quantity  of  salt  be 
omitted  from  the  food  at  each  end  of  the  day. 

3T2.  Where  the  affection  is  attributable  to  worms  or  flukes,  small 
and  repeated  doses  of  oil  and  turpentine  may  be  administered  with 
great  advantage  (see  Appendix),  and  the  lands  should  be  dressed  with 
salt.  The  Liver  Fluke  is  a  frequent  producer  of  diarrhoea,  and  often 
with  a  fatal  result,  both  in  young  cattle  and  sheep.  As  it  is  also 
the  cause  of  a  great  amount  of  troublesome  litigation  amongst 
neighbours,  a  sketch  of  its  character  may  not  be  out  of  place  here. 
The  Liver  Fluke,  or  Distoniuni  Hepaficnni,  is  of  the  order  Treniatoda,  or 
fiat  suctorial  worms.  It  has  a  very  interesting  history,  passing 
through  seven  stages,  between  fluke  and  fluke,  six  of  which  are 
accomplished  outside  ">he  body  of  the  sheep,  or  host.  (See  Plates 
XXIII.  and  XXIV.,  showing  the  various  stages  through  which  it 
passes),  The  flukes  are  bi-sexual,  having  both  male  and  female  organs 
in  one  body,  and  are  generated  from  little  eggs.  These  eggs  are 
developed  inside  the  parent  fluke, — which  lies  in  the  bile  ducts  of  the 
liver  of  the  host, — and  are  ejected  from  the  parent  by  one  of  its 
openings,  and  carried  by  the  bile  to  the  intestines,  and  there  eventually 
carried,  ejected,  and  deposited  on  the  ground  in  the  droppings.  As 
many  as  200  flukes  have  been  counted  in  one  liver,  whilst  the  number 
of  eggs  generated  by  these  has  been  reckoned  at  7,400,000,  or  about 
40,000  to  each  fluke.  The  eggs  are  about  yi^  of  an  inch  long,  and 
gig  of  an  inch  broad.  Mr.  A.  P.  Thomas'  summary  of  the  life  history 
is  as  follows  : — 


A.  The  Egg  of  the  Liver  Fluke 

I.     The  Lid  or  Cap. 

B.  The  Egg  of  the  Fluke,  containing  an  Embryo  ready  for  hatching. 

I.     The  Cap  or  Lid. 

C.  The  Ciliate'd  Embryo  of  the  Fluke  boring  into  a  Snail,  (Llr,i)ueus 


D.  A  young  Sporocyst  dividing  into  two. 

E      A  fully-developed  Sporocyst,  showing  a  young  Redia. 
I.     The  young  Redia, 

F.     A  Redia,  showing  Mouth  and  Stomach. 


"  The  adult  fluke,  in  the  liver  of  the  sheep  produces  enormous  numbers  of  eggs, 
which  are  distributed  with  the  droppings  of  the  sheep.  If  these  eggs  have  moisture, 
and  a  suitable  degree  of  warmth,  they  continue  to  live,  and  in  each  is  formed  an 
embryo.  The  embryo  leaves  the  egg,  and  swims  in  search  of  the  particular  snail, 
'  Limnans  triincatuhis,'  within  which  its  future  life  and  growth  take  place.  The 
embryo  bores  into  the  snail,  and  then  grows  into  the  form  which  is  called  a  sporocysi. 
The  sporocyst  gives  rise  to  the  second  generation.  This  is  known  as  redicr.  The 
redicF,  in  turn,  produces  the  third  generation,  which  has  the  form  of  a  tadpole,  and  is 
called  cercaria.  The  ceiraria  quit  the  snail,  and  enclose  themselves  in  envelopes,  or 
cysts,  which  are  attached  to  the  grass.  When  the  grass  to  which  the  cysts  adhere 
is  eaten  by  the  sheep,  or  other  suitable  host,  the  young  liver  fluke  comes  out  of  the 
cyst  and  takes  up  its  abode  in  the  liver  of  its  host,  and  the  fatal  circle  is  thus 
completed.  It  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that  the  fluke  disease  is  one  which  alternates 
between  a  particular  snail  and  the  sheep.  A  sheep  cannot  take  the  infection  directly 
from  another  sheep,  nor  can  one  snail  take  it  directly  from  another  snail.  The  sheep, 
by  spreading  the  eggs  of  the  fluke,  gives  infection  to  the  snail,  and  the  snail,  in  turn, 
by  harbouring  and  distributing  the  cercaricF,  conveys  the  infection  to  the  sheep. 

The  conditions  necessary  for  the  e.xistence  of  liver-rot,  in  any  given  locality,  are 
as  follows  ; — 

I. — There  must  be  fluke  eggs  on  the  ground. 

2. — There  must  be  wet  ground,  or  water,  during  the  warmer  weather,  for  the 
eggs  to  hatch  in. 

3. — A  particular  snail,  called  '  Limnceus  triincatulus,'  must  be  present. 

4. — Sheep,  or  other  animals,  must  be  allowed  to  feed  on  the  same  ground, 
without  proper  precautions  being  taken. 

If  any  one  of  these  conditions  remains  unsatisfied,  there  can  be  no  fluke-disease 
or  liver-rot  in  the  locality. 

If  the  eggs  of  the  liver-fluke  are  to  be  hatched,  they  must  be  in  water,  or,  at 
least,  be  kept  moist,  during  some  weeks  of  warm  weather,  or  even  some  months,  if 
the  temperature  be  lower.  If  the  eggs  are  once  thoroughly  dried,  their  vitality  is 
destroyed,  the  side  of  the  shell  being  usually  crushed  in.  A  temperature  of  about 
74°  to  78"  Fahr.  is  the  most  favourable,  and  then  the  embryo  is  formed  in  about 
two  or  three  weeks  ;  with  less  warmth,  progress  is  slower,  and  with  an  average 
temperature  of  60''  the  growth  occupies  two  or  three  months. 

Ground  is  often,  with  reference  to  the  'rot,'  spoken  of  as  'sound,'  or,  on  the 
contrary,  as  '  rotting.'  When  the  droppmgs,  containing  fluke  eggs,  fall  on  to  a  field, 
the  rain  will  distribute  the  eggs  over  the  surface,  washing  them  down  to  the  roots  of 
the  grass.  If  the  soil  be  light  or  sandy,  and  porous,  the  land  will  be  '  sound,'  for  the 
water  will  filter  into  the  earth,  leaving  the  eggs  on  the  surface,  where  they  will  get 
dried,  and  so  be  destroyed.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  soil  is  heavy  and  clayey,  so 
that  the  rain-water  does  not  sink  into  the  ground,  but  flows  along  the  surface,  the 
ground  is  '  rotting.'  For,  as  the  water  flows  over  the  surface,  it  carries  the  fluke-eggs 
along  with  it,  and  deposits  them  in  ditches,  holes,  marshy  places,  or  furrows,  where 
the  water  stands— all  of  them  provinces  where  the  eggs  will  hatch.  The  obvious 
remedy  for  this  evil  is  to  drain  the  land  thoroughly  and  efficiently,  and  it  will  not 
only  do  much  to  prevent  the  rot,  but  will  have  the  further  advantage  of  greatly 
improving  the  herbage.     Where  it  is  not  practicable  to  adopt  this  remedy  at  once, 



either  salt  or  lime  may  be  scattered  over  its  surface  with  advantage.  Both  these 
substances  destroy  the  embryos  of  the  fluke,  and,  at  a  later  period,  the  cysts,  when 
attached  to  the  grass.  And,  still  further,  they  will  destroy  the  snails,  which  serve 
as  hosts  to  the  intermediate  stages  of  the  liver  fluke.  The  freedom  from  rot  of  sheep 
which  are  feeding  on  salt  marshes  is  well  known,  and  is  now  shown  to  be  due  to  the 
poisonous  action  of  the  salt  on  the  embryos,  sporocyst,  redia,  cercaria,  and  cyst,  and  to 
its  similar  action  on  ^ Limnceus  truncatulus'  itself.  Even  a  weak  solution  of  salt  and 
water  (f  per  cent  of  salt)  proves  fatal  to  this  snail.  Dressings  of  salt  have  the 
advantage  over  lime  in  not  spoiling  the  grass  for  immediate  use,  whereas  the  latter 
will  do  so.  It  may,  however,  be  better  at  times  for  the  land  itself  that  lime  should 
be  applied. 

There  seems  to  be  only  this  one  snail  in  England  which  can  serve  as  a  host  to 
the  intermediate  forms  of  the  liver  fluke.  Consequently,  wherever  this  snail  is 
absent,  there  can  be  no  liver  rot ;  and  if  we  could  succeed  in  exterminating  it,  we 
should  render  it  impossible  for  the  disease  to  exist  in  England. 

It  is  naturally  of  much  importance  that  salt  or  lime  should  be  distributed  at  the 
right  time  of  the  year,  when  fluke  germs  and  snails  are  present  in  the  greatest  num- 
bers. The  snail  buries  itself  in  mud  or  soil  in  the  winter  time,  and,  owing  to  the 
cold,  no  embryos  are  hatched  at  that  period. 

If  the  weather  be  warm  in  April,  it  is  possible  that  a  few  may  be  brought  out 
towards  the  end  of  the  month,  but  they  will  not  be  numerous.  In  May,  however, 
greater  numbers  may  be  hatched,  and  still  more  in  June  and  July.  These  two 
months  are  the  time  of  the  year  when  the  country  is  most  liable  to  be  infested  by 
snails.  As  more  eggs  are  distributed  through  the  whole  of  the  summer  by  fluked 
animals,  it  is  clear,  of  course,  that  the  production  of  embryos,  though  in  less  numbers, 
will  continue  from  August  until  the  time  when  the  development  is  checked  by  autum- 
nal cold.  June  and  July,  then,  are  the  principal,  but  not  the  only,  months  in  which 
we  are  to  wage  war  against  the  embryos  ;  the  latter  part  of  August,  September,  and 
October,  are  the  months  in  which,  especially,  to  destroy  the  germs  on  the  grass 
ready  for  transference  to  the  sheep." 

313.  In  the  autumn,  the  snail,  Limncsus  Trnncaiiilus,  just  before  going 
into  its  winter  quarters,  i.e.,  burying  itself  in  the  mud,  may  become 
infested  with  one  for  more  embryos,  and,  or  the  want  of  heat,  their 
further  developement  is  arrested  until  spring,  when  the  rays  of  the 
sun  bring  the  snail  to  the  surface  of  the  ground,  and  the  various 
transformation  stages  of  the  embryo-fluke  is  then  carried  on,  always 
provided  heat  and  moisture  are  present.  This,  to  my  mmd,  is  the 
greatest  cause  of  the  infection.  The  eggs  deposited  by  the  mature 
flukes  in  the  liver,  and  again  deposited  on  the  ground  in  the  winter 
months,  are  in  great  danger  of  being  destroyed  by  the  want  of  heat  to 
germinate  the  embryo,  as  well  as  by  the  absence  of  its  intermediate  host, 
the  snail,  which  is  in  its  winter  habitat.     Sometimes,  however,  too 




— ^^' 










1.  A  fully-developed  Redia,  showing 

a.  A  young  Redia. 

b.  The  Mouth. 

c.  The  Stomach. 

2.  Represents  the  Life  History  of  the  River  Fluke. 

1.  The  Fertilized  Egg. 

2.  The  Ciliated  Embryo. 

3.  The  Sporocyst 

4  The  Redia. 

5  The  Cercaria. 

6.  The  Encysted  Cercaria  (Pupa). 

7,  The  full-grown  Fluke. 

3.  A  Portion  of  Stem  of  Grass,  showing 

a.     The  Cysts  fixed  to  the  same,  each  Cyst  containing  the  Pupa  of 
the  future  Liver  Fluke  ready  to  be  swallowed  by  Sheep. 

4.  A  Cercaria  of  Liver  Fluke,  showing 

a.  The  Tail,  by  which  it  swims. 

b.  The  Cyst  or  Envelope. 

5.  A  full-grown  Fluke,  showing  the  Digestive  System,  and 

a.     The  Mouth. 

6.'    An  Adult  Fluke,  showing  the  Reproductive  Organ  as  Branches,  and 
a.     The  Mouth. 


many  embryos  enter  one  snail,  and  this  results  in  not  only  the  death  of 
of  the  host,  but  in  their  own  as  well.  As  may  be  inferred  from  the 
foregoing  extract,  the  disease  is  not  so  rife  in  dry  seasons,  but  is  very 
common  after  wet  summers.  Animals  may  be  affected  as  early  as 
midsummer,  but  August,  September,  and  October  are  the  principal 
months  for  contamination,  and  as  it  takes  ten  or  twelve  weeks  after 
the  entrance  of  the  pupcv  into  the  liver,  before  any  bad  effects  are 
noticed,  December,  January,  and  February  are  therefore  the  chief 
months  in  which  flukes  are  to  be  seen  fully  matured.  The  fluke  has 
been  proved,  beyond  all  doubt,  to  be  a  fresh-water  creature,  and,  as 
mentioned  previously,  the  disease  is  never  met  with  on  salt  marshes. 
Therefore,  the  land  should  be  dressed  in  Autumn  and  Spring  with 
salt.  The  first  application  being  to  destroy  the  snails  before  they  seek 
their  winter  shelter,  and  the  latter  to  annihilate  any  who  may  have 
escaped  the  previous  dressing,  as  they  come  to  the  surface  of  the  ground  ; 
even  a  weak  solution,  viz.,  one  ounce  of  salt  to  five  pints  of  water, 
proves  fatal.  Salt  should  also  be  given  in  the  animals'  food.  These 
precautions  should  be  especially  attended  to  after  wet  seasons. 

314.  Dysentery,  or  Bloody  Flux,  is  both  acute  and  c/ironic,  and 
is  an  inflammatory  action  of  the  lining  membrane  of  the  bowels,  accom- 
panied by  ulceration,  and  in  some  cases  with  extensive  diarrhoea,  of  a 
thin  bubbly  character,  mixed  with  blood,  and  having  an  offensive  smell. 
It  is  mostly  caused  by  eating  coarse  food,  grown  on  undramed  and 
moorland  pastures.  At  one  time  it  was  of  very  frequent  occurrence,  in 
feeding  bullocks,  but  of  late  years  has  not  been  nearly  so  common. 
Sometimes  neglected  or  chronic  diarrhoea  may  run  into  this  complaint, 
and,  at  other  times,  it  is  a  symptom  of  Tuberailosis.  Treatment  :  Small 
doses  of  linseed  oil  and  chlorodyne  should  be  given,  and  to  these  may  be 
added  from  30  to  60  drops  of  oil  of  cloves,  creasote,  or  carbolic  acid. 
(see  Appendix)  ;  good  nutritious  and  easily  digested  food  is  highly 
necessary,  such  as  milk  and  linseed  jelly  to  drink  two  or  three  times 
a  day.     As  a  rule,  however,  treatment  is  very  unsatisfactory. 

315.  Peritonitis  consists  of  inflammation  of  the  serous  membrane, 
called  the  peritoneum,  which  lines  the  inside  walls  of  the  belly  and 


covers  the  outside  of  the  bowels.  Injuries — the  results  of  foaling, 
calving,  lambing,  or  castrating,  and  wounds  penetrating  the  abdominal 
cavity — are  the  principal  causes  of  peritonitis,  while,  at  times,  it  occurs 
without  any  appreciable  cause  whatever.  This  disease  steals  on  so 
insidiously  that  the  affected  animal  is  generally  at  death's  door  before 
much  notice  is  taken  of  it  :  this  is  especially  noticeable  in  the  horse, 
which  generally  dies  in  a  few  hours  after  being  noticed.  But  the  cow 
may  linger  on  for  a  few  days,  having  a  dull  anxious  look,  with  eyes  red 
and  suffused,  hurried  breathing  (which  is  mainly  done  by  the  front 
ribs),  moaning  and  grinding  of  the  teeth,  trembling  of  the  limbs,  and 
deathly  coldness  pervades  the  whole  body.  The  animal,  as  it  were, 
bleeds  to  death,  owing  to  the  watery  portions  of  the  blood  oozing 
through  the  walls  of  the  blood  vessels  into  the  abdominal  cavity, 
which,  on  post-mortem  examination,  is  found  to  contain  a  large  quantity 
of  straw-coloured  fluid.  When  the  disease  is  discovered,  hypodermic 
injections  of  morphia  should  be  given,  and  cloths,  wrung  out  of  hot 
water,  rolled  round  the  body,  covering  these  again  with  dry  rugs  and 
water-proof  sheeting  (see  par.  250). 

316.  Dropsy,  or  Ascites,  i.e.,  dropsy  of  the  belly,  may  arise  from 
Peritonitis  ;  from  disease  of  the  liver  and  blood-vessels  ;  from  Tubercle, 
and  other  causes.  It  is  not  of  common  occurrence.  The  chief 
symptoms  seen  are  enlargement  of  the  belly,  with  swelling  of  the 
limbs.  Good  nutritious  food,  with  iron  tonics  and  diuretics,  should  be 
resorted  to  (see  Appendix),  while,  in  some  cases,  it  is  necessary  to 
"  tap"  the  animal. 

317.  The  Liver  (Plate  XVIII.,  B.),  is  a  large,  reddish-brown, 
glandular  body,  situated  between  the  stomach  and  diaphragm,  and 
held  in  its  position  by  ligaments.  It  possesses  four  lobes  in  the  horse, 
and  two  distinct  lobes  in  the  cow,  and  is  covered  by  a  coating  of 
peritoneum,  called  "  Glissons  Capsule.''  The  substance  consists  of 
small  lobules,  made  up  of  cells,  arranged  like  a  cartwheel,  between 
which  the  capillaries  run.  The  cells  take  out  from  the  blood  certain 
materials  for  the  formation  of  bile.     The  blood-vessels  of  the  liver 


1st. — Tlie  hepatic  artevy,  which  supplies  it  with  nutrient  blood. 

2nd. — The  hepatic  vein,  which  conveys  venous  blood  back  to  the 

3rd. — The  portal  vein,  or  functional  vessel,  which  brings  the  blood, 
charged  with  absorbed  material,  from  the  stomach,  spleen,  pancreas, 
and  mesentery.  From  this  latter  source  portions  of  the  bile  elements 
are  extracted,  and  the  bile  manufactured  by  the  liver  cells  is  then 
carried  by  the  biliary  tubes  to  the  gall  bladder,  and  from  thence  by 
the  hepatic  duct  which  opens  into  the  small  intestine,  close  to  the 
stomach.  All  animals,  with  the  exception  of  the  horse  and  rat,  have 
a  bag,  called  the  gall  bladder,  for  the  purpose  of  collecting  and  storing 
the  Bile,  a  viscid,  greenish-yellow,  and  bitter  fluid.  Bile  assists  in  the 
digestion,  and  absorption  of  the  nutrient  material  in  the  intestines,  it 
also  increases  the  peristaltic  action  of  the  bowels. 

318.  The  liver  is  the  largest  organ  of  the  body  ;  but,  while  frequently 
the  subject  of  a  great  amount  of  disease  and  disorder  in  human  beings, 
it  is,  happily,  not  nearly  so  subject  to  derangements  in  the  domestic 
animals.  Like  all  other  parts  of  the  body,  it  is  liable  to  inflammation. 
The  symptoms  are  not  very  well  defined,  and  diagnosis  has  to  be 
arrived  at  by  negative  results.  Such  cases  should  always,  therefore,  be 
entrusted  to  professional  care.  Occasionally,  on  making  di post-mortem, 
enormously  enlarged  livers  are  found,  both  in  horses  and  cattle, 
which  the  animals,  when  alive,  gave  no  indications  of  such  ailments 
being  present.  Sometimes,  however,  these  enlarged,  or  hypertrophied 
livers  are  accompanied  in  the  horse  by  dropsical  swelling  of  the  legs, 
and  shortness  of  breath  ;  while  in  cattle,  the  brisket,  under  side 
of  the  neck,  and  lower  jaw,  become  filled  with  a  watery  effusion. 
This  latter  symptom  is  also  seen  in  traumatic  heart  disease  in  cattle. 
When  cattle  are  heavily  stall-fed  with  fancy  foods,  too  highly  seasoned 
with  aromatic  flavouring,  and  containing  an  excess  of  amylaceous 
matter,  such  as  damaged  rice,  starch,  sugar,  &c.,  or  where  there  is  a 
preponderance  of  carbonaceous  over  nitrogenous  principles — in  other 
words,  a  badly  balanced  food — the  liver  is  apt  to  undergo  fatty 
degeneration,  or  fatty  infiltration.  In  the  former,  the  liver  cells  become 
changed  into   material   of  a  fatty   nature  ;  while  in  the   latter,  fatty 


globules  are  deposited  in  the  cells.  These  cases  may  be  sub-acute  or 
chronic.  Symptoms  :  The  animal  refuses  its  food,  drinks  large  quantities 
of  water,  and  soon  becomes  greatly  emaciated,  but  rarely  hidebound 
(although  the  hair  looks  staring  and  on  end),  and  is  affected  with 
a  lead-coloured,  exhaustive,  and  stinking  diarrhoea.  Treatment  is 
very  unsatisfactory ;  a  fatal  termination  usually  supervening.  Chloride 
or  bromide  of  ammonia,  with  carbonate  of  soda,  half  an  ounce  each, 
night  and  morning,  may,  however,  be  tried.  The  liver  is  liable  also  to 
ruptuve.  This  may  be  occasioned  by  engorgement  and  congestion  of 
the  portal  vein,  but  in  the  horse  it  is  more  often  due  to  the  effects  of 
falling  in  jumping.  As  a  rule,  it  proves  fatal.  In  these  cases,  the 
mucous  membranes  become  pale  and  blanched,  there  is  a  running- 
down  pulse  ;  then  muscular  twitchings  supervene,  the  legs  and  body 
get  icy-cold,  and  death  soon  follows.  The  liver  is  also  a  frequent  seat 
of  tubercular  deposits,  abscesses,  and  tumours,  as  well  as  atrophy. 

319.  Jaundice  may  arise  from  many  causes,  but  is  generally  looked 
upon  as  a  symptom  of  some  derangement  of  the  liver,  such  as  con- 
gestion, obstruction  in  the  bile  ducts,  loss  of  tone,  and,  consequently, 
inability  to  secrete  the  bile.  Congestion  is  one  of  the  most  frequent 
liver  disturbances  met  with  in  horses  and  cattle.  It  generally  occurs 
in  hot,  dry  seasons  ;  the  animal  becomes  sluggish,  languid,  and  lazy, 
drops  the  head,  loses  the  appetite,  but  evinces  no  pain.  The  pulse  is 
full,  slow,  and  soft,  eyelids  and  gums  of  a  dirty  yellow  or  orange 
colour  ;  tongue  furred  ;  breath  foetid  ;  bowels  costive  ;  faeces  of  a  light 
slate  colour ;  while,  in  some  cases  in  the  horse,  the  animal  goes  lame 
on  one  fore  leg — usually  the  off  (right)  one.  Cattle  are,  however, 
more  subject  to  this  complaint  than  the  horse,  and  the  dirty  yellow  or 
orange  colour  can  be  readily  noticed  in  the  corner  of  the  eye,  on  the 
udder,  under  the  tail,  and,  indeed,  on  any  white  part  of  the  skin,  or 
any  visible  mucous  membrane,  particularly  the  vagina.  The  belly  is 
flat  ;  the  appetite  bad  ;  and  the  animal  rarely  chews  the  cud. 
Treatment  :  A  good  dose  of  opening  medicine  should  be  given  at 
first.  One  drachm  of  calomel,  suspended  in  from  i^  to  2  ounces 
spirits  of  nitre,  and  a  pint  of  linseed  oil,  may  be  given  with  advantage, 
either   to  horses    or   cattle,   followed   up    by   alkaline    and    vegetable 


tonics  (see  Appetidix).  Cattle  also  occasionally  suffer  from  the  presence 
of  the  dead  bodies  of  the  Liver  Fluke  which  have  undergone  calcareous 
degeneration,  and  fill  the  bile  ducts  of  the  liver  with  incrustations,- 
accompanied  by  a  thickening  of  the  walls  of  the  ducts,  rendering  the 
liver  hard  and  gritty,  and  thereby  interfering  with  its  function. 
Symptoms  :  A  general  yellowness  is  seen  all  over  the  body,  the  skin 
is  tight  and  scruffy,  with  gradual  wasting  away  of  the  flesh  ;  the 
appetite  and  action  of  the  bowels  are  both  very  irregular,  and  the 
animal  has  all  the  appearances  of  a  piner,  or  a  tubercular  patient. 
Treatment  is  of  little  avail,  and  if  not  slaughtered  early,  the  animal 
dies  from  inanition.  Alkaline  tonics  (see  Appendix)  can  be  tried,  with 
daily  doses  of  one  wineglassful  of  cod  liver  oil  given  m  milk. 

320.  Gall  Stones. — These  are  extremely  rare,  either  in  horses  or 
cattle.  Some  years  ago,  I  had  a  case  at  Mr.  G.  T.  Carr's,  then  at 
Silloth  Farm,  the  subject  being  the  hunting  sire,  "  Best  Returns.''  It 
commenced  with  all  the  indications  of  sub-acute  inflammation  of  the 
bowels,  with  severe  colicky  pains.  The  acute  symptoms  were  got  over, 
and  the  case  settled  down  into  a  chronic  form,  and  for  fully  five  or  six 
weeks  the  bowels  were  very  irregular  :  sometimes  slightly  purged,  and 
at  others  only  costive,  dry,  hard,  primrose-coloured  pellets  being  excreted . 
At  length  it  was  seized  with  all  the  symptoms  of  ura^mic  poisoning — the 
head  being  pendulous  and  oscillating  ;  fore-feet  stiffly  pushed  forward, 
and  legs  occasionally  bended  at  the  knees ;  hind  legs  placed  wide  apart ; 
pulse  very  full,  with  slight  colicky  pains — and  if  made  to  move,  it  tumbled 
against  the  side  of  the  box,  which  had  to  be  padded  with  sacks  of 
straw.  Bleeding  had  a  wonderful  effect,  and  was  frequently  resorted 
to  ;  in  fact,  it  was  tlie  only  thmg  which  gave  any  relief.  At  last  it 
was  found  dead  in  the  box,  and  ihe  post-mortem  showed  a  gall  stone  of  a 
beautiful  chrome  yellow  colour,  about  the  size  of  a  pullet's  e^g, 
situated  in  the  hepatic  duct,  close  to  its  opening  into  the  intestine.  It 
was  made  up  of  concentric  layers  of  a  very  delicate  nature,  which 
fleeced  off  on  the  slightest  touch. 

321.  Liver  complications  are  more  common  in  the  dog  than  in  any 
other  of  the  domestic  animals,  more  particularly  the  over-fed  petted  dog. 


that  is  being  continually  stuffed  on  sweet  and  fancy  foods,  which 
are  apt  to  set  up  various  derangements  and  diseases  of  the  liver,  such 
as  congestion,  enlargement,  hardening,  scirrhous,  Sec,  and  which  creep 
on  very  insiduously,  being  frequently  accompanied  with  asthma  and 
shortness  of  breath.  The  Symptoms  of  the  different  forms  of  liver 
complication  in  the  dog  are  not  well  defined.  The  first  symptom, 
generally,  to  be  noticed  is  that  the  skin  and  coat  begin  to  look  dry  and 
harsh,  the  mouth  and  the  tongue  lose  their  bright  rose  colour,  the 
breath  becomes  foetid,  and  the  eye  is  dull  and  sleepy  looking,  while 
the  teeth  are  dirty.  The  appetite,  however,  is  fair,  yet  the  dog  loses 
flesh,  and  the  belly  becomes  enlarged  and  hard,  while  there  is  nearly 
always  present  a  peculiar  barking,  long,  husky  cough.  Treatment  : 
First  all  fancy  foods  should  be  stopped,  and  a  plain  diet  given,  such 
as  dog  biscuit  steeped  in  soup,  feeding  twice  in  twenty-four  hours, 
and  giving  gentle  walking  exercise.  For  medicine  mix  one  drachm 
each  of  blue  pill,  powdered  aloes,  and  powdered  rhubarb,  and  make 
into  twelve  pills,  and  give  one  every  third  or  fourth  day.  This  dose 
is  for  an  ordinary-sized  collie  dog  ;  other  doses  should  be  regulated 
according  to  age,  breed  and  size  of  dog. 

322.  Pancreas. — I  have  never,  as  yet,  met  with  any  disease  of  this 
organ,  either  in  post-mortems,  or  otherwise,  except  in  tubercular 

323.  The  Spleen,  Milt,  or  Cat-Collop,  (Pla/e  XVIII. ,  E.J,  is 
situated  on  the  left  side  of  the  larger  curvature  of  the  stomach.  It  has 
a  bluish-grey,  mottled  appearance  (in  the  pig,  slightly  red),  shaped  like 
a  sole,  and  is  very  soft  and  elastic.  It  is  ductless,  having  no  channel 
for  the  removal  of  its  products,  except  by  means  of  the  blood-vessels. 
Its  proper  functions  are  not  exactly  known,  though  several  are 
ascribed  to  it.  Still,  it  can  be  done  without,  as  cases  are  on  record 
where  the  spleen  has  been  successfully  removed  from  dog  and  man, 
without  causing  death,  or,  indeed,  much  inconvenience,  so  long  as  the 
diet  was  properly  attended  to.  My  opinion  is,  that  it  acts  as  a  reservoir 
for  the  old,  worn-out  red  corpuscles,  which  have  done  their  duty  in  the 
blood.     These,  rushing  to  the  spleen,  during  digestion,  are   broken 


down,  disintegrated,  and  carried  by  the  splenic  vein  into  the  portal 
vein,  thence  to  the  liver,  and  help  to  form  bile.  (See  Leciure  VIII., 
Circulatkn.J  The  spleen  is  supplied  with  blood  by  the  splenic  artery — 
a  branch  of  the  Cceliac  Axis,  which  is  a  large  artery,  that  arises  from 
the  posterior  or  abdominal  aorta,  just  after  it  passes  through  the 
diaphragm.  This  artery  divides  into  three  branches  ; — ist,  the  gastrtc 
artery,  supplying  the  stomach  ;  2nd,  the  hepatic  artery,  supplying  the 
liver ;  and  3rd,  the  splenic  artery,  which  supplies  the  spleen  with 
nutrient  blood.  Although  the  spleen  can  be  done  without,  it  is  a  very 
dangerous  organ  when  diseased.  Sometimes,  in  the  horse,  it  reaches 
an  enormous  size,  without,  however,  showing  any  appreciable 
symptoms  during  life. 

324.  Lymphadenoma. — This  is  a  peculiar  disease  of  the  spleen  in 
the  horse — said  by  some  to  be -of  a  tubercular  character.  The 
symptoms  are  very  remarkable—  the  animal  feeds  well,  but  gradually 
loses  flesh  ;  has  a  dingy  staring  coat,  and  a  staggering,  swinging  gait. 
The  visible  mucous  membranes,  such  as  eyelids,  &c.,  are  as  pale  as 
white  paper ;  the  pulse  is  soft,  and  rather  frequent  ;  the  bowels,  as  a 
rule,  are  quite  normal.  The  animal  lingers  on  for  some  considerable 
time,  having  to  be  supported  on  slings  to  keep  it  on  its  feet.  These 
cases  are  invariably  fatal,  the  post-mortem  showing  the  presence  of 
pearly-white  tumours  of  lymphoid  tissue,  and  of  various  sizes,  made  up  in 
concentric  layers,  that  are  studded  through  the  spleen,  while  at  times  the 
lymphatic  glands  are  also  implicated.  Treatment  is  of  little  avail, 
but  one  drachm  each  of  iodine  and  sulphate  of  iron  made  into  a  ball 
and  given  once  a  day  till  eight  doses  are  given  can  be  tried,  and 
repeated  if  necessary. 

325.  Splenic  Apoplexy,  or  Anthrax. — It  has  been  shown 
by  microscopical  examination  of  the  blood,  and  verified  by  direct 
inoculation  of  the  same  into  healthy  subjects,  that  anthrax  is  due 
to  the  presence  of  micro-organisms — the  Bacilli  Anthracis, — and  nearly 
all  the  domestic  animals  are  more  or  less  subject  to  its  influence,  as  is 
also  the  human  being.  While  subscribing  to  the  above,  there 
is  still  something  very  remarkable  to  be  noticed  about  the  so  called 


outbreaks  of  anthrax  in  this  country,  arising,  as  they  do,  under  such  a 
variety  of  conditions.  For  instance  :  The  process  of  fermenting 
hay-chop,  if  not  properly  and  carefully  carried  out,  experience  shows 
to  be  very  dangerous.  This  process  consists  of  saturating  chopped 
hay  with  cold  water,  or  cold  water  and  treacle,  mixing  it  with  sliced 
turnips,  and  letting  the  mixture  lie  until  fermented — that  is  until  the 
starchy  matters  have  been  converted  into  their  sugary  form.  Should 
this,  however,  be  carried  too  far,  viz.,  through  the  sugary  to  the 
acetous  stage  (and  this  is  easily  done  by  leaving  some  of  the  old  chop 
and  mixing  it  with  the  new — a  little  leaven  leaventh  the  whole  lump), 
and  the  cattle  be  fed  on  this  for  any  length  of  time — a  fortnight,  or  even 
less — bad  results  generally  follow,  more  particularly  if  some  food  rich 
in  nitrogen,  such  as  decorticated  cotton  cake  has  been  added  to  the 
mixture.  I  have,  on  six  separate  occasions,  known  anthrax  to  have 
followed  this  method  of  preparing  the  food  and  feeding;  and,  on 
changing  the  food  to  a  simple  diet,  the  malady  was  always  arrested. 
On  two  other  occasions  anthrax  followed  the  feedmg  of  cattle  with 
over-macerated  cummings,  left  too  long  exposed  to  the  action  of  the 
atmosphere,  when  they  were  rendered  as  sour  as  vinegar.  Whether 
the  method  of  manipulating  the  food  renders  it  into  such  a  condition 
that  when  eaten  it  has  some  peculiar  action  on  the  fluids  and  solids  of 
the  body,  whereby  they  are  converted  into  a  suitable  pabulum,  or  seed 
bed,  favourable  for  the  entrance  and  development  of  the  spores  of  the 
disease  ;  or  whether  the  spores  are  in  the  foods  and  are  roused  into 
activity  by  the  methods  of  preparation,  I  am  unable  to  say.  Again, 
on  the  other  hand,  several  outbreaks  have  also  occurred  on  undrained 
pasture  lands.  On  one  occasion,  in  1862,  the  complaint  broke  out 
amongst  25  two-year-old  short-horn  heifers,  of  which  six  died  in  two 
days,  and  they  were  only  ailing  from  two  to  four  hours  ;  the  remaining 
ig  were  removed  to  another  pasture,  and  each  one  got  a  dose  of 
medicine,  composed  of  six  ounces  each  of  common  salt  and  Epsom 
salts  and  two  ounces  of  ginger,  in  one  quart  of  thin  >gruel.  A  few 
days  after,  16  of  the  heifers  took  red-water,  but  they  all  eventually  did 
well,  and  the  disease  spread  no  further.  The  land  on  which  this 
outbreak  of  anthrax  occurred  had  been  noted  for  generations  as  a 
hot-bed  for  red-water  in  cattle.     For  twelve  years  after,  red-water  was 


prevalent,  but  no  anthrax.  In  1874  the  pasture  was  dressed  with 
8  cwt.  crushed  rock  saU  to  the  acre,  and  again  in  1880  it  got  another 
dressing,  but  no  cases  of  red  water  or  anthrax  have  been  seen  since 
the  salt  was  first  applied.  I  have  also  seen  a  number  of  cases  of 
anthrax,  the  cause  of  which  was  set  down  to  eating  mouldy  cotton 
cake,  particularly  undecorticated,  which  should  never  be  stocked 
during  the  months  of  June  to  September,  for  it  is  very  apt  to  mould 
and  is  then  highly  dangerous. 

326.  All  the  cases  of  anthrax  which  have  come  under  my  notice  have 
been  distinctly  traceable  to  some  peculiarity  in  the  food  or  pasture, 
on  changing  which,  the  disease  disappeared,  and  no  more 
cases  occurred.  Should,  however,  the  flesh  or  blood  of  an  animal, 
dead  of  anthrax,  be  eaten  by  dogs,  cats,  poultry,  &c.,  it  rapidly 
proves  fatal  to  them  ;  while  any  man,  having  a  wound  on  his 
hand,  when  making  a  post-mortem  of  an  anthrax  subject  is  in  great 
danger  of  his  life  through  inoculation.  It  is,  therefore,  a  highly 
inoculative  disease  ;  hence,  the  carcase  of  an  animal,  the  death  of 
which  is  attributed  to  anthrax,  should  be  buried  or  burned  at  once, 
without  being  opened.  It  is  recorded  that  the  germs  of  anthrax  can 
be  brought  from  the  buried  carcase  of  a  diseased  beast  by  the  aid  of 
the  earth  worm,  the  spores  being  left  in  the  worm  casts  on  the  surface 
of  the  ground,  and  by  this  means  the  ground  becomes  contaminated 
and  dangerous  ;  therefore  great  care  and  proper  disinfection  is 
necessary  in  burying  the  body  of  an  anthrax  subject.  Although 
it  is  recorded  that  anthrax  has  been  communicated  experimentally  by 
inhalation,  I  have  never  yet  met  with  this  form  of  infection  ;  nor  have 
I  ever  known  it  to  be  transmitted  from  a  diseased  subject  to  a  healthy 
animal  living  in  contact  with  one  another  under  the  same  roof. 
Neither  have  I  known  it  to  extend  from  one  farm  to  another,  except 
by  intermediate  agents,  such  as  utensils,  people,  &c.,  or  by  direct 
inoculation  or  ingestion.  Anthrax  is  under  the  Contagious  Diseases 
(Animals)  Act. 

327.  As  already  stated,  this  disease  is  due  to  the  Bacilli  Anthracis — 
minute  rod-like  bodies  ;  yet    experts  say    these  httle   organisms   are 


not  found  in  the  blood  until  an  hour  or  so  before  death,  although 
they  may  be  present  in  the  spleen  and  other  internal  organs.  For 
their  formation  and  development,  they  require  a  quantity  of  oxygen, 
and  rob  the  blood  of  this  element  ;  not  only  this,  but  these  bacilli  are 
said  to  emit  from  their  bodies  a  peculiar  material,  or  virus,  which  is 
thought  by  some  to  be  more  the  immediate  cause  of  death  than  either 
the  loss  of  oxygen  from  the  blood  or  the  blocking  up  of  the  small 
blood-vessels.  When  experimenting  outside  the  body,  and  the  bacilli 
are  placed  in  a  suitable  nutrient  material,  and  at  a  proper  temperature, 
they  develop  very  quickly,  and  form  a  sort  of  chain  like  filament, 
whereas  those  in  the  body  resemble  small  rods,  and  multiply  by 
transverse  sections,  and  extend  in  length.  The  bacilli,  when  supplied 
with  oxygen,  generates  spores  or  seeds  for  the  next  generation,  and  as 
an  illustration  a  pea  pod  full  of  peas  may  be  taken,  the  pod  being 
likened  to  the  bacilli,  while  the  peas  resemble  the  spores  or  seeds. 
As  the  spore  formation  also  requires  a  large  quantity  of  oxygen,  it 
rarely  takes  place  inside  of  the  body,  but  when  an  animal  that  has 
died  from  anthrax  is  skinned  or  opened  into,  and  the  blood  and  tissues 
exposed  to  the  action  of  the  air,  spore  development  readily  takes  place, 
and  as  they  are  considered  the  real  seeds  of  the  disease,  it  is,  therefore, 
dangerous  to  open  the  dead  body  of  an  anthrax  subject  ;  it  tends  to 
spread  the  malady.  It  is  the  safest  and  best  plan  to  bury  the  body 
intact,  for  in  the  space  of  40  to  50  hours  after  death,  the  putrefactive 
bacteria  of  the  body  destroys  all  the  existing  anthrax  bacilli,  and  further 
danger  is  averted.  The  bacilli  themselves  can  be  destroyed  by  excess 
of  heat  or  cold,  or  chemical  agents,  but  the  spores  are  difficult  to  deal 
with  ;  they  can  withstand  almost  any  amount  of  heat  or  cold,  and  can 
lie  for  years  in  the  soil  without  their  virulent  nature  being  affected. 

328.  When  a  beast  is  attacked  with  vSplenic  Apoplexy, or  Anthrax,  it, 
as  a  rule,  proves  fatal  in  a  few  hours.  Should  any  animal,  therefore,  be 
found  to  have  died  very  suddenly,  either  in  the  field  or  byre,  and  to  be 
very  much  swollen,  with  its  rectum  turned  out,  and  a  bloody  mucous 
discharge  coming  from  nose,  mouth,  rectum,  and  vagina,  as  these 
secretions  are  most  dangerous,  it  is  recommended  that  the  carcase  be 
carefully  removed — tying  cloths  over  its  orifices — and  buried  without 


opening  or  skinning.  It  should  be  buried  at  least  six  feet  deep,  the 
carcase  being  covered  with  quicklime,  in  which  a  quart  of  crude 
carbolic  acid  ought  to  be  mixed.  Everything  with  which  the  animal 
has  come  in  actual  contact  should  be  washed  with  a  5  per  cent,  solution 
of  carbolic  acid,  as  this  is  said  to  kill  all  bacilli.  In  making  apost-moitetn 
examination  of  a  carcase  suspected  of  anthrax,  I  have  the  grave  dug 
first,  and  then  the  body  is  carried  on  a  sled  to  the  side  of  the  hole,  and 
pushed  in,  with  the  left  side  uppermost,  I  then  get  into  the  hole  on  to 
the  body,  and  cut  into  the  abdomen  over  the  region  of  the  spleen. 
The  carcase  is  then  covered  over  with  lime  and  carbolic  acid,  and  my 
hands,  feet,  and  instruments  are  washed  in  disinfectants,  at  the  side  of 
the  grave.  The  post  mortem  shows  the  spleen  extensively  enlarged, 
the  blood  of  a  dark  tarry  colour  and  in  a  semi-fluid  condition,  while 
the  thoracic  and  abdominal  cavities,  bladder,  and  intestines  contain 
a  quantity  of  mud-coloured  water.  The  Treatment  of  splenic 
apoplexy  is  not  very  satisfactory — 2  to  4  ounce  dozes  of  hyposulphite 
of  soda,  with  aromatic  stimulants,  may  be  given  every  four  or  six 
houis.  Regarding  preventives,  I  have  every  confidence  that  if  the 
lands  are  well  dressed  with  salt,  and  the  animals  given  a  tablespoonful 
of  salt  daily  in  their  food,  which  should  be  properly  prepared,  this 
disease  will  be  entirely  prevented. 

329.  Red  Water,  although  I  consider  this  to  be  a  purely  dietetic 
complaint  at  the  outset,  it  will  be  dealt  with  under  "  Blood  Diseases  " 
(see  Circulation,  Lecture  VIII.). 

330.  Braxy. — Striking  of  Blood  is  known  under  two  separate  condi- 
tions, viz. :  Dry  and  wet  braxy,  and  the  latter  is  the  more  prevalent,  and 
runs  its  course  very  rapidly.  In  some  seasons  the  disease  is  very  rife 
amongst  sheep,  when  first  folded  on  turnips  :  the  sudden  change  of 
food,  and  some  peculiarity  in  the  weather,  having  a  powerful  influence 
in  producing  it.  When  sheep  are  first  put  on  roots,  they  should  have 
a  small  quantity  of  hay,  well  watered  with  salt  and  water,  or  a  little 
salt  given  daily  with  some  crushed  oats  or  maize  and  bran.  Were 
these  measures  generally  resorted  to,  there  would  be  little,  if  any, 
fear   of  braxy  appearing.      When   braxy  occurs   amongst   lambs  on 


extensive  mountain  and  hill  ranges,  lump  rock  salt  placed  on  various 
parts  of  the  pastures  will  be  found  to  have  a  very  beneficial  effect. 
Treatment  :  as  the  disease  runs  its  course  so  rapidly  there  is  little  or 
no  chance  for  medical  treatment  ;  if,  however,  the  case  should  be 
noticed  early  on,  then  three  to  five  drachms  of  hyposulphite  of  soda 
dissolved  in  half  a  pint  of  warm  water,  to  which  may  be  added  5  to  15 
drops  pure  carbolic  acid,  and  one  to  two  teaspoonfuls  of  essence  of 
ginger  can  be  given,  and  repeated  in  four  hours  if  necessary. 

331.  Mesenteric  Disease. — The  mesentery,  or  net — particularly 
in  well-bred  cattle — is  often  the  seat  of  abscesses,  or  tumours,  of  a 
inbcrcular  nature — and  such  animals  go  under  the  name  of  Clyevs,  Piners, 
S'C.  The  skin  has  a  dirty  yellow,  scurfy  appearance,  very  tight  on 
the  body,  and  hide-bound  ;  there  is  also  great  emaciation  and,  as  a  rule, 
diarrhoea.  Little  can  be  done  in  these  cases,  medicine  having  little 
or  no  effect.  Sometimes,  however,  on  the  first  appearance  of  this 
disease,  from  10  to  25  drops  of  strong  sulphuric  acid  in  one  pint  of 
cold  water,  may  be  serviceable,  along  with  a  wineglassful  of  cod-liver 
or  linseed  oil  daily.  The  most  profitable  plan  is  to  test  the  animals 
with  tuberculin,  and  should  they  re-act,  then  make  away  with  them. 
Milk  from  such  animals  sliould  nevey  he  sold  ov  used. 

332.  Calves. — As  already  stated,  the  fourth  stomach  is  the  largest 
in  the  calf,  on  account  of  the  young  animal  living  principally  on  a 
milk  diet.  The  first,  second,  and  third  compartments  are  not  required 
to  prepare  the  food  until  the  animal  begins  to  eat  hay,  or  other  rough 
material.  The  fourth  stomach  of  the  calf  contains  the  acid  juices  (the 
Rennet,  used  in  cheese-making),  which  has  the  property  of  coagulating 
milk.  This  fact  is  of  great  importance  in  the  feeding  of  calves,  showing 
that  they  should  be  fed  with  small  quantities  and  frequently — for  the 
first  fortnight,  at  least.  They  ought  not  to  be  fed  less  than  four  or  six 
times  a  day,  although  most  farmers  feed  them  only  twice  a  day,  giving 
large  quantities  at  once.  This  practice  is  much  to  be  condemned,  for, 
as  soon  as  the  milk  comes  in  contact  with  the  walls  of  the  stomach,  it 
is  coagulated,  or  curded,  this  being  the  first  process  of  digestion.  The 
weak  digestion  of  the  calf  is  quite  unfitted  for  disposing  of  a  large  bulk 


at  a  time,  and,  perhaps,  some  of  the  old  curd  is  still  in  its  stomach 
when  next  fed.  This  sets  up  irritation  and  inflammation  of  that  organ, 
which  nature  tries  to  relieve  by  means  of  diarrhoea,  called  ivhite  scour. 

333.  White  Scour. — This  complaint  carries  off  large  numbers  of 
calves  yearly,  and  when  once  it  gets  started,  is  bad  to  deal  with, 
running  through  the  young  stock  like  an  epidemic,  having  all  the 
characteristics  of  an  infectious  complaint,  which,  no  doubt,  it  is,  as  in 
some  cases  it  is  due  principally  to  the  presence  of  the  bacillus  lactis. 
It  should,  therefore,  have  careful  attention  as  soon  as  noticed.  The 
hulls,  or  boxes,  should  be  at  once  thoroughly  cleaned  out,  and 
the  walls  washed  with  boiling  water  and  carbolic  acid,  followed 
up  with  lime  wash  and  carbolic  acid,  sprinkling  the  same  on  the 
floor.  This  should  be  done  once  every  week  or  ten  days,  until 
the  progress  of  the  complaint  is  arrested.  Attention  should  also  be 
given  to  the  food  of  the  cows ;  if  decorticated  cotton  cake,  or 
highly  nitrogenous  foods  are  being  used,  they  must  be  stopped  for 
a  few  weeks,  and  crushed  oats,  bran,  and  Indian  meal,  or  pollards 
given.  The  nitrogenous  matter  in  cotton  cakes  causes  the  milk  to  be 
of  too  stimulating  a  nature  for  a  young  calf's  system  to  assimilate. 
Treatment  consists  in  giving  good  clean  dry  bedding,  moss  litter  for 
preference  ;  at  the  commencement,  a  small  dose  of  castor  oil — say 
2  or  3  ounces,  with  a  teaspoonful  of  laudanum,  may  be  administered 
with  good  effect  ;  following  up  with  teaspoonful  doses  of  bicarbonate 
of  soda,  or  a  wine-glassful  of  lime  water  in  the  milk  each  night.  Two 
teaspoonfuls  of  Gregory's  mixture  (see  Appendix),  are  sometimes  very 
serviceable.  Prevention  consists  in  feeding  often,  and  in  small 
quantities,  for  the  first  fortnight,  giving  12  hours  milk  with  the  cream 
off,  warmed  up  to  90°,  m  a  water  bath.  Great  attention  should  be 
given  to  housing,  good  dry  bedding  being  indispensable.  If,  however, 
mother  and  calf  are  allowed  to  run  together  in  a  box,  for  a  week  or  so, 
it  will  save  a  lot  of  trouble  from  this,  and,  also,  perhaps,  other  com- 
plaints, as,  for  example,  milk  fever,  &c. 

334.  Hair  and  'Wool  Balls. — These  are  frequently  formed  in  the 
stomach  of  the  young  calf  and  lamb.     They  may  be  caused  by  the 


animals  licking  and  sucking  one  another,  by  which  means  a  quantity 
of  hair  and  wool  is  drawn  into  the  mouth  by  the  tongue,  whence  it  is 
passed  on  to  the  stomach,  where,  by  the  churning  motion  of  the 
stomach,  it  becomes  matted  and  formed  into  balls.  Another  cause  is 
that  of  giving  the  calf  unstrained  milk,  which  is  a  great  mistake.  Milk 
given  to  calves  should  always  be  put  through  a  strainer.  When  these 
balls  are  present,  they  cause  a  good  deal  of  derangement,  with  impaired 
appetite,  and  a  puffing  up,  or  swelling,  of  the  left  side.  Should  the 
swelling  occur  several  times  daily,  the  best  plan  is  to  make  the  animal 
into  veal  or  lamb  as  soon  as  possible.  Occasionally,  a  calf  may  recover, 
in  which  case  the  ball  or  balls  are  found  in  the  paunch  of  the  adult 
animal  on  slaughtering,  having  been  a  frequent  cause  of  Tympanites 
during  life. 

335.  Navel-Ill. — This  is  a  common  disease  in  young  foals,  calves, 
and  lambs  up  to  a  week  or  fortnight  old.  It  is  a  septic  inflammation 
of  the  navel-string,  with  suppuration.  The  animal  appears  dull  and 
listless  ;  lies  stretched  out  flat  on  its  side,  refuses  its  milk,  and  breathes 
fast  and  catchy,  perhaps  moaning.  On  examining  the  navel  it  will  be 
felt  to  be  hard  and  swollen.  It  should  be  laid  open  with  the  knife,  and 
dressed  with  carbolized  oil  (ue  Appendix)  ;  a  flannel  folded  five  or  six 
ply  thick,  wrung  out  of  hot  v^^ater,  should  then  be  applied  to  the  navel, 
and  be  kept  in  place  with  a  bandage  round  the  body.  Small  doses  of 
Gregory's  powder,  or  magnesia,  may  be  given  daily.  Associated  with 
this  complaint,  we  have  another  disease,  also  very  formidable,  both 
in  foals,  calves,  and  lambs,  called /o/;/^  Felon.. 

336.  Joint  Felon. — A  large  number  of  young  animals  are  yearly 
lost  from  this  disease,  which  consists  of  a  septic  inflammation  of  the 
joints.  The  knee,  hock,  and  stifle  are  the  joints  most  frequently  attacked 
by  its  baneful  action,  and  it  is  usually  noticed  a  few  days  after  birth. 
The  animal  is  very  feverish,  and  unable  to  stand  when  put  on  its  feet, 
while,  on  being  made  to  move,  lameness  is  noticed  in  one  or  more  of  its 
limbs.  There  is  enlargement  of  the  joints,  accompanied  by  great  pain 
on  pressure  being  applied.  As  a  rule  the  disease  is  fatal.  On  opening 
the   diseased  joints,  they  are  found  to  contain  a  quantity  of  sanious 


brown  stinking  fluid,  in  wliich,  are  shreds  of  tissue.  For  years,  I  have 
been  under  the  impression  that  this  disease  is  due  to  septic  material 
being  carried  into  the  system  through  the  navel  opening,  which,  in 
most  cases,  is  found  to  be  open,  and  from  which  there  is  a  slight 
discharge  of  thin  watery  fluid  ;  consequently,  as  a  preventive,  I  strongly 
recommend  that  at  all  times  the  navel  siring  be  tied  with  a  piece  of 
cord  dipped  in  carbolized  oil,  or  a  waxed  thread,  as  used  by  shoemakers; 
above  all,  the  box  in  which  the  mare  foaled,  or  the  cow  calved  and 
cleansed,  should  be  thoroughly  washed  out  with  water  containing 
carbolic  acid.  Clean  dry  bedding  is  an  absolute  necessity.  Treat- 
ment is  extremely  unsatisfactory  ;  rubbing  the  affected  joint  with 
essential  oil  of  campJiov,  and  giving  dessert-spoonful  doses  of  liquid 
sanitas,  or  one  to  two  drachm  doses  of  hyposulphite  of  soda,  with  five 
to  ten  drops  pure  carbolic  acid,  given  in  a  little  milk  or  water,  every 
six  or  eight  hours,  answers  as  well  as  anything  I  have  tried. 


337.  Many  of  the  ailments  affecting  the  digestive  organs  of  the 
cow  are  seen  in  the  sheep,  and  the  Treatment  is  somewhat  analogous, 
only  the  medicine  used  must  be  about  one-fourth  less  than  what  is 
given  to  the  cow. 

338.  There  is,  however,  one  very  complicated  affection  that  deserves 
special  attention,  and  that  is  Verminous  or  Parasitic  Bronchitis,  or  Hoose, 
complicated  with  Diarrhcea,  or  Scour.  The  Diarrhoea  has  already 
been  described  (par.  310),  and  the  Hoose  will  be  further  noticed 
in  Lecture  IX. — Respiratory  Organs.  This  complicated  disorder  is 
mostly  seen  in  lambs  that  have  been  moved  from  one  place  to 
another  during  the  months  of  August  and  September,  and  generally 
makes  itself  manifest  in  and  from  October  till  December.  The  disease 
is  due  to  the  presence  of  the  Strongylus  Filaria,  a  small  white  thread-like 
worm  found  in  the  wind -pipe  and  bronchial  tubes,  causing  Verminous 
or  Parasitic  Bronchitis,  accompanied  by  hoose  or  cough.  These  worms, 
when  numerous,  are  quite  sufficient  in  themselves  to  cause  death, 
setting  up,  as  they  do,  inflammation  and  consolidation  of  the  lungs  ; 



but  when  accompanied  and  complicated  by  the  presence  of  other 
worms — Strongyliis  Contovtiis — infesting  the  Hning  membrane  of  the 
fourth  stomach  and  bowels,  and  setting  up  an  extensive  and  exhaustive 
diarrhoea,  i.e.  scour,  the  matter  is  then  very  serious.  This  complication 
causes  great  pam  and  induces  the  afifected  animals  to  drink  large 
quantities  of  water,  there  is  rapid  emaciation,  and  death  soon  follows. 

339.  The  lambs  pick  up  the  ova  or  eggs  of  these  worms  on  unsound 
or  contaminated  pastures,  and  a  few  hours  is  quite  sufficient  to  infect 
a  whole  flock.  This  is  a  matter  of  vast  importance  to  both  seller  and 
buyer,  as  both  may  have  good  sound  grazing  lands,  and  yet  the  lambs 
may  contract  the  malady  in  transit  from  one  place  to  the  other,  by 
being  put  on  to  an  unsound  grazing  pasture  for  a  few  hours  rest  on 
their  journey,  particularly  in  August  and  September.  Treatment 
must  be  energetic  so  as  to  kill  the  worms  in  the  lungs  ;  for  this  purpose, 
fumigations  of  sulphur,  chlorine,  or  iodine  fumes  can  be  used.  The 
stovmg  should  be  repeated  about  every  third  or  fourth  day,  while  the 
strength  of  the  patient  must  be  maintained  by  good  nutritious  and 
easily  digestible  foods,  such  as  linseed  jelly,  milk  and  eggs,  gruels,  &c., 
to  which  should  be  added  10  to  15  grains  exsiccated  iron,  and  one 
dessert-spoonful  of  common  salt  once  a  day,  also  a  dessert-spoonful 
of  turpentine,  mixed  with  one  tea-cupful  of  raw  linseed  oil,  or  one 
wine-glassful  of  cod-liver  oil,  and  a  little  milk  may  be  carefully  given 
as  a  drench  every  third  or  fourth  day.  The  lands  on  which  the  lambs 
have  contracted  the  disease  should  also  be  dressed,  in  June  or  July, 
with  six  to  eight  cwt.  crushed  rock  salt  to  the  acre,  to  destroy  the  ova 
and  their  hosts. 


1  YEAR 

10   DAYS 



340.  The  teeth  are  the  principal  agents  in  mastication  ;  and,  althougli 
composed  of  the  hardest  structures  in  the  body,  are,  in  the  first 
instance,  developed  by  a  very  interesting  process,  from  one  of  the 
softest  structures — the  mucous,  or  lining  membrane  of  the  mouth. 

341.  The  Tooth  is  divided  into  the  crown,  neck,  and  root,  and 
is  made  up  of  three  structures — ivory,  or  dentine;  enamel;  Sind  cement,  or 
ci'usta  petvosa.  The  dentine  is  whitish-yellow  in  colour,  and  forms  the 
bulk  of  the  tooth.  It  is  found  in  the  middle,  in  contact  with  the  pulp, 
and  consists  of  about  72  per  cent,  earthy  matter,  and  about  28  per  cent, 
animal  matter.  The  enamel — the  hardest  substance  of  the  three — 
is  of  a  pale  bluish-white,  and  contains  95  per  cent,  earthy,  and  5  per 
cent,  animal  matter.  It  acts  as  a  protection,  covering  the  external 
parts  of  the  crown,  and  is  interspaced  in  irregular  curves  between  the 
dentine  and  cvnsta  petrosa  The  crusta  petrosa  is  yellowish-white,  and 
found  on  the  outside  of  the  tooth,  in  connection  with  the  root,  or 
fang,  and  is  softer  than  either  the  dentine  or  enamel ;  in  fact,  it  .is  the 
bone  of  the  tooth,  and  is  composed  of  67  per  cent,  earthy,  and  33  per 
cent,  animal  matter. 

342.  There  are  two  sets  of  teeth,  viz.  :  Temporary,  or  Milk 
Teeth,  which  are  much  smallev  and  whiter  than  the  second  set — the 
Permanent  (see  par.  346). 



343.  The  horse,  when  full-mouthed,  has  forty  teeth,  as  follows  : — 
Twelve  incisors,  six  above  and  six  below,  four  canine  teeth,  or  tushes, 
one  on  each  side  of  the  upper  and  lower  jaw  (the  mare  has  no  canine 
teeth),  twelve  pre-molars  (three  on  each  side  above  and  below),  and  a 
like  number  of  molars  similarly  disposed. 

344.  The  marks  on  the  crowns  of  the  lower  incisors  are  an 
indication  of  the  horse's  age  up  to  eight  years.  The  indication  marks 
in  the  lower  jaw  are  nearly  worn  out  in  the  central  incisors  at  six 
years,  in  the  lateral  at  seven  years,  and  in  the  corner  incisors  at  eight 
years  old  (Plate  XXV.  and  text).  In  an  old  horse,  with  well-formed 
teeth,  artificial  marks  are  sometimes  burned  in,  to  give  the  animal  the 
appearance  of  being  young.  This  process  is  called  Bishoping,  (so  named 
from  the  man  Bishop,  who  introduced  it,)  but  it  is  readily  detected, 
as  the  enamel  round  the  depressions  is  destroyed  in  the  operation.  At 
the  age  of  from  nine  to  ten  years,  the  teeth  change  their  shape,  and 
begin  to  turn  triangular,  and  long.  At  ten  years,  the  upper  corner 
incisor  on  the  outer  aspect  presents  at  the  top,  close  to  the  gum,  a 
dark  yelloiiJ  groove,  which,  as  the  horse  grows  older,  extends  down  the 
middle  of  the  tooth  until,  at  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  it  reaches  the 
bottom.  When  this  mark  is  present — for  it  is  not  always  so — it  is  a 
very  good  indication  of  the  age ;  but  see  Plate  XXVI.  and  text,  which 
is  after  "  Galvavxe." 

345.  The  Number  of  Teeth  in  our  domestic  animals  is  as 
follows :  — 







Canines.    Pre-niolars. 





The  top  figures  represent  the  upper  jaw,  and  the  lower  figures  the  under  jaw. 

346.  If  there  is  one  thing  more  than  another  that  should  command 
the  attention  of  the  country  practitioner,  it  is  dentition.  The 
condition  of  the  teeth,  at  times,  creates  various  disorders,  disease,  and 






















































































even  death.  By  the  casting  or  shedding  of  the  crowns  of  the  tem- 
porary, and  their  replacement  by  the  permanent  teeth,  together  with 
certain  marks,  the  age  of  an  animal,  for  a  time,  is  indicated.  Looking 
at  Plates  XXV  and  XXVII,  \t  will  be  noticed  that  at  birth  (i)  the  foal 
generally  has  two  central  incisors,  and  three  pre-molars  on  each  side, 
above  and  below  (f  f ,  sixteen  in  all),  and  all  of  them  are  temporary. 
At  six  to  eight  weeks  old  (2)  it  gets  two  lateral  temporary  incisors, 
above  and  below ;  and  from  eight  to  ten  months  (3)  the  corner  incisors. 
From  twelve  months  to  two  years  of  age,  small  ponies  are  sometimes 
passed  off  as  five-year-olds,  more  particularly  coal-pit  ponies,  the  marks 
on  the  crowns  being  similar.  This  deception  can,  however,  be  detected 
by  looking  at  the  front  aspect  of  the  teeth,  when  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
temporary  teeth  are  small,'  and  white,  with  a  plain,  smooth  surface, 
while  the  permanent  teeth  are  much  larger  and  broader,  and  of  a 
creamy  tinge,  with  a  well-defined  deep  dark  groove  down  the  front  of 
each  tooth.  At  one  year  (4)  the  fourth  tooth  or  first  molar  (first 
pevmanent)  appears,  and  from  two  to  two  and-a-half  years  (5)  the  fifth 
tooth  or  second  molar  should  be  into  wear  ;  and  it  is  to  this  period  of 
the  animal's  life  I  shall  give  most  attention.  In  many  cases,  in  cross- 
bred cart-horses,  the  fifth  molar  is  not  visible  until  the  animal  is  from 
two-and-a  half  to  three  years  old.  From  two  yearsand  nine  months 
till  three  years  old  (6)  the  horse  commences  to  cast  the  two  central 
incisors,  also  the  first  and  second  pre-molars,  above  and  below,  and 
these  are  replaced  by  permanent  teeth.  By  this  it  will  be  seen  that 
in  some  cases,  and  it  is  a  matter  of  great  importance,  the  horse,  rising 
three  years  old,  not  only  casts  twelve  temporar}',  but  gets  sixteen 
permanent  teeth,  viz.,  four  central  incisors,  two  above  and  two  below  (f) ; 
eight  first  and  second  pre-molars,  two  on  each  side,  above  and  below 
(A)  ;  also  the  fifth  tooth  or  second  molar,  one  on  each  side,  above  and 
below  (f). 

347.  About  this  time  in  its  dentiton  the  animal  is  usually  brought  in 
from  grass,  and  put  to  work.  What  with  the  dental  irritation  going 
on,  and  the  new  mode  of  living,  is  there  any  wonder  that  certain  horses 
of  peculiar  nervous  temperament  suffer,  and  occasionally  to  a  great 
extent  ?     If  we  take  into  consideration  the  disorder  and  fever  set  up 

in  some  children  during  teething,  and  the  nervous  exhaustion  and 
complaints  arising  therefrom,  need  we  be  at  all  surprised  to  notice, 
at  this  period,  the  commencement  of  several  nervous  derangements 
in  the  horse. 

348.  Having  had  ample  opportunities  of  inspecting  animals,  from 
foals  upwards,  1  find  it  very  rare  that  any  sign  or  symptom  of  chorea, 
shivering,  string-halt,  or  clicking  occurs  until  the  animal  is  rising 
three  years  old.  From  long  observation,  I  am,  therefore,  inclined  to 
think  that  in  the  irritation  set  up  during  the  extensive  dental  processes 
just  referred  to,  will  be  found  the  cause  and  the  commencement  of  these 
nervo-muscular  derangements,  through  a  reflex  nervous  action  that 
is  set  up,  more  particularly  so,  when  there  is  a  hereditary  tendency 
thereto.  The  most  critical  period,  therefore,  in  the  life  of  a  horse  is 
when  it  is  rising  three  years  old  ;  for  not  only  are  there  associated  with 
it  at  this  period  the  above  mentioned  complaints,  but  also  strangles  ; 
though,  whether  the  latter  is  partially  due  to  extensive  dentition,  or 
to  the  change  from  out-door  to  in-door  life,  or  to  the  two  combined,  I 
am  scarcely  able  to  say  ;  yet,  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  teething,  in 
certain  instances,  has  something  to  do  with  the  cause.  Again,  at  this 
period,  if  the  true  process  of  dentition  is  not  going  on,  there  may  be 
abscesses  formed  at  the  root  of  the  tooth,  or  in  the  sinuses,  with 
disease  of  the  alveolar  processes — more  particularly^  in  the  upper  jaw— 
and  ending  in  softening  and  degeneration  of  the  bone  ;  or  bony  tumours 
may  form  on  the  tooth  itself.  {Plate  XXVIII.,  No.  3,  represents  a 
tumour  on  the  crown  of  the  fourth  upper,  or  first  permanent  molar 
tooth,  due  to  extensive  inffammation  and  degeneration  of  the  bones  of 
the  face  of  a  three-year-old  filly.) 

349.  Shortly  after  I  conmienced  practice,  a  three-year-old  cart  colt 
was  brought  to  me  in  a  very  emaciated  condition,  for  the  purpose  of 
having  its  lampers  burnt  or  cut.  On  looking  into  the  mouth,  I  saw 
the  crowns  of  the  first  and  second  temporary  pre-molars  sticking  on 
the  top  of  the  permanent  teeth  which  were  well  up  above  the  gums. 
Here,  then,  was  the  cause  of  the  poor  condition  of  the  animal.  I 
could  not  remove  these  shells  with  my  fingers,  and,  having  no  instru- 



I— I 


ment,  I  went  to  a  blacksmith's  shop,  and  had  cHps  made  on  the  sides 
of  ain  old  pair  of  tongs.  With  these  I  removed  the  eight  shells,  or 
crowns,  and  then  prescribed  tonic  medicine.  Up  to  this  case,  I  knew 
little  about  dental  trouble,  it  being  my  first  lesson.  Since  then  I  have 
devoted  a  good  deal  of  time  to  it,  and  have  had  made,  to  my  order, 
various  instruments  (Plate  XXX.,  Nos.  1  and  2).  I  have,  I  may  note, 
frequently  seen  the  crown  of  the  second  pre-molar  come  off  before 
that  of  the  first.  I  have  also,  in  one  operation,  removed  the  crowns 
of  the  first  and  second  pre-molars,  joined  together,  and  of  such  teeth 
I  have  several  specimens  (Plate  XXVII.,  C,  1st  and  2nd). 

350.  When  a  young  animal  is  suffering  from  retarded  dentition,  it 
loses  flesh,  and  the  belly  becomes  tucked  up  ;  there  is  a  long,  shaggy 
coat,  tight  skm,  ewe-neck,  thin  thighs,  and  flat  ribs;  it  drags  its  legs, 
and  walks  with  a  listless  gait,  feeds  badly,  and  eats  little  or  no  hay. 
There  is  also  occasional  and  exhaustive  diarrhoea.  Examine  the 
mouth,  and  if  the  crowns  of  the  temporary  teeth  are  the  cause,  remove 
them.  Prevention  is  said  to  be  better  than  cure,  and  people  acting 
on  this  maxim  now  have  young  horses  brought  to  my  surgery,  from 
December  to  June,  to  have  their  mouths  examined,  when,  if  necessary, 
I  remove  the  crowns.  This  long  and  varying  period  is  due  to  the  time 
when  the  animals  are  born,  as  well  as  to  their  mode  of  feeding. 

351.  When  from  three-and-a-half  to  four  years  old  (7)  the  horse 
casts  its  lateral  incisors  and  the  third  temporary  pre-molar,  and  these 
are  replaced  by  permanent  ones,  one  on  each  side,  above  and  below. 
The  sixth  tooth  or  third  molar  now  comes  into  view  ;  thus,  at  fouy  years 
old,  it  casts  eight  temporary,  and  gets  twelve  permanent  teeth,  but  it 
seldom  seems  to  suffer  so  much  as  at  three  years  old,  although  there 
is  an  old  saying,  that  a  four-year-old  horse  cannot  stand  work  so  well 
as  a  three-year-old.  This,  in  my  opinion,  is  due  to  the  punishment  it 
has  gone  through  as  a  three-year-old,  and  the  effects  of  which  it  has 
not  been  able  to  throw  off.  If  you  find  an  animal  not  doing  well  at 
this  period,  examine  the  mouth,  and,  if  necessary,  remove  the  shells 
from  the  third  molars.  As  a  rule,  the  shells  of  the  milk  teeth  come 
off  from  the  lower  jaw  sooner  than  from  the  upper.     In  many  cases, 


when  the  shells  are  removed,  also  in  cases  of  retarded  dentition,  a  fcetid 
smell,  as  of  diseased  bone  is  felt ;  and  from  the  irritation  set  up  in  the 
lining  membrane  of  the  mouth,  which  extends  to  the  throat,  a  trouble- 
some cough  may  be  induced. 

352.  At  five  years  old  (8)  the  corner  milk  mcisors  are  replaced  by 
permanent  teeth,  and  the  canines,  or  tusks,  appear  in  the  horse, 
but  are  generally  absent  in  the  mare ;  occasionally  we  find  small 
rudimentary  tusks  in  the  latter.     The  horse  is  now  full-mouthed. 

353.  With  the  exception  of  a  young  horse  casting  its  teeth,  and  an 
old  one  with  unevenly  worn  surfaces,  I  am  not  in  favour  of  giving 
crushed  or  bruised  oats  to  horses,  as  the  crowns  of  the  horse's  molar 
teeth  resemble  the  surface  of  the  old-fashioned  millstone,  being 
properly  adapted  for  grinding  the  grain.  I  therefore  recommend  oats 
to  be  given  whole,  so  that  the  animal  can  have  the  pleasure  of  grinding 
them,  thereby  getting  the  full  benefit  of  the  salivary  juices,  and  their 
action  on  the  starchy  matters  of  the  food.  Crushed  oats  are  also  more 
liable  to  be  bolted,  and  cause  stomachic  derangement. 

354.  The  upper  molar  teeth  in  horses  and  cattle  are  much  larger 
and  broader  than  the  lower  ones  ;  the  upper  jaw  being  a  fixture,  as  it 
were,  gives  a  broader  and  firmer  surface  for  the  rotary  movement  of 
the  lower  jaw  to  act  upon,  thereby,  in  some  instances,  in  aged  horses, 
the  uneven  wear  leaves  sharp  ridges  on  the  outer  edge  of  the  upper 
molars  and  inner  edge  of  the  lower  ;  these  have  to  be  dressed  down 
with  the  tooth  rasp,  (Plate  XXX.,  No.  4),  to  prevent  laceration  of  the 
tongue  and  inside  of  the  cheeks.  Occasionally  the  teeth  become 
elongated,  and  very  uneven  (particularly  the  last  tooth  on  the  lower 
jaw),  and, have  to  be  cut  by  special  shears,  and  in  this  case  I  usually 
operate  with  the  animal  standing,  except  when  I  have  a  rough 
customer  to  deal  with.  (For  such  an  operation,  nothing  beats 
Thompson's  mstruments,  and  I  would  point  out  that  I  am  not  the 
Thompson  in  question  who  introduced  this  useful  article).  Molars 
are  sometimes  split,  through  getting  some  hard  substance  amongst 
the  food,  and  for  causing  this  there  is  nothing  worse  than  foreign  grain. 


1.  Upper  Molar  from  6  years'  old  Horse.    )    ,„       ._. , 

,  ^  r    (Par-  355). 

2.  Upper  Molar  from  26  years'  old  Horse.) 

3.  Tumour  on  Crown  of  4th  Upper  Molar  (Par.  348). 

4.  Malformed  4th  Upper  Molar. 


A  bit  of  stone,  a  piece  of  iron,  or  a  nail  may  have  got  into  the  corn, 
and  caused  the  injury.  By  removing  the  loose  portion  of  the  tooth, 
the  animal  generally  does  well,  but,  in  time,  the  tooth  opposite  becomes 
elongated,  owing  to  its  not  meeting  sufficient  wearing  surface,  and  has 
to  be  cut  off,  or  dressed  down  with  a  tooth  rasp. 

355.  It  is  said  by  some  writers  that  teeth  grow ;  to  a  certain  extent 
this  is  true,  but  at  six  years  old  all  the  teeth  are  fully  developed,  after 
which  period  they  gradually  wear  away.  This  is  well  exemplified  by 
the  incisors,  or  nippers,  becoming  triangular  as  they  wear  down,  when 
their  crowns  take  the  shape  of  the  fang  or  root.  Teeth,  however, 
become  elongated  when  they  are  not  made  use  of,  owing  to  the  tooth 
opposite  being  decayed  or  removed.  As  a  proof  that  they  wear,  and 
do  not  grow,  see  Plate  XXVIII.,  Nos.  1  and  2,  which  shows  the  upper 
molar  of  a  six-year-old  horse,  and  one  of  a  horse  twenty- six  years  of 
age.  Damaged  teeth  are,  however,  most  likely  to  become  carious.  I 
have  come  across  a  few  of  this  nature,  but,  in  young  animals,  as 
already  stated,  I  think  the  disease  more  frequently  commences  in  the 
alveolar  processes  (bone  plates),  and  sinuses  ;  finally  implicating  the  teeth 
themselves.  Disease  of  the  teeth  of  the  horse  is  not  very  common, 
but  when  a  diseased  tooth  is  present,  the  animal  generally  quids  its 
food,  i.e.  chews  it,  and  then  lets  it  drop  out  of  the  mouth  in  small 
pellets ;  in  such  cases  the  tooth  has  to  be  removed. 

356.  With  the  forceps  I  have  had  made  (Plate  XXX.,  No.  3.),  and 
which  I  find  to  be  an  improvement  upon  Professor  Pritchard's,  by  the 
addition  of  the  screw,  and  longer  leverage,  I  can,  in  a  few  minutes, 
remove  any  molar,  either  from  the  upper  or  the  lower  jaw.  In 
extracting  a  tooth,  I  have  the  animal  cast,  but  have  a  great  objection 
to  casting  aged  horses  with  "hobbles."  I  prefer  side  lines  in  these 
latter  cases.  I  do  not  use  chloroform,  unless  specially  requested  to  do 
so,  as  I  think  it  is  not  necessary.  After  removing  the  tooth,  I  always 
dress  the  hole  every  third  day,  by  plugging  with  tow,  saturated  with 
three  parts  water  and  one  part  tincture  of  iron,  which  answers 
splendidly,  finally  filling  it  with  gutta-percha.  In  one  case,  the  diseased 
bone  was  so  great,  extending  through  into  the  nostril,  that  it  took  four 


ounces  to  fill  the  cavity.  The  horse  in  question  has  done  well  for 
years,  and  still  wears  the  gutta-percha  tooth.  The  tooth  opposite,  in 
the  lower  jaw,  is  kept  down  by  rasping,  every  three  or  four  months. 

357.  Wolf  Teeth  are  found  in  the  upper  jaw,  immediately  in  front 
of  the  first  pre-molars,  and  are  generally  thrown  off,  when  the  horse, 
rising  three  years  old,  casts  the  crowns  of  the  two  first  pre-molars,  but 
I  have  seen  them  in  aged  animals.  I,  however,  consider  them  as  only 
rudimentary,  and,  in  my  opinion,  they  do  no  harm. 

358.  Parrot-mouthed  animals  are  known  by  the  upper  jaw  being 
much  longer  in  front,  overlapping  the  lower,  when  the  teeth  in  the 
latter  become  elongated  from  not  meeting  the  wear  of  the  upper  teeth, 
and,  in  time,  injure  the  bars  or  gums  of  the  upper  jaw.  These  cases 
have  to  be  closely  watched,  and  the  teeth  dressed  when  necessary. 
Sheep  seem  to  be  most  subject  to  this  peculiar  formation. 


359.  The  Cow,  which  I  shall  take  as  my  illustrative  type,  has  eight 
incisors,  or,  as  is  now  taught,  six  incisors  and  two  canine  teeth,  which 
are  shovel-shaped,  and  with  well-defined  necks  (par.  287)  ;  but  they 
are  found  in  the  lower  jaw  only,  and  are  ahmys  loose  in  their  sockets,  the 
upper  jaw  being  provided  with  a  cartilaginous  pad. 

360.  The  shedding  of  teeth  in  cattle  is  very  irregular,  varying  fully 
six  months  in  their  development,  according  to  the  breed,  and  mode 
of  feeding,  but  the  following  may  be  taken  as  a  fair  average  :— At 
birth  (i)  a  calf  may  have  from  two  to  six  incisors  and  two  canine  in 
the  lower  jaw,  and  twelve  pre-molars  (three  on  each  side,  above  and 
below),  all  of  which  are  temporary  or  milk  teeth.  About  six  months 
after  birth  (2)  the  fourth  tooth,  or  first  permanent  molar  makes  its 
appearance ;  at  from  fifteen  to  sixteen  months  (3)  the  fifth  tooth,  or 
second  permanent  molar  is  seen  ;  and  at  tii'o  years  (4)  the  sixth  tooth, 
or  third  permanent  molar  is  through.  About  this  period  (5)  the 
temporary,  first  and  second  inferior,  and  first  superior  pre-molars 
are  thrown  off",  and  six  permanent  teeth  take  their  place.  The  first 
inferior  pre-molar  is  very  like  a  wolf  tooth  in  the  horse.     The  second 


inferior  pre-molar  is  much  larger  (Plate  XXIX.,  C.  2),  and  is  frequently 
cast  before  tlie  first,  but,  as  a  rule,  they  are  generally  shed  together 
at  ages  varying  from  one  year  and  nine  months  to  two  years  and  three 
months.  The  second  upper  temporary  pre-molar  (6)  is  usually  replaced 
by  a  permanent  one,  between  tivo  years  and  three  months,  and  tivo 
years  and  nine  months.  The  third  inferior  temporary  pre-molar  is 
remarkable  in  having  three  distinct  sections,  or  columns  (Plate  XXIX., 
C.  3),  and  resembles  the  sixth  permanent  ;  it  is  very  much  larger 
and  longer  than  the  second,  and  is  cast  (7)  between  two  years  and 
three  months  and  two  years  and  nine  months.  Shortly  after  this  (8)  the 
third  superior  pre-molar  is  shed.  I  have  seen  the  third  superior  pre- 
molar come  off  before  the  second,  and  have  also  removed  them  both 
together  (Plate  XXIX,  B.  2  and  3 J. 

361.  The  following  plate,  representative  of  one  side  of  the  under 
jaw,  shows  the  age  when  the  permanent  molar  teeth  are  cut,  and 
when  the  three  first  temporary  pre-molars  are  cast  and  replaced 
by  permanents : — 

Permanent  Pre-molars  and  Molars  of  the  Cow. 
P.M.,  2  years  3  months  to  2  years  9  months. 

P.M.,  from  I  year  and  g  months 
to  2  years  and 
3  months. 



T.M.  at  Birth. 

P.M.  at  6  months. 

P.M.  at  15  months. 

T.M.— Temporary  Pre-molars. 
P.M. — Permanent  Molars. 

P.M.  at  2  years. 


362.  Incisors.— 5^^K/^^7;  one  yeav  and  nine  months  and  two  years  and 
three  months,  the  two  central  incisors  are  replaced  by  permanent  teeth  ; 
at  tivo  years  and  three  months  to  two  years  and  six  months,  the  two  middle 
lateral  incisors  are  cast,  and  the  animal  has  four  broad  teeth  ;  at  three 
years  old,  six  permanent  teeth  are  seen  ;  and  at  about  three  years  and 
three  months,  the  corner,  or  canine  milk  teeth  are  shed,  and  eight  broad 
teeth  are  in  view.  The  permanent  teeth  are  very  much  larger,  and 
darker  than  the  milk  teeth,  which  are  very  white,  and  are  thus  readily 

363.  The  following  illustration  shows  at  what  age  the  incisor  milk 
teeth  of  cattle  are  cast  and  replaced  by  permanents  : 

Permanent  Incisors  of  the  Cow. 

1.  Centrals,  i  year  9  months  to  2  years  3  months. 

2.  Middle  Laterals,  2  years  3  months  to  2  years  6  months. 

3.  Laterals,  2  years  6  months  to  three  years. 

4.  Corners,  or  Canines,  3  years  to  3  years  3  months. 

364.  The  crowns,  or  wearing  surfaces  of  the  molar  teeth  of  cattle 
are  very  unlike  those  of  the  horse,  having  sharp  elevations  and 
depressions,  resembling  the  teeth  of  flesh-eating  animals,  and  are  well 
suited  for  tearing  down  rough  fibrous  grass,  but  are  not  adapted  for 
grinding  oats  or  other  grain  ;  the  cow  being  a  true  herbivorous  animal. 




Cu    o 

CO    C/J 

c    a 

<  m  o 


365-  Teething  in  cattle,  on  many  occasions,  causes  a  great  deal  of 
constitutional  disturbance,  more  particularly  at  from  one  year  and  nine 
months  to  two  years  and  six  months  old,  through  the  temporary  pre- 
molars not  being  cast  off,  when  teething  fever,  and,  in  many  cases,  fatal 
diarrhoea,  is  set  up.  Young  animals,  when  suffering  from  the  retention 
of  the  crowns  or  shells,  have  tucked-up  bellies,  flat  ribs,  tight  hides, 
dirty  skins,  eyes  gummy  and  congested,  with  a  mucuous  discharge  ; 
having,  in  fact  all  the  appearance  of  piners.  They  feed  very  badly,  and 
chew  their  cud  in  a  very  lazy  and  hstless  fashion,  have  exhaustive 
diarrhoea,  and  drink  large  quantities  of  water.  I  have  frequently 
found  the  shells  sticking  fast  between  the  cheek  and  the  gums,  in  both 
upper  and  under  jaws.  Of  course,  any  foreign  substance,  or  anything 
wrong  in  the  mouth,  generally  causes  a  large  flow  of  saliva.  In  such 
cases,  the  mouth  should  be  examined,  and  the  offending  object 
removed,  if  possible.  I  have  also  come  across  split  molar  teeth,  with 
the  fractured  piece  sticking  in  the  tongue.  Cattle  rarely  suffer  from 
diseased  teeth,  but  occasionally  in  aged  animals  the  gums  or  alveolar 
processes  become  atrophied  or  wasted  away — when  the  molar  teeth 
can  be  readily  removed  with  the  fingers — such  wasting  away  also 
arises  from  the  diseases  osteo-sarcoma  and  actinomycosis,  &c.  (pars. 
79  and  235).  In  all  cases  where  the  emaciation  is  great,  I  order  good  • 
food,  milk,  linseed  jelly,  crushed  oats,  linseed  cake,  and  bran,  with  a 
little  salt,  and  give  alkaline  vegetable  tonics,  followed  up  with 
preparations  of  iron  (see  Appendix). 

366.  As  a  rule,  I  examine  the  teeth  of  a  large  number  of  stirks  in 
spring,  and  in  autumn,  and,  where  necessary,  I  remove  the  crowns 
with  the  forceps  (Plate  XXX.,  No.  1). 


367.  The  dentition  of  the  sheep  resembles  that  of  the  cow  as  to 
number  of  teeth  and  their  position.  There  are  six  incisors  and  two 
canine  on  the  lower  jaw  only  ;  the  upper  jaw  in  front  has,  like  the 
cow,  a  dense  elastic  pad.  The  molars  are  24  in  number  (f  pre-molars, 
f  molars,  i.e.,  six  on  each  side,  above  and  below).  The  teeth  in  shape 
are  similar  to  those  of  the  cow,  but  very  much  smaller. 


368.  Incisors.— From  the  birth  of  the  lamb  to  the  end  of  the 
fourth  week  the  six  temporary  incisors  and  the  two  canine  or 
corners  are  cut,  also  the  first,  second,  and  third  temporary  pre-molars, 
and  at  twelve  months  the  crowns  of  the  incisors  are  well  worn,  the 
teeth  being  small  and  far  apart.  At  about  15  months  the  two  central 
temporary  incisors  are  shed  and  two  permanent  teeth  take  their  place. 
About  22  months  the  middle  laterals  (incisors)  are  replaced  by  two 
more  permanent  teeth  and  the  animal  now  has  four  broad  teeth.  At 
two  years  or  two  years  and  three  months  the  permanent  laterals 
make  their  appearance  and  the  sheep  shows  six  broad  teeth,  and 
at  three  years  old  the  corner  or  canine  permanents  are  up. 

369.  Molars. — About  the  age  of  three  months  the  first  permanent 
molar,  or  fourth  tooth,  makes  its  appearance  ;  at  nine  months  the 
fifth  tooth,  or  second  permanent  molar,  is  seen,  and  at  eighteen 
months  the  sixth  tooih,  or  last  permanent  molar,  comes  into  view; 
and  from  twenty  to  twenty-two  months  old  the  first  and  second 
temporary  pre-molars,  above  and  below,  on  each  side,  are  replaced  by 
permanent  teeth,  and  at  about  two  years  old  the  third  temporary  is 
shed  and  a  permanent  tooth  takes  its  place,  the  sheep  now  having 
twenty-four  permanent  molar  teeth,  viz.,  f  pre-molars  f  molars  on 
each  side,  and  in  some  early  mouths  possibly  six  permanent  incisors. 
The  permanent  teeth,  both  incisors  and  molars,  are  much  larger  and 
darker  in  colour  than  the  temporary  ones. 

THE    PIG. 

370.  The  dentition  of  the  pig  differs  a  good  deal  from  that  of  the 
cow  and  sheep.  Pigs  have  six  incisor  teeth  above  and  below  in  front  of 
the  jaws ;  behind  the  corner  teeth  on  each  side  in  the  upper  and  lower 
jaws  are  the  canine  teeth,  or  tusks  ;  and  between  the  latter  and  the 
first  pre-moiar  teeth,  one  on  each  side,  both  above  and  below,  are 
the  anterior  pre-molars,  while  there  are  six  molars  on  each  side,  above 
and  below,  viz.,  three  pre-molars  and  three  molars.  This  makes  a 
full  total  of  44  teeth,  i.e.,  12  incisors,  4  canines,  4  anterior  pre-molars, 
12  pre-molars,  and  12  molars  (pnr.  345).     The  incisors,  canines,  and 


three  first  pre-molars  are  temporary,  or  milk  teeth,  while  the  anterior 
pre-molars  and  true  molars  are  permanent. 

371.  Incisors  and  Tusks. — Two  sharp-pointed  teeth  are  to  be 
seen  on  both  sides  of  each  jaw  at  birth,  with  an  open  space  in  front, 
and  these  are  the  temporary  corner  incisors  and  tusks.  About  the 
fourth  week  the  central  temporary  incisors  make  their  appearance, 
being  well  in  wear  b}'  the  seventh  or  eighth  week,  and  about  the 
twelfth  week  the  lateral  temporary  incisors  are  seen.  Between  the 
seventh  and  eighth  month,  the  corner  incisors  are  replaced  by 
permanent  teeth,  which  are  well  in  wear  at  nine  months,  while  the 
permanent  tusks  are  now  making  their  appearance  through  the  gum. 
When  the  pig  is  twelve  months  old,  the  central  temporary  incisors  are 
replaced  by  permanent  ones  ;  and  when  about  eighteen  months  old, 
the  lateral  permanent  incisors  take  the  place  of  the  temporary  teeth, 
and  the  central  incisors  show  signs  of  wear  at  their  edges. 

372.  Molars  and  Pre-Molars. — Between  birth  and  up  to  four 
weeks  old  three  temporary  pre-molars  on  each  side  of  each  jaw, 
above  and  below,  are  seen,  the  second  and  third  coming  through  before 
the  first.  The  fourth  tooth  or  first  permanent  molar  and  the  anterior 
pre-molars  make  their  appearance  between  the  fifth  and  sixth  month 
and  are  well  up  at  the  ninth  month.  From  ten  to  twelve  months 
the  fifth  tooth  or  second  permanent  molar  is  seen,  and  about  three 
months  after  (15  months  old)  the  three  first  temporary  pre-molars  are 
shed,  and  permanent  teeth  take  their  place,  while  between  the  seven- 
teenth and  eighteenth  month  the  sixth  tooth  and  last  permanent  molar 
is  forward.  After  this  the  teeth  wear  and  become  dark  in  colour. 
Dental  derangements  in  pigs  are,  however,  of  rare  occurrence,  and 
veterinary  aid  is  seldom  or  never  required. 

373.  For  further  information  on  the  subject  of  the  dentition  of  the 
horse,  cow,  sheep,  and  pig,  the  reader  is  referred  to  Prof.  Sir  Geo. 
Brown's  pamphlet — "  Dentition  and  Age  of  the  Animals  of  the  Farm." 
I  may  add  that  I  have  found  this  little  work  very  accurate. 

THE    DOG. 

374.  The  dog,  like  other  domestic  animals,  has  both  a  temporary  and 
a  permanent  set  of  teeth,  divided  into  incisors,  canines,  anterior  pre- 
molars, pre-molars,  and  molars.  The  milk  teeth  are  12  temporary 
incisors  (six  above  and  six  below,  in  front  of  the  jaw),  four  temporary 
canine  teeth  or  tusks  (two  above  and  two  below,  one  on  each  side,  the 
upper  as  a  rule  being  the  strongest),  and  12  temporary  pre-molars,  the 
three  first  on  each  side  of  the  upper  and  lower  jaws.  On  the  completion 
of  the  dentition  there  are  42  permanent  teeth  in  all  (see  par.  345), 
viz.  :  12  incisors  (|-),  four  canines  or  tusks  (f),  four  anterior  pre- 
molars (I),  12  pre-molars  (f),  and  10  molars  (|).  The  premolars, 
sometimes  called  false  molars,  are  slightly  separated  from  each 
other,  and  are  cone-shaped  and  pointed  in  the  middle.  The  last 
temporary  pre-molar,  or  the  fourth  tooth  from  the  tusk  on  the  upper 
jaw,  is  the  largest  and  strongest,  and  is  closely  connected  behind 
with  the  two  true  molars,  which  have  flat  crushing  crowns.  The  fifth 
tooth  from  the  tusk  or  first  permanent  molar  on  the  lower  jaw  is  the 
largest  tooth  in  the  mouth,  and  a  composite  tooth.  Anteriorly  it  is 
cone-shaped  and  pointed,  hke  the  pre-molars,  while  the  posterior  part 
is  flat  and  crown-shaped,  like  a  true  molar.  The  two  last  teeth  are 
true  molars,  and  have  flat  crushing  crowns.  In  some  cases  there  are 
se\en  on  each  side  of  the  upper  jaw  as  well. 

375.  A  puppy  has  no  teeth  at  birth,  but  their  outline  is  seen  on  the 
gums.  The  larger  breeds  of  dogs  generally  cut  their  teeth  sooner 
than  the  smaller  types,  but  the  time  within  which  the  teeth  are  cut 
and  shed  varies  very  much  according  to  the  breed.  The  first  tooth  to 
make  its  appearance  is  usually  the  second  pre-molar  in  the  lower 
jaw,  and  this  occurs  on  or  about  the  20th  day  after  birth.  The  other 
teeth,  incisors,  tusks,  and  pre-molars  follow  in  quick  succession,  so  that 
about  the  fifth  week  after  birth  all  the  milk  teeth  are  in  view.  As  a  rule, 
the  lower  temporary  or  milk  teeth  are  cut  before  the  upper,  but  the 
reverse  is  the  case  with  the  permanent  teeth.  When  the  puppy  is 
three  and  a  half  months  old,  the  temporary  or  milk  teeth  fall  out,  and 
are  replaced  by  permanent  teeth,  which  process  takes  from  four  to  six 


weeks,  so  that  when  the  dog  is  four  and  a  half  to  five  months  old  the 
dental  process  should  be  completed,  i.e.,  in  the  large  breeds,  but  the 
small  types — such  as  toy  dogs,  &c. — take  several  weeks  longer. 
According  to  recent  teaching,  the  three  first  molar  or  temporary  teeth, 
and  those  that  replace  them  (on  each  side,  above  and  below),  in  the 
horse,  cow,  and  sheep,  are  called  pre  molars,  while  the  pig  and  dog 
have  each  four  more  (one  on  each  side,  above  and  below),  called 
anterior  pre  molars,  and  situated  close  behind  the  tusks. 

376.  Dental  Derangement. — As  a  rule,  puppies  rarely  show  any 
inconvenience  when  getting  their  milk  teeth,  but  in  casting  the 
temporary  and  getting  the  permanent  teeth  they  sometimes  suffer  from 
diarrhoea,  fits,  &c.  Occasionally  the  roots  of  the  temporary  teeth  are 
pressed  to  one  side  by  the  permanents,  when  they  become  attached  to 
the  bony  processes  of  the  jaw,  and  cause  inconvenience  and  trouble  ; 
in  such  cases  they  must  be  removed.  The  tusks  seem  more  liable  to 
this  than  the  other  teeth.  The  teeth  of  the  dog  are,  at  times,  broken 
by  the  animal  chewing  hard  substances,  such  as  stones,  &c.  ;  and  in 
such  cases  the  sharp  edges  must  either  be  filed  or  cut  off.  Tartar  also 
occasionally  accumulates  round  the  tooth,  just  above  the  gum,  and 
v\^hen  this  gets  to  be  troublesome  it  must  be  scraped  off.  Any 
diseased  teeth  that  may  be  observed,  when  interfering  with  the  feeding 
of  the  dog,  should  be  removed. 


(In    Connection    with    Dentition.) 

377.  A  few  brief  remarks  anent  some  of  the  various  kinds  of  feeding 
stuffs  may  not  be  out  of  place  in  this  lecture. 

378.  Wheat. — This  cereal,  although  a  ready  feeder,  contains  too 
much  starchy  matter  to  make  it  a  safe  article  of  diet,  either  for 
horses  or  cattle,  when  given  alone,  or  in  any  appreciable  quantity. 
For  the  Horse,  it  should  never  be  given  raw,  as  it  has  a  tendency  to 
produce  flatulent  colic,  congestive  fever,  weed,  swelled  legs,  laminitis, 
and  diarrhoea.  It  also  throws  the  animal  out  of  condition,  causing  it 
to  puff,  blow,  and  sweat  on  the  least  exertion.  When  given  at  all,  it 
must  be  well  boiled,  used  very  sparingly,  and  mixed  with  other  foods. 
For  Cattle,  it  should  not  be  boiled,  but  given  in  a  rough-grovmd  or 
crushed  state,  and  when  used  judiciously,  and  given  in  combination, 
for  instance,  v/ith  decorticated  cotton  cake,  it  is  a  splendid  feeding 

379.  Barley. — If  there  is  one.  thing  more  than  another  which  I 
have  a  great  fancy  for,  it  is  well-boiled,  sound,  sweet  barley,  for  feeding 
to  horses  or  cattle,  when  recovering  from  any  illness.  If  the  animal 
can  be  induced  to  take  it,  there  is  nothing  better,  when  it  is  mixed 
with  a  little  bran.  The  boiling  of  barley  seems  to  change  its 
properties,  converting  the  starchy  matter  as  it  were  into  Dextyine,  thus 
aiding  the  first  part  of  the  process  of  digestion.  For  a  very  useful 
and  agreeable  change  in  feeding  fov  a  liovse,  there  is  nothing  to  equal 
a  mash  of  fresh  well-boiled  barley,  given  twice  a  week,  mixed  with  a 
little  bran  and  salt.  It  is  readily  digested,  and  is  very  refreshing  to  a 
tired  horse,  after  heavy  work  on  a  stormy  day.  Barley  should,  however, 
never  be  given  raw  to  a  horse,  as  it  produces  intestinal  disorders  of 
various  kinds.  For  Cattle,  it  is  best  boiled,  but  may  be  given  raw  when 
crushed  and  mixed  with  other  foods.  For  a  Calf,  where  milk  is  scarce, 
barley  flour  (meal)  combined  with  the  same  quantity  of  good  oat  meal, 
well  boiled,  and  mixed  with  skim  milk,  makes  the  best  food,  and  will 


be  found  far  superior  to  an}'  of  the  fanc}'  patent  calf-meals.  It  keeps 
the  stomach  and  bowels  in  proper  order,  and  the  young  annnal  thrives 
and  does  well  on  the  mixture. 

^So.  Oats  may  be  looked  upon  as  the  staple  food  for  both  horses  and 
cattle,  hut  upon  no  consideration  should  they  be  boiled  for  either.  It  is  a  waste 
of  time,  money,  and  fuel  to  boil  oats,  as  it  makes  no  change  in  them; 
the  horse  is  inchned  to  bolt  them  in  this  state  without  chewing,  and  they 
pass  through  a  cow  unchanged.  For  the  Horse,  as  already  stated  under 
teeth  (par.  353),  oats  should  be  given  whole  in  the  berry,  except  in  the 
case  of  a  young  animal  which  is  teething,  or  an  old  one  with  uneven 
teeth,  when  they  may  be  bruised.  For  Cattle,  they  should  always  be 
mashed  or  crushed,  and  mixed  with  other  foods.  Farmers,  as  a  rule, 
have  a  very  great  fault  in  giving  too  many  oats  to  cattle.  The  cereal 
being  the  produce  of  their  own  land,  is  apt  to  be  used  too  freely,  some 
giving  as  much  as  8  lb.  to  lo  lb.  per  day,  when  only  about  half  this 
quantity  will  be  assimilated  or  taken  into  the  system,  the  other  half 
passing  through  the  bowels  as  waste  material.  Better  results  may, 
therefore,  be  obtained  by  selling  half  the  oat-crop,  and,  with  the 
money,  purchasing  linseed  and  cotton  cakes.  Mixing  these  with  the 
remaining  oats  (crushed),  will  give  a  quicker  and  more  profitable 
return,  and  a  richer  manure  heap. 

381.  Maize  (Indian  Corn). — This  is  a  good  all-round  article,  and 
will  give  better  results  on  expenditure  than  any  other  known  feeder. 
For  the  Horse,  when  doing  quick  work,  it  is,  however,  of  little  or  no 
use,  either  boiled  or  raw,  nor  should  it  be  given  to  a  horse  which  has  a 
tendency  to  lay  on  fat,  or  to  one  having  little  work  to  do,  as  it  throws 
the  animal  out  of  condition,  conduces  to  swelled  legs,  grease,  and 
cracked  heels,  and  makes  the  animal  lazy  and  sluggish  ;  but  for  a 
cart-horse,  or  waggon -horse,  having  regular  working-days,  it  answers 
fairly  well,  when  broken  and  mixed  with  oats,  beans,  pease,  and  bran. 
For  Cattle,  or  Sheep,  it  answers  splendidly,  when  made  into  meal,  or 
broken  and  mixed  with  cotton  and  linseed  cakes.  For  the  Pig,  it  should 
not  be  given  to  a  very  young  animal,  as  it  is  apt  to  produce  irritation 
of  the  stomach,  accompanied  with  fits.     Pollards  are  much  better,  or 


barley  and  oatmeal  mixed,  and  well  boiled.  For  a  half-grown,  or 
full-grown  pig,  Indian  meal  should  be  well  boiled — scalding,  as  is 
practiced  by  many,  is  not  sufficient. 

382.  Beans. — These  are  much  favoured  by  many  feeders,  being 
given  boiled,  whole,  or  broken,  and  as  meal,  both  to  horses  and 
cattle.  For  the  Horse,  I  have  no  fancy  for  beans  as  a  food,  owing  to 
their  tough,  indigestible  skin,  and,  from  long  observation,  I  find  that, 
in  many  cases,  they  produce  intestinal  disturbance,  with  diarrhoea. 
Before  using,  they  should,  however,  be  well  washed,  particularly  foreign 
beans,  as  they  are  usually  very  much  mixed  and  covered  with  dirt. 
Beans,  it  will  be  found,  generally  enter  into  the  composition  of  the 
mixed  horse  foods  prepared  by  corn  merchants.  For  Cattle,  bean- 
meal  has  many  admirers,  as  a  butter  and  cheese  producer,  and  also 
for  fattening  purposes  ;  but  I  do  not  fancy  it,  as  I  think  better  results 
can  be  obtained  from  other  foods  of  a  more  digestible  nature. 

383.  Pease. — Sound  Canadian  pease  are  more  to  my  liking  as  a 
horse  and  cattle  food.  They  are  not  so  indigestible  as  beans,  and  a 
good  handful  given  whole  among  the  corn  and  bran,  three  times  a 
day,  will  be  found  to  have  a  good  effect  on  hunters,  hacks,  carriage 
and  cart-horses.  When  my  horses  are  in  full  work,  I  can  get  more 
staying-power  from  this  food  than  from  any  other.  Care  must, 
however,  be  taken  in  purchasing  pease,  as  of  late  years  it  has  been 
noticed  that  many  samples  have  been  mixed  with  the  Indian  pea 
(Lathyrus  Sativus),  commonly  known  as  the  Dog-Tooth  Pea,  of  which 
there  are  various  kinds.  This  latter  pea,  when  given  for  any  length 
of  time,  may  occasion  paralysis,  roaring,  difficulty  in  breathing,  and 
sudden  death.  A  large  number  of  horses,  in  various  towns  in  England 
and  Scotland,  have  died  from  the  effects  of  these  Indian  pease,  or 
"  Gram." 

384.  Linseed  is  now  grown  in  nearly  all  parts  of  the  globe,  and 
heavy  consignments  are  yearly  brought  to  this  country  from  India, 
Russia,  America,  and  other  distant  parts.  The  seed  thus  imported 
generally  contains  a  large  amouut  of  foreign  substances,  such  as  weed 


seeds,  dirt,  &c.  In  some  instances,  foreign  substances  have  been 
found  to  a  very  considerable  extent,  analysis  showing  as  much  as  2*45 
per  cent,  of  sandy  matter  and  23-40  per  cent,  of  foreign  seeds. 
Therefore,  in  using  linseed  in  any  form,  these  obnoxious  bodies  should 
be  screened  out.  Linseed  may  be  used  after  having  been  boiled,  or 
steeped  in  hot  water,  or  crushed  into  meal.  A  Horse  recovering  from 
chest  or  bowel  complaints  is  very  much  benefited  by  a  little  being 
added  to  boiled  barley  and  bran.  For  a  Cow,  it  may  be  given  boiled, 
or  crushed  and  mixed  with  the  other  food.  For  a  Calf,  it  is  generally 
boiled,  or  steeped,  and  mixed  with  milk. 

385.  Linseed  Cake. — This  cake  is  made  from  a  variety  of  seeds 
grown  in  different  countries.  Russian  seed  makes  the  best  cake,  and 
Bombay  the  next — that  is,  if  regard  is  had  to  the  amount  of  oil  they 
contain  respectively.  There  are,  of  course,  a  good  many  inferior  makes 
of  linseed  cake,  as  of  other  cakes,  as  can  be  gathered  from  the  physical 
appearances  of  the  various  brands  on  the  market.  There  is  also  a 
great  difference  of  quality  in  what  are  called  pure  linseed  cakes. 
Undoubtedly,  the  best,  and  those  most  entitled  to  be  classed  as  pure, 
are  those  manufactured  from  genuine  seed  that,  previous  to  crushing, 
has  been  passed  through  a  closely-meshed  screen,  which  takes  out  all 
the  impurities,  such  as  small  weedy  seeds,  dirt,  &c.,  called  screenings. 
Some  manufacturers,  however,  do  not  put  themselves  to  the  trouble 
of  taking  these  out,  but  simply  crush  up  the  seed  as  they  receive  it. 
It  sometimes  happens  that  a  cake-maker  comes  across  a  fairly  clean 
parcel  of  seed,  and  gets  a  name  for  making  a  good  cake,  through  the 
good  fortune  of  having  had  this  lot  tested,  but  the  next  lot  of  seed 
may  be  faulty,  and  yet  this  cake  will  be  called  genuine  linseed  cake, 
being  made  from  the  seed  as  imported,  and  without  any  admixture. 
It  must,  therefore,  be  understood  that  there  is  a  considerable  difference 
in  the  relative  merits  and  value  between  the  cakes  made  from  screened 
and  unscreened  seeds. 

386.  A  good  screened  sample  of  linseed,  and  linseed  cake  made 
therefrom,  should  show  an  analysis  something  like  the  following : — 

1 66 











6  05 


30  00 



8  12 


13  33 
lo  96 







1 1-04 




30  13 




*Albuminous  Compounds    . . 
Mucilage  and  other  Carbon- 
aceous Principles 

Phosphate  of  Lime 


Insoluble  Matter 

100  00 




100  00 

*  Containing  Nitrogen   






A.  &  B. — Analyses  of  Cakes  guaranteed  95  per  cent,  of  purity. 

C. — Analysis  of  Bombay  Linseed  Cake.     Shows  a  high  percentage  of  oil,  but  a  little 
too  much  Insoluble  Matter;  the  seed  cannot  have  been  well  screened. 

D. — A  sample  of  Hamburg  Linseed  Cake. 

E. —  A  new-made  English  Cake,  guaranted,  which  shows  too  much  moisture. 

387.  Cake  showing  an  analysis  of  from  8  to  10  per  cent,  of  oil  is 
more  frequently  met  with  than  the  above  qualities,  and  is  by  no 
means  bad,  but  1  should  advise  buyers  never  to  go  below  this  figure, 
if  a  cake  is  wanted  that  will  give  satisfaction.  It  must  be  borne  in  mind 
that  the  seed  is  crushed  and  pressed  more  for  the  oil  it  will  produce, 
than  for  the  cake  alone.  Linseed  oil  is  worth  about  £-^o  per  ton,  while 
the  cake  is  valued  at  from  ^8  to  ;^g  per  ton.  It  is,  therefore,  to  the 
interest  of  the  manufacturer  to  get  the  best  and  most  improved 
machinery  that  will  extract  the  greatest  percentage  of  oil,  and  when 
this  is  done  the  cakes  are  generally  hard  and  of  a  light  colour.  The 
broad,  thin,  flat  cakes  are  of  this  class,  and  are  largely  manufactured 
in  America,  as  well  as  in  England.  These  often  show  only  from  6  to 
7  per  cent,  of  oil,  and  are  useful  .for  feeding  growing  cattle,  and,  at 
times,  profitable  enough  to  buy ;  but  for  quick  feeding  of  stock, 
the  old-fashioned  oblong  shapes,  which  are  made  from  screened 
seeds,  are  the  best,  when  guaranteed  95  to  97  per  cent,  of  purity. 
They  are  much  thicker,  and  richer  in  oil, — oil  may  be  looked 
upon  as  ready-made  fat, — are  darker  in  colour,  and  of  a  softer 
texture  than  the  other  cakes. 


388.  Good  linseed  cake  is  one  of  the  best  balanced  foods  we  have, 
and  is  of  great  value  for  feeding  cattle  and  young  stock,  especially 
in  winter.  It  is  also  a  useful  feed  for  milch  cows,  though  it  is  more 
a  fat-producing  than  a  milk-producing  food.  Another  recommendation 
in  favour  of  linseed  cake  is,  that  cattle  fed  upon  it  invariably  enjoy 
good  health,  and  are  not  liable  to  contract  skin  or  other  diseases. 
For  a  Horse  thriving  badly,  with  an  unhealthy,  ragged,  dingy-looking 
coat,  a  handful  each  of  crushed,  pure  linseed  cake  and  whole  Canadian 
peas,  given  night  and  morning,  mixed  with  corn  and  bran,  has  a 
splendid  effect.  For  the  Cow,  linseed  cake  may  be  given  at  the  rate  of 
from  three  to  nine  pounds  per  day,  with  the  best  possible  results  ; 
whilst  a  young  calf,  six  to  eight  weeks  old,  may  receive  it  in  quantities 
of  from  three  to  four  ounces,  with  a  little  crushed  oats  and  bran  daily, 
the  quantity  being  gradually  increased  as  the  calf  grows  older. 

389.  Decorticated  Cotton  Cake.— Cotton  cake  is  placed  on  the 
market  in  two  forms — decoificatai  and  iivdecoiticated.  The  decorticated 
form  is  chiefly  made  in  America,  as  the  husk  of  the  cotton  seed  can 
best  be  removed  when  the  seed  is  green.  The  cake  is  then  manu- 
factured from  the  seed  or  kernel.  For  analysis  of  a  good  sample  of 
decorticated  cotton  cake  sec  par.  391 . 

390.  Like  linseed,  cotton  seeds  are  crushed  for  the  oil  they  contain, 
and,  of  late,  greatly  improved  machinery  for  this  purpose  has  been 
devised.  Decorticated  cotton  cakes  are  generally  very  hard,  so  much 
so  that  farmers  are  almost  afraid  to  use  them.  This  causes  some 
dealers  to  have  their  decorticated  cake  made  into  meal,  an  expedient 
which  increases  the  risks  to  feeders,  for  the  meal,  when  kept  too 
long  in  closely-packed  bags,  becomes  heated  and  perhaps  mouldy, 
when  it  is  dangerous  to  stock  (par.  325).  Great  care  is,  therefore, 
necessary  for  the  buyer  not  to  purchase  too  much  of  the  ground 
article  at  once.  Decorticated  cotton  cake  is  also  very  dangerous 
when  it  has  been  damaged  at  sea,  for  the  same  reasons  as  those  urged 
against  the  mouldy  meal.  Numerous  cases  are  on  record,  where 
numbers  of  cattle  have  died  from  the  effects  of  eating  moulded 
decorticated    cotton    cake.       This    cake    should    always    be    used    in 


combination  with  some  farinaceous  matter,  such  as  Indian  meal, 
crushed  oats,  or  wheat,  bran,  &c.  As  a  milk,  butter,  and  flesh 
producer,  it  stands  unrivalled,  owing  to  the  heavy  percentage  ol 
flesh-forming  (nitrogenous)  materials  it  contains.  It  should  never, 
for  this  reason,  be  given  to  stock  under  one  year  old,  except  with 
the  greatest  caution  and  judgment  ;  and  should  not  on  any  account 
be  used  for  cows  on  the  point  of  calving,  nor  for  a  month  after, 
as  the  milk  with  such  feeding  is  too  rich,  and  brings  on  diarrhoea — white 
scour — (par.  333)  when  given  to  young  calves.  The  manurial  residue 
of  decorticated  cotton  cake  is  also  valuable,  and  is  estimated  at 
£■3)  14s.  gd.  per  ton  of  food  consumed  ;  in  fact,  it  stands  without 
a  rival  for  the  renovation  and  improvement  of  old  laid  grazing 
pastures.  In  the  course  of  a  couple  of  years  or  so,  given  in  anything 
like  liberal  quantities,  it  has  a  marked  effect,  both  on  the  quantity  and 
quality  of  the  herbage. 

391.  Undecorticated  Cotton  Cake  is  extensively  made  in 
England  ;  in  this  case  the  husk  and  the  kernel  are  ground  together. 
The  best  qualities  are  manufactured  from  Egyptian  seed,  and  command 
the  highest  prices.  Even  the  best  class  of  these,  however,  show  but 
a  poor  analysis  compared  with  decorticated  cake,  as  the  following 
analvses  indicates  : — 



"Albuminous  Compounds 

Starch,  Sugar,  and  Carbonaceous  Compounds 

Cotton  Cake. 




Insoluble  Matters . . traces 

"Containing  Nitrogen    3-46 


22  12 




100  00 


Cotton  Cake. 







30  80 




392.  Undecorticated  cotton  cake  is  largely  used  in  some  districts. 
In  early  spring,  wlien  the  grasses  are  young,  it  has  a  good  effect, 
owing  to  the  tannic  acid  it  contains  preventing  looseness  of  the  bowels 
in  cattle,  but  it  should  ahvays  be  used  fresh.      Therefore,  laygc  stocks, 


howevey  cheap,  ought  nevey  to  he  stoyed  cvey  July,  August,  and  Septeiubey,  foy, 
during  these  months,  myyiads  of  insects  aye  passing  through  their  various  stages 
of  life,  and  seeking  winter  skelter  for  the  reproduction  of  thnr  species  foy  anothey 
year,  and  they  will  infest  the  cake  and  injure  it.  When  cakes  become 
mouldy,  they  are  very  dangerous  to  stock,  often  producing  blood 
diseases  and  death.  Serious  fatality  frequently  arises  from  the  use  of 
cake  of  this  description,  often  leading  to  lengthy  and  unpleasant 
litigation,  the  case  generally  going  against  the  manufacturer  or  seller, 
when  actually  the  feeder  is  to  blame  for  having  too  big  a  stock  at  the 
wrong  time  of  the  year,  and  allowing  it  to  mould.  Mouldy  cakes  of 
any  class  should  never  be  given  to  stock. 

393.  Palm-nut  Cake  and  Meal  are  prepared  from  palm  fruit, 
which  is  ground,  heated,  and  pressed,  in  a  somewhat  similar  manner 
to  linseed  and  cotton  cakes.  Cattle  do  not  take  very  readily  to  either 
of  these  articles,  but  when  once  they  acquire  the  taste,  they  thrive  and 
do  well.  As  milk  and  butter  producers,  palm-nut  cake  and  meal  are 
great  favourites  with  many  dairymen  and  farmers,  when  used  in 
combination  with  other  feeding  materials. 

394.  Rice  Meal. — There  is  always  a  considerable  quantity  of  this 
food  on  the  markets.  It  forms  a  fairly  good  cattle  food,  and  is 
extensively  used  in  many  districts,  but  great  caution  is  needed  in  its 
purchase,  as  it  can  be  bought  at  almost  any  price,  and  is  frequently 
adulterated  and  damaged.  It  is  more  used  in  making  fancy  mixed 
meals  and  cakes  than  as  a  feeder  by  itself. 

395.  Cocoa-nut  Cake  and  Meal  are  made  from  the  dried  fruit  or 
flesh  of  the  cocoa-nut,  which  is  reduced  to  a  rough  powder  by 
machinery,  and  treated  in  much  the  same  way  as  seeds  are  in  the 
manufacture  of  other  cakes,  the  great  object  being  to  extract  the  oil, 
which  is  very  valuable,  and,  unlike  the  others,  is  solid,  resembling  lard 
at  ordinary  temperature.  The  residue  is  a  light-coloi^ed  cake,  having 
a  delicious  smell  and  nutty  flavour,  and  is  much  relished  by  all  kinds 
of  stock.  It  is  especially  valuable  for  dairy  cattle  and  breeding  ewes 
in  frosty  weather. 


396-   The  analyses  of  Cocoa-nut  Cakes  show  :- 



*  Albuminous  Compounds 
Carbonaceous  Principles 

Phosphates,  &c 


Insoluble  Matter    

'Containing  Nitroeen. .  . . 






II  36 



















F. — Analysis  of  a  sample  of  Egyptian   Cocoa-nut  Cake,  but  not  so  rich  in  oil  as 
English-made  Cakes. 

G. — Analysis  of  Cocoa-nut  Cake,  Smith  &  Co.'s,  Kent  Street  Oil  Mills,  Liverpool. 

H. — Analysis  of  Palm-nut  Cake,  Smith  &  Co.'s,  Kent  Street  Oil  Mills,  Liverpool. 

397.  Compound  Cakes  and  Meals. — While  believing  in  a  mixed 
food,  I  do  not  advocate  the  purchase  of  prepared  fancy-named 
mixtures.  The  articles  used  in  their  composition  may  be  of  an  inferior, 
mouldy,  or  doubtful  character.  There  is  nothing  equal  to  the  simple 
cakes,  crushed  and  mixed  with  maize,  meal,  or  home-grown  ground 
corn,  and,  if  necessary,  flavoured  with  powdered  locust  bean  or 
fenugreek.  If  mixed  foods  are  wanted,  the  best  way  is  to  buy  the 
materials  and  mix  them  to  your  own  satisfaction.  It  is  important, 
however,  to  be  careful,  not  to  overbalance  the  materials.  One  part  of 
albuminous  or  nitrogenous  matter  to  four  or  five  fat-forming  matter,  is 
the  most  suitable  mixture  for  feeding  cattle.  I  have  seen  evil  effects 
follow  the  consumption  of  badly-balanced  foods.  In  buying  fancy 
compound  mixtures  care  is  necessary,  for  in  large  seaports,  such  as 
London,  Hull,  Liverpool,  Leith,  &c.,  there  is  always  a  great  amount 
of  damaged  grain,  corn,  cakes,  &c.  These  are  sold  by  auction,  and 
have  to  be  placed  somewhere.  There  are  first,  second,  and  third-class 
damaged  :  the  first  and  second  might  be  dressed  and  sold  as  a  good, 
sound  article;  the  third-class  is  assorted,  ground,  and  made  up  into 
compound  mixtures,  flavoured  with  aromatics,  and  sold  on  the  market 
as  first-class  feeding  cakes  and  meals.      I  have  every  reason  to  believe 


that  these  sorts  of  feeding  stuffs  are  largely  responsible  for  many  of 
the  outbreaks  of  disease  amongst  cattle  and  pigs.  As  to  whether  the 
bacillus  of  anthrax  is  preserved  in  cotton-seed  cakes,  even  after  they 
have  been  subjected  to  heat  and  high  pressure,  I  would  not  offer  any 
definite  opinion,  but  it  is  within  my  knowledge  that  in  wool  shoddy, 
which  had  been  subjected  to  great  friction  and  heat  in  the  polishing  of 
tin  plates,  no  fewer  than  sixty  distinct  species  of  foreign  plants  were 
found  growing  on  the  refuse  heap  where  it  was  collected.  If  such  a 
variety  of  vegetable  life  could  be  found  in  wool  shoddy  after  the 
friction  to  which  it  had  been  subjected,  I  do  not  see  why  the  bacillus 
of  anthrax,  if  it  were  in  the  woolly  film  attached  to  the  cotton  seed  at 
all,  might  not  survive  the  crushmg.  The  meal  of  the  Indian  pea, 
already  referred  to,  as  well  as  that  of  castor  oil  beans,  have  been  found 
mixed  in  these  compound  cakes  and  meals,  which,  when  used,  have 
had  fatal  elTects  on  both  cows  and  sheep.  I  am  afraid  that,  in  many 
of  these  instances,  the  deaths  have  been  attributed  to  anthrax,  and 
so  caused  great  inconvenience,  through  restrictions  being  put  on, 
preventing  the  removal  of  stock. 

398.  Bran. — The  feeding  properties  of  the  husk  of  wheat,  although 
extensively  used,  are  looked  upon  as  very  limited.  It  is  a  well-known 
fact,  that  if  a  horse,  in  regular  work,  receives  two  or  three  bran 
mashes  in  succession,  it  will  be  severely  purged.  This  is  due  to  the 
exciting  eftects  set  up  in  the  lining  membrane  of  the  bowels,  by  the 
indigestible  nature  of  the  bran  ;  and  yet,  a  good  warm  bran  mash  is 
considered  the  best  food  for  a  tired  and  starved  animal.  While  a  great 
many  cattle  feeders  consider  the  money  wasted  that  may  be  laid  out 
on  bran,  I  am  satisfied,  from  long  observation  and  practical  trial,  that 
it  has  a  very  important  and  highly  beneficial  effect  in  the  assimilation 
of  food.  Bran,  or  husk  of  wheat,  as  already  stated,  from  its 
indigestible  nature,  has  a  stimulating  effect  on  the  glands  and 
absorbents  studded  all  along  the  intestinal  tract,  exciting  them  into 
greater  action,  and,  by  these  means,  more  nutritive  material  is  taken 
up  and  assimilated  from  the  food  given  with  it,  than  would  otherwise 
be  done  if  the  bran  were  withheld. 




399.  The  organs  of  circulation,  in  all  animals,  comprise  : — 

I. — The     Heart,    which,    so    to    speak,    pumps    blood    for 
purification   and   circulation. 

2. — The  Arteries,  which  carry  blood  to  various  portions  of 

the  body. 
3. — The  Capillaries,  which  form  the  connecting  medium 

between   arteries  and   veins. 

4. — The  Veins,  which  return  the  blood  to  the  heart. 

400.  The  Heart  is  a  reddish-brown,  hollow,  cone-shaped  muscular 
organ,  situated  between  the  right  and  left  lungs,  in  the  middle  of  the 
chest,  or  thorax  (in  other  words,  in  the  mediastinum),  having  a  base 
which  looks  upwards,  a  body,  and  an  apex  pointing  downwards  in 
a  slightly  oblique  manner  towards  the  sternum,  or  breast  bone, 
inclining  slightly  to  the  left  side.  It  is  composed  of  involuntary 
muscular  fibres,  and  is  enclosed  in  a  fine  fibro-serous  sac,  or  bag, 
called  the  peyicavdmm,  the  surface  of  the  heart  being  covered  by  a 
serous  membrane — the  epicardium.  In  the  horse  and  cow  it  is  about 
eight  inches  in  length  from  the  base  to  the  apex,  and  weighs  from  six 
to  seven  pounds.  The  walls  on  the  right  side  of  the  heart  are  much 
finer  and  thinner  than  those  on  the  left,  whilst  the  walls  of  the  left 



A.  Right  Ventricle. 

B.  Left  Ventricle. 

C.  Right  Auricle. 

D.  Anterior  Vena  Cava. 

F.  Posterior  Vena  Cava. 

G.  Thoracic  Duct. 

H.  Pulmonary  Arteries. 

I.  Coronary  Artery — Nutrient  Vessel  of  the  Heart. 
J.  Pulmonary  Veins. 

K.  Aorta. 


1.  Anterior  Vena  Cava. 

2.  Musculi  Pectinati. 

3.  Interior  of  Right  Auricle, 

4.  Division  between  Auricle  and  Ventricle. 

5.  Posterior  Vena  Cava. 

6.  Anterior  Aorta. 

7.  Posterior  Aorta. 

8.  Trunk  of  Aorta,  as  it  arises  from  the  Left  Ventricle. 

9.  Pulmonary  Artery,  as  it  arises  from  the  Right  Ventricle. 
10.  Semi-Lunar  Valves. 

II.  Interior  of  Right  Ventricle. 

12.  Tricuspid  Valves. 

13.  Chordae  Tendineae. 

14.  Papillary  Muscle. 

15.  Walls  of  Right  Ventricle. 


ventricle  are  about  three  times  as  tliick  as  those  of  the  ri,sjjht,  and  form 
the  apex.  Tlie  heart  receives  its  nutrient  blood  from  the  coronary 
arteries,  the  blood  being  returned  by  the  coronary  veins  into  the  right 

401.  Internally,  the  heart  is  divided  into  four  cavities — two  auricles, 
and  two  ventricles ;  the  auricles  and  ventricles  being  separated  from 
each  other  by  a  partition — the  auriculo-ventricular  septum  ;  whilst  the 
cavities  are  lined  by  a  delicate  membrane,  called  the  endocardium. 

402.  The  Auricles,  being  in  the  upper  portion  of  the  heart,  form 
its  base,  and  open  into  the  ventricles  by  orifices  guarded  by  valves — 
the  valve  on  the  right  side  being  in  three  segments,  and  named  the 
tri-cuspid  (Plate  XXXI. ,B.,  12)  ;  while  that  on  the  left  is  m  two,  and 
is  called  the  bi-cuspid,  or  mitral.  On  the  inside  of  the  auricles, 
chiefly  in  the  appendix  of  each,  are  noticed  fleshy  elevations,  called 
lunsculi  pectinati  (Plate  XXXI.,  B.  2),  while  there  is  a  depression  on  the 
auricular  septum,  which  is  the  remains  of  the  foramen  ovale,  through 
which  the  blood  courses  in  fcetal  circulation. 

403.  Inside  the  Ventricles  are  fleshy  columns — papillary  muscles 
(Plate  XXXI.,  B.  14) — from  which  run  white  fibrous  cords,  called 
chorda;  tcndinecv  (Plate  XXXI.,  B.  13),  to  be  attached  to  the  auriculo- 
ventricular  valves,  their  purpose  being  to  limit  the  range  of  movement 
of  the  valves,  and  prevent  them  from  being  swept  into  the  auricles 
during  contraction  of  the  ventricles. 

404.  Into  the  right  auricle,  we  have  opening  the  anterior  and  posterior 
(Plate  XXXI.,  B.  1  and  5)  venae  cavae,  and  the  coronary  sinus  (into 
which  the  coronary  veins  open),  while  the  four  pulmonary  veins  open 
into  the  left  auricle. 

405.  The  Pulmonary  Artery  (Plate  XXXI.,  B.  9)  arises  from  the 
right  ventricle,  and  carries  venous  blood  to  the  lungs  to  be  oxj'genated, 
while  the  Pulmonary  Veins  (Plate  XXXI. ,  A  J.),  which  are  generally 
four  in  number,  bring  back  the  purified  blood  from  the  lungs  to  the 
left  auricle  of  the  heart. 


406.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  pnhii^iuaiy  artery  carries  venous 
blood,  and  t\\c  puhnonary  veins,  arterial  blood. 

407.  Inside  the  aona  and  pulmonary  artery,  just  as  they  leave  the 
heart,  are  the  semi-lnnav  valves  (Plate  XXXI.,  B.  /Oj,  three  in  number; 
on  the  free  edges  of  these  are  small  fibrous  bodies,  called  the  corpora 
Arantii ;  these  valves,  like  the  other  valves  of  the  heart,  are  to  prevent 
regurgitation  of  the  blood. 

408.  The  Aorta  (Plate  XXXI.,  B.  8)  rises  from  the  front  and  upper 
part  of  the  left  ventricle,  and  is  the  main  stem  of  the  arterial  circulation. 
The  common  aorta  is  about  two  inches  long,  and  divides  into  two 
great  branches,  one — the  anterior  aorta  (Plate  XXXI.,  B.  6) — going 
to  supply  the  head,  neck,  and  fore  extremities,  while  the  other — the 
posterior  aorta  (Plate  XXXI .  B.  7 ) — proceeds  to  the  hinder  parts  of  the 
body  and  limbs. 

409.  Arteries  (Plate  XXXII.,  2  and  5).  These  are  the  vessels  which 
convey  the  blood  from  the  left  side  of  the  heart  to  the  various  portions 
of  the  body.  They  are  very  dense,  and  elastic,  having  three  coats — 
\\z.,  internal,  lined  by  endothelium;  middle,  ox  contractile,  consisting 
of  non-striated  muscular  fibre,  and  elastic  tissue  ;  and  external,  of 
areolar  structure.  The  arteries  anastomose  frequently  with  one 
another,  and  finally  terminate  in  the  capillaries. 

410.  Capillaries  (Plate  XXXII. ,  3.3,  7.7,  and  8.8J.  This  is  a 
system,  or  network,  of  minute  vessels,  constituting  the  connecting 
medium  between  the  arteries  and  veins.  They  are  very  small,  being 
about  goVo  of  ^"  inch  in  diameter.  It  is  through  their  thin  walls  that 
the  changes  between  the  blood  and  the  tissues  take  place  ;  the  nutrient 
material  is  given  out,  and  the  effete  products  are  taken  up  into  the 
blood  stream  and  carried  to  the  various  excretory  organs,  such  as 
lungs,  kidneys,  skin,  &c.,  to  be  thrown  off  by  them. 

411.  Veins  (Plate  XXXII.,  4  and  9)  are  the  vessels  which  return 
the  blood  to  the  right  side  of  the  heart.  They,  like  arteries  have  three 
coats,  which,  however,  are  not  so  dense,  strong,  or  elastic,  and  they 
are,  moreover,  provided   with   pouch-shaped   valves,  to   prevent   the 






L.A.  Left  Auricle. 

R.A.  Right  Auricle. 

L.V,  Left  Ventricle. 

R.V.  Right  Ventricle. 

1.  Common  Aorta. 

2.  Anterior  Aorta. 

3.3.  Capillary  Circulation  of  Anterior  Portion  of  the  Body. 

4.4.  Anterior  Vena  Cava. 

5.  Posterior   Aorta. 

6.  Hepatic  Artery. 
6a.  Portal  Vein. 

7.7.  Capillaries  of  Hepatic  Circulation. 

8.8.  Capillary  Circulation  of  Posterior  Portion  of  the  Body. 

9.9.  Posterior  Vena  Cava. 

The  Arrows  show  the  direction  in  which  the  Blood  flows. 


back-flow  of  the  blood.     The  walls  of  the  bloodvessels  are  nourished 
by  means  of  small  vessels,  called  the  vasa  vasonim. 

412.  The  Portal  Vein  (Plate  XXXII.,  6  and  7)  forms  a  separate 
circulatory  system.  It  commences  in  the  sub-lumbar  region,  being 
formed  by  various  vessels.  It  carries  blood,  which  is  cliarged  with 
material  newly  absorbed,  through  the  walls  of  the  stomach  and 
intestines,  from  the  food,  and  conveys  it  to  the  liver. 

413.  The  Circulation  of  the  Blood. — Through  the  medium  of 
the  large  venae  cavs,  the  dark  venous  blood  reaches  the  heart ;  entering 
by  the  right  auricle,  and,  passing  through  the  openmg  guarded  by  the 
tri-cuspid  valve,  it  gains  the  right  ventricle.  From  thence  it  is  driven, 
by  the  contraction  of  the  walls  of  the  ventricle,  into  the  pulmonary 
artery,  and  is  carried  to  the  right  and  left  lungs,  where  it  gives  off 
carbonic  acid  gas,  and  becomes  charged  with  oxygen.  This  action 
changes  its  colour  from  a  dark  brown  to  a  bright  scarlet.  The  blood 
is  then  returned  by  the  pulmonary  veins  to  the  left  auricle,  then 
through  the  passage  guarded  by  the  bi-cuspid  valves  into  the  left 
ventricle,  whence  it  is  forced  into  the  aorta,  thence  through  the  arteries 
all  over  the  body,  carrying  to  the  various  parts  nourishment,  as  well 
as  oxygen,  to  keep  up  animal  heat.  When  loaded  with  impurities  it 
is  again  returned  by  the  vems  to  the  right  side  of  the  heart.  Thus 
we  have  a  double  circulation,  the  right  side  being  the  venous,  or 
pulmonary,  while  the  left  is  the  arterial,  or  systemic. 

414.  By  the  action  of  the  heart,  i.e.,  by  the  contraction  of  the 
ventricles,  the  blood  is  forced  into  the  aorta  and  pulmonary  artery  ; 
this  causes  the  arteries  to  dilate,  and  this  dilatation,  running  in  the 
form  of  a  wave,  pressed  forward  by  the  contraction  of  the  arteries, 
and  the  force  behind  it,  constitutes  the  Pulse,  which  corresponds  to 
the  beats  of  the  heart. 

The  horse's  pulse  beats  from  38  to  43  times  per  minute. 
The  cow's         ,,  ,,  50  to  60     ,,  ,, 

The  sheep's      ,,  ,,  75  to  80     ,,  ,, 

The  pig's  ,,  ,,  70  to  80     „ 

The  dog's         ,,  ,,  80  to  go     ,, 


415-  The  number  of  beats  of  the  pulse  is  not  the  only  thing  to  be 
considered  ;  the  character  of  the  volume  of  the  vessel  is  to  be  taken 
into  account  as  well,  for  the  pulse  may  be  quick  or  slow,  hard  or  soft, 
strong  or  iveak,  full  and  hounding,  double  or  intermittent,  corded  or  wiry, 
irregular,  thready,  and  running  down.  All  these  varieties  have  a 
significance  and  value  in   the  diagnosing  of  disease. 

416.  In  the  horse,  the  pulse  is  generally  felt  at  the  jaw  or  inner  side 
of  the  forearm  or  fetlock  joint.  In  the  cow-,  at  the  lower  part  of  the 
neck,  opposite  the  shoulder  joint,  or  at  the  inner  side  .of  the  knee,  or 
imder  the  root  of  the  tail.  In  the  sheep,  pig,  and  dog,  it  is  felt  for 
inside  the  fore  arm  or  thigh. 

417.  The  Blood  is  a  red  fluid  (of  varying  specific  gravity  in 
different  animals,  eg.,  1060  in  the  horse,  ox,  and  pig),  and  of  which 
we  recognise  two  kinds  : — 

1.  Arterial  blood,  of  a  bright  scarlet  colour. 

2.  Venous  blood,  of  a  dark  brownish-red. 

The  difference  in  colour  is  due  to  the  relative  quantities  of  oxygen  in, 
each.     Blood  consists  of — 

1.  Liquor  sanguinis,  or //^s/z/r?. 

2.  Red  corpuscles — of  which  there  are,  it  is  estimated,  about 

204,113,750,000,000  m  the  bod}'  (Ellenberger). 

3.  White  corpuscles — the  number  of  which  is  estimated  to  be 

in  proportion  to  the  red  as  i  :  335. 

4.  Some  proteids,  extractive  and  mineral  matter. 

418.  The  Plasma  (Liquor  sanguinis)  contains  water,  proteids  (some 
of  which  are  capable  of  giving  rise  to  fibrin),  solids  (not  proteid  in 
nature),  extractives  (including  fat),  and  inorganic  salts. 

419.  The  Red  Corpuscles  are  bi-concave  disc-shaped  cells,  without 
nuclei  ;  they  are  said  to  be  about  tj/oo  of  an  inch  in  diameter  ;  and 
it  is  to  them  that  the  red  colour  of  the  blood  is  due,  from  the  iron 
(containing  the  pigment  hamoglflhin)  which  they  possess,  and  which  is 
the  oxygen-carrier  to  the  tissues.       The  red  corpuscles,  when  seen 

singly,  are  of  a  yellow  colour,  and  float  in  the  middle  of  the  blood 
stream,  moving  along  more  rapidly  than  the  white  ones. 

420.  The  White  Corpuscles  (^or /f//cori'^fs,  as  they  are  also  termed), 
are  very  remarkable  bodies,  which  float  more  slowly  along  the  sides 
of  the  vessels,  in  what  is  called  the  still  stream.  They  are  larger  than 
the  red  corpuscles,  and  seem  to  have  a  sort  of  life  in  themselves.  It 
is  believed  that  some  of  them  {ca.\led  phagocytes)  the  power  of  killing 
the  disease  germs  which  attack  the  body.  There  is  still  some  doubt 
as  to  the  origin  of  the  white  corpuscles  ;  it  is  thought  by  some  that 
they  are  formed  in  the  lymphatic  glands  ;  by  others,  that  they  are 
made  in  the  spleen  ;  while  others  think  that  they  come  from  the 
middle  parts,  or  medulla,  the  marrow  of  bone. 

421.  The  disease-producing  germs  above-mentioned — microhes,  or 
bacilli — surround  us  in  millions,  and  enter  the  body  by  food,  water,  and 
air.  Were  it  not  for  the  watchful  guard  which  these  little  soldier- 
like corpuscles  keep,  ready  to  pounce  upon  any  intruders,  these  germs 
would  speedily  over-run  the  system,  and  destroy  mankind  and  animals 
wholesale.  Occasionally,  indeed,  when  the  body,  from  some  cause  or 
other,  has  become  relaxed,  and  the  phagocytes  are  unable  to  do  their 
work  properly,  the  disease-producing  germs  get  the  upper  hand,  and 
set  up  their  own  particular  disease,  as,  for  example,  scarlet  fever,  &c. 
When  once  these  germs  get  a  footing  in  a  human  being,  or  in  an 
animal,  they  develop  and  become  more  numerous,  and  capable  of 
wide  dissemmation.  After  a  time,  they  appear  to  lose  their  potency, 
and  the  bodies  through  which  they  have  passed  seem  to  be  rendered 
immune,  and  freed  from  subsequent  attack.  The  epidemic  dies  out, 
but  the  germs  remain  latent  in  our  midst,  until,  in  the  course  of  time, 
they  seize  hold  of  another  susceptible  subject,  and  again  re-establish 
their  virulence.  At  least,  from  the  various  periodical  outbreaks  of 
specific  diseases,  and  the  immunity  given  by  inoculation,  one  is  led  to 
think  such  is  the  case. 

422.  Proteids. — The  proteids  of  blood  are  plasma,  fibrinogen, 
serum  albumin,  serum  globulin,  and  fibrin  ferment ;  of  these  fibrinogen, 



when   acted  upon   by  fibrin  ferment,  gives  rise  to  the  fibrin  found  in 
clotted  blood. 

423.  Extractives. — These  are  of  two  kinds,  viz.,  nitrogenous  and 
non-nitrogenous.  The  nitrogenous  extractives  are  urea,  uric  acid, 
hippuric  acid,  creatine,  creatinine,  xanthine,  and  hypo-xanthine  ;  the 
non-nitrogenous  are  fats,  soaps,  cholesterine,  and  sugar. 

424.  Mineral  Matter. — The  salts  in  solution  in  the  blood  are 
chiefly  the  salts  of  potash,  soda,  lime,  and  magnesium,  phosphates  and 
iron  ;  of  these,  by  far  the  most  plentiful  is  common  salt,  or  chloride  of 
sodium,  of  which  the  ash  of  human  blood  is  said  to  contain  as  much  as  54 
per  cent.  This  substance — salt — must,  therefore,  play  an  exceedingly 
important  part  in  the  body,  and,  from  its  presence  and  great 
germicidal  properties,  may,  doubtless,  assist  the  phagocytes  in  their 
work  of  protecting  the  system  from  the  invasion  of  disease-producing 

425.  The  Clotting  of  Blood. — When  blood  is  drawn  from  the 
body,  it  does  not  remain  fluid,  but,  in  a  short  time,  forms  into  a  jelly- 
like mass.  Then,  if  left  to  stand  for  a  few  hours  longer,  it  separates 
into  (i)  the  Crassamentum — a  firm  red  clot,  consisting  almost  entirely 
of  red  corpuscles,  entangled  in  a  network  of  fihvin — and  (2)  the  Serum 
— a  clear,  pale,  straw-coloured  fluid,  in  which  the  clot  floats.  Fibrin 
is,  normally,  only  produced  when  the  blood  is  shed,  or  in  some  other 
way  deprived  of  its  vitality.  Sometimes,  under  abnormal  conditions, 
fibrin  may  be  produced  in  the  living  body,  such  as  in  the  ante-mortem 
clots,  found  in  the  heart  and  bloodvessels. 

426.  Serum  may  be  considered  as  plasma  from  which  the  fibrin 
forming  elements  have  been  removed  during  clotting.  It  contains 
proteids,  extractives,  and  salts,  just  as  the  plasma  does.  The 
extractives  and  salts  are  the  same  in  both  fluids  ;  but  the  proteids  of 
serum  are  serum  albumin,  serum  globulin,  and  fibrin  ferment. 


427.  Intimately  connected  with  the  circulatory  system,  there  is  the 
Lymphatic  or  Absorbent  System,  which  is  made  up  of  numerous  vessels, 
of  various  sizes,  and  small  bodies,  also  of  different  sizes,  called  glands. 
The  absorbents  originate  in  a  very  fine  network  communicating  with 
fine  delicate  tubes,  which  are  more  numerous  than  the  capillaries  of 
the  blood-vessels,  and  are  found  in  almost  every  structure  of  the 
body,  being  both  deep-seated  and  superficial.  The  walls  of  the  larger 
vessels  have  three  coats,  and,  internally,  they  are  supplied  with  valves 
which  gives  them  a  beaded  appearance  when  distended. 

428.  A  number  of  the  smallest  of  these  absorbent  vessels  (Afferent 
Vessels)  will  be  found  running  to  the  glands.  These  are  present  in 
almost  every  portion  of  the  body,  and  are  of  various  sizes,  being  usually 
named  after  the  region  in  which  they  are  found,  for  instance  :  the 
mesenteric  glands  in  connection  with  the  intestines,  and  the  bronchial 
glands  associated  with  the  lungs.  These  glands  give  off  other  vessels 
(Efferent  Vessels)  which  are  slightly  larger,  and  these  again  pass  to 
other  glands,  and  so  on  until  they  end  in  one  or  other  of  the  two 
large  trunks,  i.e.,  the  thoracic  duct  and  the  right  lymphatic  vessel,  the 
former  being  the  larger  of  the  two. 

429.  The  Thoracic  Duct  carries  a  mixture  of  both  lymph  and  chyle. 
The  lymph  is  a  colourless  fluid  that  is  absorbed  from  the  various 
tissues  of  the  posterior  portion  of  the  body  and  hind  extremeties,  also 
from  the  left  side  of  the  head,  neck,  thorax,  and  left  fore  leg.  The 
chyle  is  a  milky  fluid  that  is  prepared  during  the  process  of  digestion, 
and  is  taken  up  by  the  lacteals,  or  lymphatic  vessels,  and  carried  to 
the  receptaculum  chyli,  where  it  mixes  wath  the  lymph,  and  is  then 
conveyed  by  the  thoracic  duct  mto  a  vein  near  the  heart  (par.  224,  Nos. 
7  and  8). 

430.  The  Right  Lymphatic  Vessel  is  a  receptacle  for  the  lymph 
that  is  taken  up  by  the  absorbents  on  the  right  side  of  the  head,  neck, 
thorax,  and  right  fore  leg,  and  it  empties  itself  into  the  venous  blood- 
stream near  the  heart,  generally  at  the  confluent  vein  of  the  jugulars. 





431.  Heart  Diseases. — These,  though  of  frequent  occurrence  in  the 
human  subject,  are  not  so  common  in  the  horse.  The  cow,  however, 
is  more  often  affected,  generally  with  traumatic  heart  disease,  from 
foreign  bodies,  such  as  pins,  needles,  &c.,  finding  their  way  to  the 
heart  from  the  stomach.  Heart  affections  may  be  said  to  be  of  two 
kinds  : — (i)  Functional  and  (2)  Organic. 

432.  Functional  Derangemet  of  the  Heart  in  the  horse  arises 
from  a  variety  of  causes,  but  is  mainly  due  to  some  stomach  or  liver 
disorder,  the  nature  of  which  should,  if  possible,  be  ascertained,  and 
suitable  treatment  adopted.  In  these  cases,  the  pulse  is,  as  a  rule,  very 
irregular  and  intermittent.  The  animal  is  very  dull,  hanging  its  head, 
and  breathing  slowly,  and  is  off  its  food.  The  under  side  of  the  eyelid 
and  the  mouth  is  also  of  a  dirty  yellow  colour.  When  these  symptoms 
are  observed,  the  following  medicine  usually  gives  great  relief : — One 
drachm  of  calomel  and  two  drachms  each  of  powdered  aloes,  and 
powdered  rhubarb,  made  into  a  ball  with  a  little  treacle,  followed  up 
by  half-ounce  doses  of  bicarbonate  of  soda,  night  and  morning,  in  a 
mash.  The  above  treatment  is  for  an  ordinary  adult  agricultural 
horse;  for  other  classes  of  horses,  the  dose  must  be  regulated. 
Functional  derangements  of  the  heart  may  also  be  due  to  some 
obstruction  in  the  blood  vessels. 

43^1.  In  Organic  Disease  of  the  Heart  of  the  horse,  some  of  the 
following  changes  are  at  times  seen,  such  as  vasculav,  fibrinous,  and  hony 
tumours  in  the  cavities,  and  sometimes  also,  attached  to  the  valves  of 
the  heart,  all  having,  generally,  a  corrugated  appearance.  Fatty 
degeneration  and  fatty  infiltration  of  the  walls  of  the  heart  are,  now  and 
again,  also  met  with,  the  two  latter  generally  in  complication  with  a 
somewhat  similar  condition  of  the  liver.  But  the  most  of  these  lesions 
are  only  made  manifest  at  the  post-mortem  examination.  The  most 
common  form,  however,  of  heart  disease  in  the  horse  and  dog  is  that 
termed  hypertrophy. 

434-  Hypertrophy,  or  enlargement  of  the  heart,  may  be  considered 
as  follows — 

A. — Hypertrophy  without  dilatation,  when  the  walls  oi  the 
heart  are  thickened,  but  the  capacity  of  the  cavities 
remain  unchanged. 

B. — Hypertrophy  with  dilatation,  when  the  cavities  are 
enlarged,  as  well  as  the  walls  being  thickened,  and 
when  the  heart  is  enlarged  throughout,  with  the 
walls  very  thin,  flabby,  and  pale,  and  the  cavities 

435.  The  heart  may  also  become  atrophied  or  attenuated,  when  not 
only  is  the  organ  itself  nnich  smaller  than  normal,  but  the  walls  and 
cavities  are  also  diminished. 

436.  When  a  horse  is  noticed,  while  pulling  a  load  up  a  hill,  to  stop 
every  few  steps,  almost  breathless  ;  to  have  dilated  nostrils  and  staring 
eyes,  and  the  heart  beating  with  a  thumping  sound  loud  enough  to  be 
heard,  or  fluttering  with  an  irregular  sound,  while  the  pulse  is  scarcely 
perceptible,  and  there  is  a  waving  flow  in  the  jugular  vein  up  the 
neck  ;  it  may  be  then  set  down  that  some  heart  complication  is  present. 
A  slight  canter  will  produce  similar  symptoms  with  an  affected  horse. 

•Owing  to  the  thick  walls  of  the  sides  and  front  of  the  chest  of  all  the 
domestic  animals — with  the  exceptions  of  the  dog  and  cat — the  sounds 
of  the  heart  are  very  difficult  to  define,  thus  making  it  almost  impossible 
to  distinguish  one  disease  from  another  by  sounding.  The  best  mode 
of  detecting  the  sounds  of  the  heart  of  the  horse  is  to  lift  the  near  fore 
leg,  pull  it  well  forward,  and  apply  the  ear  to  the  side  behind  the 
elbow.  Treatment  for  a  diseased  heart  is  of  little  avail  ;  but  the 
horse  may  live  a  long  time,  and  do  a  lot  of  farm  work,  so  long  as  it  is 
slow  and  easy.  As  the  legs  are  inclined  to  swell,  preparations  of  iron, 
digitalis,  and  potash,  will  assist  materially  in  giving  tone  to  the  animal 
(see  Appendix). 

437.  In  the  examination  of  horses  as  to  soundness,  it  is  of  the 
greatest  importance  to  note  the  state  of  the  pulse,  the  sounds  of  the 


heart,  as  well  as  those  of  the  breathing.  I  have  met  with  cases  said  to 
have  been  "  broken-winded,"  when,  on  examination,  heart  disease  was 
found  to  cause  the  difficulty  in  breathing. 

438.  Acute  cases  of  diseases  of  the  heart,  and  its  covering — the 
pericardium — are  frequently  associated  with  severe  attacks  of 
pneiunoiiia,  pleuyisy,  inflnenza,  pink-eye,  vlieumatic  affections,  &>c,  Here  the 
covering  of  the  heart  becomes  intensely  inflamed,  producing  fibrinous 
deposits,  and  effusion  of  water  into  the  chest  and  pericardial  sac 
(hydrops  pericardii  J.  These  cases  are  so  complicated,  and  so  rapid, 
that  they  require  early  and  judicious  treatment,  as  they  are  frequently 
fatal.  A  horse — particularly  a  stallion — fed  up  for  sale  on  too  much 
starchy  matter,  such  as  boiled  wheat,  potatoes,  &c.,  and  having  little 
or  no  work  to  do  is  subject  to  sudden  general  congestive  febrile  attacks, 
affecting  the  whole  system,  when,  from  the  hurried  circulation, 
fibrinous  strings  form  round  the  tendinous  cords  in  the  ventricles,  and 
accumulate  so  fast  that  the  animal  dies  from  stoppage  of  the  heart's 
action  by  this  ante-mortem  clot  of  yellow  fibrinous,  fatty-looking  material 
blocking  up  the  passages  through  the  heart  and  the  large  vessels. 

439.  In  the  old  farrier  days,  when  bleeding  was  so  much  run  upon, 
these  cases  were  bled  four  or  five  times  in  twenty-four  hours.  This 
repeated  bleeding  tended  to  increase  the  fibrinous  matters  in  the  blood, 
so  that  instead  of  relieving  the  animal,  the  operators  only  assisted  in 
killing  it,  and  on  post-mortem  the  verdict  was  that  it  had  died  from 
grease  at  the  heart.  These  cases  require  prompt  treatment.  If  bled 
at  all,  it  should  only  be  once,  and  at  the  very  first.  The  animal 
ought  to  be  kept  quiet,  and  given  plenty  of  ammoniated  nitrate  water 
to  drink  (sec  Appendix). 

440.  The  Cow,  as  already  noted,  suffers  more  from  heart  diseases 
than  the  horse,  owing  to  foreign  bodies  passing  through  the  walls  of 
the  stomach  to  the  heart.  The  animal  may  go  on  feeding  and  doing 
well,  without  the  slightest  symptom  of  anything  being  amiss,  until 
one  day  it  is  found  dead — post-mortem  examination  revealing  the  cause 
to   be   a  needle,  wire,  or    some   such   bod}'  (of  which    I    have   quite   a 


collection),  sticking  in  the  heart,  or  its  covering.  Sometimes  the 
animal  is  very  lame,  and  on  close  examination  an  enlargement  is  found 
in  the  side  behind  the  elbow,  which  on  cutting  into  is  foiuid  to  contain 
perhaps  a  large  needle  or  pm.  Again,  in  other  cases,  the  symptoms 
are,  that  the  animal  begins  to  lose  flesh  and  milk,  feeds  badly,  rarely 
chews  the  cud,  and  shows  all  the  symptoms  of  a  "■  piner,''  having  a  dry, 
ticklish,  barking  cough,  standmg  with  the  hind  legs  down  in  the 
gangway  of  the  byre,  the  belly  tucked  up,  and  sides  dropped  in,  the 
breathing  short  and  slightly  quickened  ;  but  the  most  confirming 
symptom  is  the  jugular  vein  being  greatly  enlarged,  sticking  out  as 
thick  as  the  handle  of  a  hay-fork,  with  a  wavy  pulsation  in  it.  As 
the  case  progresses,  watery  swellings  are  seen  under  the  jaw,  and  on 
the  lower  side  of  the  neck  and  dew-lap,  while  the  pulse  is  so  small  and 
quick  as  to  be  scarcely  appreciable.  On  applying  the  ear  to  the  flat 
or  bottom  of  the  sternum,  just  behind  the  elbow,  the  heart  can  be 
heard  splashing  in  the  water,  with  a  peculiar  tinkling  running  sound. 
This  symptom  may  be  due  to  some  foreign  body  sticking  in  the 
pericardium,  or  to  chronic  inflammation  of  the  pericardium  from  other 
causes — one  prominent  cause  bemg  the  retention  of  the  second 
cleansing,  the  flow  of  which  maj'  have  been  checked  by  east  wind 
chills,  or  from  too  early  removal  of  the  cow  after  calving,  &c.  [Lecliive 
XII.)  The  animal  at  first  falls  slightly  off  its  milk  and  food,  and  the 
complaint  steals  on  gradually,  until  it  ends  in  hydro-pericarditis. 
Treatment  is  very  unsatisfactory.  Saline  medicines,  combined  with 
iron  and  vegetable  tonics  can  be  tried  (see  Appendix). 

441.  A  Young  Animal,  under  twelve  months  old,  when  fed  on  too 
nitrogenous  a  diet,  such  as  decorticated  cotton  cake,  suffers  sometimes 
from  coiigesiioii  of  the  lungs  and  heart.  It  has  a  dry  husky  cough,  the 
head  is  stretched  out  and  held  low,  jugulav  vein  full,  breathing  quick, 
with  a  sharp  grunt,  while  the  movement  of  the  flanks  is  rapid,  and 
there  is  generally  foaming  at  the  mouth.  In  fact  at  the  first  glance, 
the  case  resembles  quarter-ill.  Such  cases  usually  terminate  fatally, 
and  the  animal  should  be  slaughtered  early.  Cotton  cake  of  any  sort 
should  never  be  given  to  animals  under  twelve  months  old. 

1 84 

442.  Thrombi,  or  plugging  of  the  bloodvessels,  are  occasionally 
met  with  in  the  horse.  They  generally  make  their  appearance  when 
an  animal  has  had  a  very  quick  journey,  and  is  pulled  up  for  a  time. 
On  re-starting,  it  is  found  to  be  intensely  lame  on  one  of  its  legs, 
usually  a  hind  one — in  fact,  it  can  scarcely  move.  The  limb  has  all  the 
appearance  of  being  paralysed,  only  the  animal  can  move  and  stand  on 
it,  but  it  does  so  with  great  difficulty  and  pain,  and  perspires  freely. 
As  the  case  proceeds,  the  veins  are  seen  to  be  varicosed,  the  leg  begins 
to  swell,  and  is  very  painful  to  the  touch.  There  is  a  great  deal  of 
constitutional  disturbance  present,  the  animal  taking  little  or  no  food. 
These  cases  take  a  long  and  tedious  time  to  recover.  The  acute 
febrile  symptoms  must  be  combated  with  mild  laxatives  and  sedative 
medicine.  There  is  also  a  chronic  form  of  this  disturbance,  which  is 
accompanied  by  swelled  legs,  varicose  veins,  and  a  peculiar  clumpy 
action  of  the  leg.  Diuretics,  with  iron  tonics  and  long  rest,  answer 
best  in  these  cases  {sec  Appendix). 

443.  Phlebitis,  or  inflammation  of  a  vein — more  particularly  the 
jugular  vein — is  not  so  often  seen  nowadays,  being  generally  caused 
by  too  frequent  or  unskilful  bleedings,  especially  in  the  case  of  over-fed 
animals  of  a  febrile  tendency.  If  in  the  jugular,  the  vein  is  noticed  to 
be  very  much  swollen  from  the  opening,  up  to  the  animal's  head,  with 
a  mattery  discharge  from  the  wound.  When  first  observed,  a  smart 
blister  applied  over  the  enlargement  generally  has  the  desired  effect. 
Some  cases,  however,  are  to  be  met  with,  when  it  is  necessary  to  pass 
a  seton  along  the  engorged  portion  of  the  vessel,  and  to  tie  up  the 
animal  short  to  the  rack.  Nearly  all  the  cases  terminate  with 
obliteration  of  the  vein,  and  this  requires  careful  attention  in 
examination    for    soundness. 

444.  Azoturia,  or  Nitrogenous  Urine,  is  due  to  an  overloaded 
state  of  the  system,  and  occurs  usually  amongst  horses  which  are  too 
well  stall-fed,  and  have  too  little  work  or  exercise  ;  it  is  more 
particularly  met  with  after  a  spell  of  frost,  during  which  time  the 
animals  have  had  a  term  of  enforced  idleness,  without  the  necessary  care 
and  attention  having  been  paid  to  their  dieting.     Mares  are  even  more 


acutely  affected  than  horses.  Symptoms  :  On  the  animal  being  taken 
out  of  the  stable,  it  seems  to  be  possessed  of  more  life  and  high  spirits 
than  usual,  and  rushes  off  on  its  journey  in  great  form,  but  does  not 
proceed  far — generally  from  half  a  mile  to  two  miles — before  it  begins 
to  flag,  wants  to  stop,  and  breaks  out  into  a  most  profuse  perspiration  ; 
the  back  becomes  arched,  and  the  hind  legs  stiffen,  &c.  Though  the 
difficulty  is  great,  the  animal  should  be  got  into  a  stable,  when,  if  a 
mare,  it  may  throw  itself  down,  and  commence  to  strain,  as  if  in  the 
act  of  foaling,  ejecting  from  its  bladder  large  quantities  of  dark-brown 
coffee-coloured  urine.  A  horse,  on  the  other  hand,  generally  stands 
leaning  against  the  stall,  or  wall,  pressing  its  head  in  the  manger, 
perspiring  freely,  breathing  quickly,  with  a  full,  strong,  corded  pulse, 
while  the  eyelids  and  other  visible  mucous  membranes  are  highly  in- 
jected. Quantities  of  the  same  peculiar  coffee-coloured  urine  are  passed 
at  intervals  with  great  straining.  Treatment  :  Owing  to  the  sudden 
onset  and  severity  of  the  attack,  I  know  of  no  other  complaint  affecting 
the  horse  for  which  bleeding  answers  so  well,  or  has  such  a  decided, 
beneficial  action,  unloading,  as  it  does,  the  over-crowded  system 
sooner  than  anything  else.  From  six  to  ten  quarts  of  blood  may  be 
taken,  according  to  the  size  of  the  animal,  after  which  a  good  dose  of 
linseed  oil  (i  to  i-|  pints)  should  be  administered,  followed  up  by  four 
drachm  doses  of  bicarbonate  of  potash,  in  drinking  water,  every  eight 
hours.  If  the  attack  is  allowed  to  run  its  course,  the  animal,  as  a 
rule,  dies,  or  if  by  chance  it  recovers,  it  is  worthless  for  a  very  long 
time,  the  muscles  of  the  loins  being  infiltrated  with  blood,  from  the 
rupturing  of  the  muscular  tissue  and  bloodvessels,  caused  by  the 
excessive  straining.  To  prevent  the  occurrence  of  this  troublesome 
disorder,  animals  should  be  regularly  exercised  daily  ;  if  this  is  not 
practicable,  they  must  be  put  into  a  loose  box,  and  lightly  fed,  as 
long  as  their  period  of  idleness  lasts. 

445.  Purpura  Haemorrhagica,  or  Purple  Bleeding. — This 
is  an  eruptive,  non-contagious,  febrile  affection,  most  frequently  found 
in  the  horse,  and  follows  in  the  wake  of  some  debilitating  disease, 
such  as  catarrhal  fever,  influenza,  strangles,  diabetes,  &c.,  or  it  may 
arise  spontaneously  without  any  previous  derangement.      It  is  of  more 


common  occurrence  in  town  than  in  country  practice.  Symptoms  : 
When  an  animal  is  evidently  on  the  way  to  recovery  from  a  severe 
attack  of  influenza,  or  some  such  disease,  it  may  all  at  once  be  found 
with  swelled  legs,  eyelids,  nose,  and  mouth,  and  patchy  swellings  all 
over  the  body,  while,  on  closer  examination,  dark  purple  blotches  are 
seen  inside  the  nostrils.  The  breathing  becomes  much  quicker,  and 
the  pulse  is  small  and  fast,  while  there  is  a  yellow  discharge  from  the 
nostrils.  Occasionally  the  swellings  about  the  head  are  so  large,  that 
the  breathing  is  oppressed  to  such  an  extent  that  suffocation  is 
threatened,  and  tracheotomy  must  be  performed,  while  the  limbs  may 
become  so  much  swollen  that  the  animal  can  scarcely  stir,  and  has  at 
length  to  be  supported  on  slings.  Treatment  :  When  first  observed, 
the  horse  should  at  once  be  put  in  a  loose  box,  where  it  can  have  a 
plentiful  supply  of  fresh  air,  and,  when  necessary,  ought  to  be  put  in 
slings.  Milk,  linseed  jelly,  and  eggs  beaten  up  in  milk,  may  be  given,  as 
well  as  green  food,  and  boiled  barley,  if  it  has  any  appetite.  All  the 
food  must  be  light,  and  easy  to  digest.  No  purgatives  should  be 
administered.  Chlorate  of  potash,  in  two  drachm  doses,  every  four  or 
SIX  hours  (given  in  drinking  fluids)  has  a  very  beneficial  effect,  while 
two  ounce  doses  of  hyposulphite  of  soda  can  be  given,  night  and 
morning,  in  sloppy  mashes  or  drinking  water  ;  but  the  malady  being 
of  such  a  formidable  character,  the  patient  should  be  placed  at  once 
in  the  care  of  a  veterinary  surgeon,  as  in  many  difficult  cases,  by  the 
injection  of  preparations  of  iodine  in  solution  into  the  windpipe,  the 
animal  can  be,  and  has  been,  saved. 

446.  Influenza  and  Pink-Eye. — These  are  described  under 
"  Respiration  " — Lecture  IX. 

447.  Urticaria,  Blaines,  Howkes,  or  Nettle-Rash. — This  is 
another  blood  affection  of  a  non-contagious  and  non -febrile  type, 
analogous  to  what  is  termed  "  musselling  "  in  the  human  subject.  It 
is  characterised  by  the  sudden  springing  up  of  patchy  elastic  swellings 
all  over  the  body  which,  however,  cause  little  or  no  distress  to  the 
animal,  and  may  disappear  quite  as  suddenly  as  they  came.  The 
cause  is  generally  traceable  to  some  strange  food,  or  quality  of  food, 


being  given  to  an  animal,  such  as  the  first  feed  of  new  grass,  new  hay, 
or  oats,  Indian  corn,  &c.  Treatment  :  For  the  horse,  from  one  to 
two  ounces  of  bicarbonate  of  soda,  or  the  same  quantity  of  hypo- 
sulphite of  soda,  dissolved  in  one  pint  of  cold  water,  to  which  is  added 
half  a  pint  of  whisky,  if  given  when  first  observed,  will  generally  be 
found  to  have  the  desired  eff'ect. 

448.  In  the  cow  this  complaint  is  most  frequently  met  witli  during 
the  spring  months,  when  stock  are  changing  their  quarters.  The 
head,  eyes,  ears,  neck,  and  the  base  of  the  tail  are  swollen  up,  while 
the  skin  all  over  the  body  feels  much  thicker  and  harder  than  usual. 
The  swellings,  at  times,  are  so  extensive  in  the  region  of  the  neck  and 
head,  that  the  animal  foarhs  at  the  mouth,  and  shows  all  the  symptoms 
of  choking.  Formerly,  cattle  dealers  and  drovers,  on  observing  a  case 
of  this  nature  used  to  cut  the  partition  dividing  the  nostrils,  and  let  it 
bleed,  while  farmers  used  to  get  very  excited,  and  were  in  a  great 
hurry  to  have  the  anmial  bled,  thinking  that  they  could  not  take  too 
much  blood  away.  By  this  heroic  and  foolish  treatment,  I  have  seen 
many  subjects  bled  to  death.  All  the  Treatment  that  is  necessary  is 
to  give  the  cow  a  wineglassful  of  turpentine,  in  a  pint  of  hnseed  oil,  or 
milk  ;  or  two  ounces  either  of  bicarbonate  of  soda  or  of  hyposulphite 
of  soda  may  be  given  in  one  pint  of  cold  water,  to  which  half  a  pint  of 
whisky  has  been  added.  After  this  the  animal  should  be  left  alone, 
and  a  little  patience  exerted  on  the  owner's  part. 

449.  Lymphangitis,  Weed,  Shot  of  Grease,  or  Monday 
Morning  Complaint,  consists  of  inflammation  of  the  absorbent 
vessels,  and  most  frequently  affects  the  the  hind  legs  of  horses  ; 
occasionally,  however,  it  is  met  with  m  the  fore  legs.  It  generally 
appears  on  Monday  mornings,  after  Sunday's  rest — and,  perhaps, 
over-feed — and  affects  heavy  horses,  more  particularly  the  sluggish 
gummy-legged  ones.  From  the  suddenness  of  the  attack,  and  the 
extreme  pain  evinced  on  touching  the  affected  limb,  it,  to  my  mind, 
great!}'  resembles  gout  in  the  human  subject.  Nineteen  people  out  of 
twenty  are  in  the  habit  of  calling  this  a  "■shot  of  grease,''  whereas,  in 
reality,  there  is  no  grease  about  it,  grease  being  purely  a  skin  disease 


(see  Eleventh  Lecture).  Symptoms  :  In  some  cases,  the  attack  is 
ushered  in  by  a  shivering  fit,  while  in  others,  the  first  symptom 
noticeable  is  a  sudden  and  extreme  lameness  in  one  leg,  on  touching 
which  great  pain  is  evinced,  even  before  any  swelling  makes  its 
appearance,  while  patches  of  sweat  may  be  observed  on  the  limb. 
The  large  vessels  running  up  the  inside  of  the  leg  soon  begin  to  enlarge, 
as  well  as  the  glands  in  the  grom,  and  excessive  lameness  and  pain 
accompany  any  attempts  to  move.  General  swelling  of  the  limb  then 
takes  place  ;  on  the  appearance  of  which  the  pain  diminishes  a  great 
deal,  most  of  its  acuteness  being  lost.  In  some  cases  there  is  a 
considerable  amount  of  constitutional  disturbance,  but  in  others,  very 
little  or  none  is  observable. 

450.  Treatment  :  In  very  acute  cases,  where  the  animal  is  suffering 
great  pain,  taking  from  four  to  six  quarts  of  blood  from  the  neck 
(jugular  vein)  gives  great  and  quick  relief.  Some  people  bleed  from 
the  toe  of  the  affected  limb,  but  this  I  do  not  approve  of.  The  treat- 
ment I  adopt,  and  which  I  can  strongly  recommend,  is  to  put  a 
bandage-S3'me — made  of  soft  meadow  hay,  not  too  tightly  twisted — 
round  the  limb,  commencing  at  the  foot,  and  rolling  lightl}'  and  loosely 
round,  up  to  the  top  of  the  affected  limb,  and  when  once  in  position, 
soaking  it  well  with  several  pailfuls  of  cold  water,  repeating  this  action 
every  three  or  four  hours.  In  scores  of  cases,  I  have  seen  the  animal 
get  great  relief  from  this  treatment,  in  less  than  an  hour.  Linseed  oil 
— from  I  to  i^  pints — may  be  given,  followed  up  by  3  to  4  drachm  doses 
of  nitrate  of  potash,  every  eight  hours,  in  drinking  water.  When  the 
pain  and  lameness  have  gone — which  is  usually  the  case  as  the  limb 
becomes  thickened — the  swelling  is  then  best  reduced  by  gentle 
exercise.  Iron  tonics,  with  diuretic  medicine,  may  be  given  every 
night  with  much  benefit  {see  Appendix.)  In  very  excitable  cases,  aloes 
balls  should  be  used  with  extreme  caution  [Inflamviation  of  the  Boivels, 
pay.  261).  Animals  once  affected  are  subject  to  subsequent  attacks, 
and  may  ultimately  end  with  their  having  a  chronic  thick  leg,  which, 
in  some  cases,  gets  to  an  enormous  size  ;  this  is  called  Elephantiasis. 

451.  Elephantiasis    (Plate  XX)  consists  of  a  chronic   abnormal 

thickening  of  the  connective  tissues  beneath  the  skin.  The  horse  may 
continue  to  do  slow  work  on  the  farm,  feeding  and  doing  well,  but  the 
leg  is  very  unsightly.  I  have  had  best  results  from  applying  a  cold- 
water  hay  bandage  to  the  leg  every  night,  while  tarring  the  limb,  and 
giving  a  winter's  run  at  grass,  have  also  a  wonderfully  good  effect. 
Liniments  of  a  slightly  stimulating  nature  may  also  be  used,  but  I 
have  tried  blisters,  setons,  &c.,  without  any  avail. 

452.  Inflammation  of  the  Lymphatics  is  a  corded,  painful 
enlargement  of  the  vessel,  and  is  frequently  induced  in  the  limbs  by 
injuries,  such  as  wounds,  thorn  pricks,  bruised  ankles,  and  cracked 
heels.  In  some  cases,  the  vessel  is  enlarged  to  such  an  extent  that 
the  gland  at  the  top  and  inner  part  of  the  leg  becomes  so  much  inflamed 
that,  often,  an  abscess  is  formed,  which,  if  it  does  not  burst  of  its  own 
accord,  has  to  be  opened  and  the  matter  liberated.  Treatment  : 
The  leg  should  be  dressed  with  an  antiseptic  mixture,  and  alterative 
tonic  medicine  ought  to  be  given  night  and  morning  {see  Appendix). 

453.  Swelled  Legs  and  Sheath. — During  the  winter  months, 
when  horses  are  stall-fed,  and  have  thick  coats  of  hair,  they  are 
frequently  seen  with  thick  legs,  and,  occasionally,  the  sheath  becomes 
swollen,  and  pendulous.  This  is  generally  due  to  want  of  condition,  or  to 
giving  them  too  much  boiled  food  of  a  "  slushy  "  nature,  such  as  boiled 
turnips  or  potatoes,  and  cut  corn  sheaves.  Soft  unconditioned  hay, 
or  oats,  will  have  a  similar  effect.  If  the  food  be  at  fault,  it  should  be 
changed  at  once,  and  the  sheath  well  washed  out  with  soap  and  water  ; 
then  the  administeration  of  iron  tonics,  combined  with  suitable 
diuretics,  will  soon  remedy  the  mischief  {see  Appendix).  The  best 
treatment,  however,  is  to  clip  the  hair  off  the  animal,  and  feed  witli 
well-conditioned  corn  and  hay. 

454.  Nearly  all  epidemic  or  epizootic  diseases  are  more  or  less 
affections  of  the  blood,  caused  by  small  solid  bodies,  called  microbes, 
bacteria,  or  bacilli,  which  grow  and  multiply  with  great  rapidity  in  the 
blood,  and  produce  characteristic  diseases,  just  as  turnip  seed  and 
clover  seed  produce  turnips  and  clover  respectivel}' — plants  that  are 
very  distinctive  from  one  another. 


455.  Anthrax,  or  Splenic  Apoplexy. — Although  this  is  a  disease 
of  the  blood,  it  has  already  been  noticed  under  "Digestive  Organs, 
Part  II."  {pay.  325). 

456.  Black  Quarter,  or  Quarter-Ill. — This  disease  is  due  to  a 
minute  germ  which  finds  its  way  to,  and  locates  itself  in  some  of  the 
tissues  of  the  body,  where  it  increases  in  number  with  great  rapidity, 
causing,  in  due  course,  grave  alteration  of  the  tissues  of  the  part 
affected,  the  generation  and  evolution  of  gases,  with  subsequent 
derangement  of  the  blood,  and  consequent  death.  It  attacks  various 
parts  of  the  body,  particularly  the  limhs,  loins,  and  shoulders.  It  is  most 
frequently  seen  in  young  animals,  from  six  montlis  to  two  years  old  ; 
but  even  those  older  are  by  no  means  exempt  from  attack.  Asa  rule, 
the  best  thrivers,  or  those  in  the  most  forward  condition,  are  the  first 
to  be  affected.  In  young  stock,  it  is  invariably  fatal,  while  aged 
animals  occasionally  make  good  recoveries.  Black  quarter  is  not  now 
of  nearly  so  common  occurrence  in  the  North  of  England  as  it  was 
some  years  ago  ;  this  is  owing  to  the  better  sanitation  and  improved 
mode  of  feeding  now  adopted,  specially  to  the  fact  of  not  allowing  the 
animals  to  lose  their  calf-flesh,  but  feeding  them  steadily  on.  The 
disease  is  regarded  by  some  as  a  species  of  anthrax,  and  is  called 
symptomatic  anthrax ;  but  there  is  a  decided  post-morlcm  differentia- 
tion present,  in  so  much  that  the  blood  of  an  animal  dead  of  a/ilhrax 
proper,  ivill  not  coagulate,  while  that  of  an  animal  dead  of  quarter-ill 
will.  I  have  known  of  numerous  affected  animals  (young  over-fed 
bulls  in  particular)  that  were  slaughtered,  and  where  the  damaged 
portion  was  cut  off  and  destroyed,  while  the  remainder  of  the  carcase 
was  sold  as  food  for  human  consumption.  Although  I  never  heard 
of  any  bad  result  following,  yet  I  do  not  subscribe  to  the  system,  for 
it  is  a  dangerous  proceeding  ;  and  all  animals  so  affected  should  be 
either  scheduled  or  brought  under  the  notice  of  the  authorities. 

457.  The  Symptoms  of  black  quarter  or  quarter-ill  to  be  first  noticed 
are,  that  the  animal  seems  very  languid,  breathes  quickly,  and  hangs 
its  head,  while  the  white  of  the  eye  has  a  peculiar,  pale,  cold,  steely  hue. 
Lameness  may  also  be  present  in  one  of  the  Hmbs.     On  examining 

the  body,  the  confirming  symptom  will  be  a  puffy  swelling,  which, 
when  the  hand  is  passed  over  it,  gives  a  crackling  sound  and  feeling. 
All  sorts  of  remedies  have  been  tried,  but  I  never  knew  a  case  of  a 
young  animal  recovering  when  once  attacked.  Treatment  :  In  adult 
cases,  I  have  had  most  success  with  the  following  prescription,  namely, 
one  ounce  of  hyposulphite  of  soda  and  one  ounce  of  charcoal,  given 
every  six  or  eight  hours,  in  water  ;  and  lo  to  15  ounces  of  linseed  oil 
given  every  other  day.  The  temperature  in  all  the  cases  ranged  from 
104°  to  106°  for  seven  to  ten  days  ;  little  or  no  food  was  taken,  while 
the  affected  parts  made  very  slow  recoveries. 

458.  Numerous  preventive  measures  have  been  suggested  and  tried 
for  this  affliction,  such  as  tablespoonful  doses  of  turpentine  in  half  a  pint 
of  linseed  oil,  twice  a  week ;  or  \  ounce  doses  of  saltpetre,  in  one  pint 
of  water,  at  like  intervals, &c. ;  but  the  best  preventive  I  have  found, is 
to  insert  a  seton — a  piece  of  white  linen  tape  smeared  over  with  a  little 
blister  ointment — on  one  side  of  the  dewlap,  in  September  or  October. 
I  have  treated  some  hundreds  in  this  manner,  and  yet  have  never  seen 
one  animal  which  had  been  setoned  become  affected  with  black 
quarter.  A  new  preventive,  now  recommended,  is  inoculating  the 
young  animals  with  a  watery  fluid  prepared  from  the  diseased  parts  of 
an  affected  beast.  This  is  a  very  delicate  operation — the  instrument 
must  be  scrupulously  clean,  and  the  fluid  must  be  injected  direct  into 
the  blood,  through  the  walls  of  the  jugular  vein,  which  has  to  be 
dissected  out  for  this  purpose,  for  were  a  little  of  the  fluid  to  get  into 
the  tissues  beneath  the  skin,  it  would  be  the  means  of  killing  the 
animal.  This,  then,  is  a  very  risky,  as  well  as  a  tedious  operation, 
and  I  fail  to  see  how  it  can  be  an  improvement  on  the  old  seton,  with 
the  facts  before  named  wathin  my  own  experience  of  40  years.  The 
best  plan,  however,  is  to  keep  the  animals  indoors  until  they  are 
twelve  months  old,  giving  them  good  lodgings,  dry  beds,  good  drainage, 
and  nutritious  food,  such  as  linseed  cake,  crushed  oats  and  bran,  with  a 
little  salt.  Were  this  treatment  followed  out,  very  little,  if  any,  black 
quarter  would  be  seen. 

459.  Rinderpest,  or  Cattle  Plague,  is  an  imported  disease  of  an 


acute,  specific,  contagious,  and  malignant  typhoid  character,  which 
runs  its  course  in  a  very  short  time.  The  noticeable  symptoms  consist 
of  elevated  temperature,  quick  breathing,  pulse  scarcely  perceptible, 
watery  discharge  from  the  mouth  and  nostrils,  drooping  head  and  ears, 
trembling  and  twitchings  of  the  muscles  all  over  the  body,  coat  on  end, 
and  dirty  eruptions  and  ulcerations  are  seen  in  the  mouth  and  vagina. 
Death,  very  soon,  is  the  invariable  accompaniment.  This  disease  is 
under  the  Contagious  Diseases  (Animals)  Act,  and  really  is  of  a  very 
contagious  and  highly  infectious  nature.  Happily,  however,  it  has 
not  visited  our  shores  for  some  time.  Anyone  wishing  for  further 
particulars  and  details  respecting  this  disease  should  refer  to  the  late 
Principal  Williams'  "  Principles  and  Practice"  of  Veterinary  Medicine 
(8th  edition). 

460.  Foot  and  Mouth  Disease,  or  Murrain. — This  is  a 
contagious,  eruptive,  vesicular,  febrile  disease,  affecting  the  mouth, 
feet,  and  udder  with,  at  first,  small  eruptive  vesicles,  which  afterwards 
burst,  and  form  ulcerating  sores.  Some  cases  are  of  a  more  acute 
nature  than  others  ;  and,  again,  we  may  have  the  mouth  attacked,  and 
the  feet  free,  and  vice-versa.  It  affects  cattle,  sheep,  and  pigs — young 
pigs  especially,  at  times,  suffer  severely,  and  die  suddenly,  when  the 
morbid  material  gains  admittance  to  the  body.  The  period  of  incubation 
varies  from  one  to  four  days,  with  an  elevation  of  temperature  from 
2^  to  5°.  The  most  prominent  Symptoms  are  saliva  foaming  from  the 
mouth,  with  a  distinctive  peculiar  smacking  of  the  lips  and  tongue  ;  the  feet, 
occasionally,  are  so  sore  that  the  animal  does  not  dare  to  move  th.em, 
unless  by  twitching  them  up  in  a  very  abrupt  manner  ;  the  vesicles 
may  be  noticed  as  before-mentioned.  This  disease  is  now  scheduled 
under  the  Contagious  Diseases  (Animals)  Act,  but  it  has  not  been 
suppressed,  though  the  country  was  free  from  it  for  some  time  before 
it  lately  re-appeared.  I  have  seen  a  great  number  of  outbreaks,  and 
although  the  disease  did  not  prove  very  fatal,  yet  it  caused  a  great 
loss  to  stock-owners;  especiall}'  was  this  so  in  dairy  and  breeding  herds, 
the  greatest  loss  being  from  calving  cows  casting  their  calves,  and 
retaining  the  afterbirth,  this  being  complicated  with  sore  udders,  &c. 


461.  When  allowed  to  treat  the  cases,  my  great  object  was  to  try 
and  assist  nature  in  preventing  the  animals  from  aborting,  and,  for 
this  purpose,  I  found  that  half  ounce  doses  of  chlorate  of  potash,  given 
once  a  day,  had  a  marvellous  effect,  as  the  following  instance  v/ill 
show  : — On  one  occasion  when  foot  and  mouth  disease  broke  out,  the 
stock  belonging  to  Sir  Wilfrid  Lawson,  Bart.,  at  Brayton,  were  con- 
siderably affected.  In  order  that  the  disease  might  run  its  course 
speedily,  all  the  cattle — affected  and  unaffected — were  brought  together 
and  put  into  the  large  park.  These  were  dosed  daily  with  chlorate  of 
potasli,  given  in  bran  mashes.  The  result  of  this  treatment  was  that, 
out  of  about  two  hundred  head  of  cattle,  only  ninety-eight  took  the 
disease,  and  all  of  them  recovered  ;  thirty-five  of  the  affected  cows 
were  in  calf,  and  they  all  went  up  to  their-  full  time — not  one  aborted  ; 
there  were  no  sore  udders,  the  calves  were  a  fine  crop,  and  both 
mothers  and  offspring  did  well.  I  have  subsequently,  on  several 
occasions,  tried  the  chlorate  treatment  with  a  like  success.  When  the 
feet  are  much  affected,  heavy  animals  suffer  greatly.  I  have  seen 
bulls  and  heavy  shorthorn  cows  lie  for  weeks.  A  thick  bed  of  dry 
sawdust  or  moss  litter  answers  well  in  such  cases;  and  when  the  bones 
of  the  feet  are  exposed,  and  the  claws  spread  apart,  antiseptic  dress- 
ings should  be  secured  over  the  parts  with  the  figure-of-eight  bandage. 
Milk  from  the  ailing  cows  quickly  affects  young  calves  and  pigs,  and 
this  often  fatally.  It  should,  therefore,  never  be  given  to  animals  until 
it  has  been  well  boiled,  yet  I  have  seen  farm  servants  drink  the  milk 
fresh  from  such  animals  without  any  ill  effects. 

462.  Red-Water,  Black-Water,  Muir-Ill,  or  Hoemo- 
Albuminuria. — This  disease  is  mostly  found  affecting  the  cow,  yet 
I  have  seen  two  cases  of  it  in  the  horse.  In  both  of  these  latter  subjects, 
the  urine  was  of  a  dark,  port  wine  colour,  but  there  was  little  or  no 
accompanying  constitutional  disturbance,  the  animals  merely  appearing 
dull  and  languid,  with  a  great  absence  of  appetite,  for  two  or  three 
days.  Both  cases  readily  yielded  to  saline  laxative  medicines, 
supplemented  with  boiled  barley  and  bran  mashes,  containing  a  little 
salt.  These  animals  had  been  grazed  on  pastures  on  which  red-water 
in  cattle  was  very  prevalent,  several  of  the  cows  on  the  pasture  being 



affected  at  the  same  time.  The  disease,  although  due,  in  the  first 
instance,  to  some  pecuHarity  of  the  food,  may  be  regarded  as  a 
deterioration  of  the  blood,  and  the  most  striking  symptom  is  the  dark 
red  or  black  colour  of  the  urine,  which  is  passed  from  the  bladder  in  a 
slow,  jerkmg,  spiral  stream,  causing  a  bubbling  froth  as  it  falls  on  the 
ground  ;  but  there  is  no  coagulation,  or  blood-clot,  as  is  seen  when 
there  is  haemorrhage  from  the  kidneys,  ureters,  or  bladder.  Formerly, 
this  used  to  be  a  very  common  malady  in  the  North  of  England  ;  but 
improvements,  of  late  years,  in  the  drainage,  and  the  application  of 
artificial  manures,  have  gone  far  to  make  this  a  disease  of  rare 
occurrence.  Twenty  years  ago,  it  was  nothing  uncommon  to  see  ten 
or  twelve  cases  in  as  many  hours  ;  but  during  the  last  twenty  years  I 
have  had  very  few  cases.  I  have  never  seen  it  follow  parturition,  and 
only  twice  have  I  seen  it  affect  stall-fed  animals  ;  both  of  these  attacks 
were,  however,  very  slight. 

463.  The  lands  principally  affected  are  poor,  undrained,  shivery, 
gravelly  pastures,  and  sour  wet  mosses,  where  the  herbage  is  of  a 
coarse  acrimonious  nature,  in  which  acrid  plants,  such  as  tormentil, 
abound.  The  malady  generally  makes  its  appearance  in  the  summer 
and  autumn  months — August  and  September,  especially — following, 
usually,  a  sharp  heavy  rain,  after  a  spell  of  dry  weather,  when  the 
grasses  spring  up  rapidly,  and,  under  these  conditions,  the  complaint 
is  rife.  Cattle  bred  and  reared  on  the  above-mentioned  soils  are, 
however,  more  immune  from  attack  than  those  reared  on  good  land, 
and  brought  on  to  the  bad  to  graze.  I  am  strongly  of  opinion  that 
the  disease  is  due  to  a  want  of  a  normal  quantity  of  saline  matters  in 
the  food,  which,  in  turn,  interferes  with  and  destroys  the  balance 
between  the  solids  and  fluids  of  the  blood.  As  already  shown,  blood 
contains  a  large  proportion  of  salt,  and  has,  in  fact,  a  soft  saline  taste. 
Now,  on  account  of  the  acid  nature  of  the  food  obtainable  on  these 
sour  pastures,  a  sufiicient  amount  of  saline  material  is  not  conveyed  to 
the  blood  to  preserve  the  equilibrium,  between  the  solid  and  fluid  parts, 
so  that  the  watery  portions,  by  endosmosis,  pass  through  the  cell  walls 
of  the  red  corpuscles,  and  so  distend  them,  that  they  burst,  and  they  then 
pass  through  the  excreting   water   tubes — uriniferous  tubes — of  the 


kidneys  into  the  urine,  accompanied  by  the  colouring  matter  of  the 
blood,  which  they  have  thus  liberated,  giving  to  it  the  red  colour  noted, 
and  instituting  the  name  of  the  disease. 

464.  The  following  analysis  by  Professor  Sibson,  F.C.S.,  London, 
was  determined  from  a  sample  taken  from  a  recent  case  I  had  : — 

Analysis  of  "  Red  Water"  from  Cow. 

Water 9398 

Solid  Matter  in  Solution   602 

Consisting  of  Organic  Matter 4-48 


Urea 2-40 

Albumen 1-72 

Extractives  and  Colouring  Matter    036 

And  of  Mineral  Matter    1-34 

Containing — 

Sodium  Chloride 071 

Calcium  and  Magnesium  Phosphates,  con- 
taining Alkaline  Phosphates 013 

Potassium  Sulphate 0-29 

Other  Saline  Matters  not  determined 0-41 

465.  Symptoms:  When  first  noticed,  the  animal  suffering  from  red 
water  is  generally  seen  standing  by  itself  in  the  field,  with  nose  extended, 
and  an  anxious  expression  on  its  face  ;  when  it  moves,  it  is  in  a  very 
listless  fashion.  On  closer  examination,  the  breathing  is  found  to  be 
short  and  quick,  the  pulse  jerky,  tremulous,  and  weak,  the  heart  going 
at  a  great  pace,  and  it  can,  in  many  cases,  be  heard,  beating  loudly, 
at  a  distance  of  five  or  six  feet  from  the  side  of  the  patient.  In 
m.ilkers,  the  secretion  is  suspended  ;  the  nose,  eyes,  mouth,  udder,  and 
vagina  have  a  dirty  yellow  cast,  while  the  lips  of  the  vulva  have  a 
tight,  puckeredup  appearance,  and  the  urine  has,  as  already  stated, 
its  characteristic  red  colour.  The  animal  will  take  neither  food  nor 
water,  and  in  the  first  stages,  is  affected  with  morbid  diarrhoea.  As 
the  disease  advances,  all  the  symptoms  become  aggravated,  but  an 
obstinate  constipation  takes  the  place  of  the  diarrhoea.  In  my  opinion, 
this  suspension  of  the  action  of  the  stomach  and  bowels  is  due  to  the 
deteriorated  blood  acting  on  the  nerve  centres,  causing  perverted 
action,  or,  in  a  degree,  paral3'sis  of  the  nerve  fibres  supplying  the 
alimentary  tract  ;  and  the  poor  brute's  condition  becomes  much  more 


aggravated  by  the  owner, on  seeing  this  symptom,  pouring  into  it  large 
doses  of  relaxing  purgatives,  which  only  hurry  it  on  to  dissolution. 

466.  Treatment  :  The  treatment  I  recommend,  as  soon  as  the 
animal  is  observed  to  be  affected,  is  to  give  it  from  14  oz.  to  20  oz.  of 
common  salt  in  two  quarts  of  gruel,  and  then  to  place  in  front  of  the 
patient  a  large  pailful  of  hay-tea  or  bran-tea,  or  cold  water  and  milk 
in  which  from  two  to  three  ozs.  of  hyposulphite  or  bicarbonate  of  soda 
is  dissolved.  This  must  be  renewed  as  soon  as  the  patient  drinks  it. 
It  should  be  followed  by  10  oz.  doses  of  linseed  oil,  to  which  is  added 
one  oz.  sweet  spirits  of  nitre  and  one  oz.  balsam  copaiba,  and  this 
should  be  repeated  every  twelve  hours,  if  necessary.  Should  the 
bowels  not  respond,  small  doses  of  salts — from  three  to  five  ozs. —  may 
be  given  along  with  warm  cordials,  such  as  one  oz.  each  of  ginger, 
gentian,  sweet  pepper,  mustard,  &c.,  in  a  quart  of  warmed  ale,  or  in 
gruel  containing  1  pint  of  whisky,  every  six  or  eight  hours.  I  have 
found  this  treatment  to  be  very  beneficial. 

467.  Prevention  consists  m  first  draining  the  land,  and  then  dressing 
the  particular  grazing  pastures  affected,  every  fourth  or  fifth  year,  with 
10  cwt.  of  rough  crushed  rock  salt  to  the  acre,  while  large  lumps  of  rock 
salt  should  be  scattered  over  the  pastures  for  the  animals  to  lick. 
Liming,  also,  has  a  good  effect  on  some  land,  but  in  my  experience, 
salt  is  much  better,  and  lands  on  which,  in  former  years,  the  disease 
was  intensely  rife,  have,  I  am  aware,  by  the  application  of  salt,  now 
been  entirely  cleared  of  it. 

468.  Swine  Fever,  Red  Soldier,  or  Blue  Sickness — Measles. 

— This  disease  is  of  a  highly  infectious  and  contagious  typhoid 
character  ;  it  is  rapidly  spread  by  contact  and  cohabitation,  and  by 
putting  healthy  pigs  into  a  box,  hull,  or  place  from  which  diseased 
animals  have  been  taken,  and  which  have  not  been  properly  dis- 
infected. After  exposure  to  infection,  the  malady  has  a  period 
of  incubation,  varying  from  five  to  seven  days.  The  post-mortem 
reveals  that  the  organs  principally  affected  are  the  large  (caecum,  in 
particular)  and  small  intestines,  and  the  stomach,  the  lining  membrane 


of  which  at  the  onset  is  congested  with  small  raised  red  spots,  seen 
above  the  surface.  As  the  disease  advances,  these  spots  turn  dirty  white, 
and  ultimately  become  ulcers  of  various  sizes,  in  some  cases  running 
one  into  another,  that  is  becoming  confluent,  more  particularly 
round  the  ileo-caecal  valve,  where  the  small  intestine  joins  the  large 
one.  As  the  case  progresses,  the  ulcers  change  in  character,  and  have  a 
characteristic  centre  of  a  dirty  grey  or  dark  appearance,  surrounded 
by  well-defined  3'ellowish-red  rings.  In  some  of  the  cases,  there  is 
a  deposit  of  an  exudate  on  the  mucous  coat  of  the  stomach  and 
bowels,  of  a  bran-like  appearance,  called  the  diphtheritic  form  of  the 
disease.  The  cases,  however,  differ  greatly  ;  some  attacks  are  mild, 
while  others  are  very  severe,  in  which  case  other  organs  become 
implicated,  such  as  the  lungs,  heart,  liver,  &c.  But  the  lesions  in  the 
alimentary  tract  are  most  to  be  depended  upon  in  the  diagnosis  of  the 

469.  Symptoms  :  The  first  to  be  noticed  is  the  listless,  languid 
condition  of  the  animal,  and  the  extreme  pallor  and  coldness  of  the  skin. 
This  latter  symptom  is  a  very  characteristic  one,  yet  it  has  not  been 
noticed  by  many  writers.  The  animal  persists  in  lying,  and  has  no 
inclination  to  stand  up  or  walk  about ;  in  fact,  it  is  extremely  pros- 
trated, even  from  the  very  first,  and  if  made  to  get  up,  it  lies  down 
again  immediately,  pushing  itself  under  the  straw.  In  from  30  to  40 
hours  after  an  attack,  the  neck  appears  slightly  swollen,  and  the  skin 
round  it,  under  the  belly  and  ears,  turns  red,  after  which  dark  blotches 
make  their  appearance  in  different  parts  of  the  body,  more  particularly 
in  the  soft  portions.  These  in  many  cases  turn  purple,  and  finally  black. 
The  breathing  is  quick,  and  at  times  laboured,  accompanied  with  a 
groan  or  grunt.  In  some  cases,  both  food  and  water  are  persistently 
refused,  while  in  others  there  is  a  great  thirst,  and,  as  a  rule,  obstinate 
constipation,  followed  by  profuse  diarrhcea.  Tlie  patient  may  struggle 
on  for  from  eight  to  twenty,  or  even  more,  days,  and  have  all  the 
indications  of  recovery,  when,  on  the  slightest  disturbance,  the  animal 
will  die  suddenly  from  failure  of  the  heart's  action. 

470.  Treatment  is   not  allowed,  as  the  disease  is  now  scheduled 


under  the  Contagious  Disease  (Animals)  Act.  Cases  must,  therefore, 
be  reported  to  the  poHce,  and  the  affected  animals  destroyed.  Prior 
to  the  passing  of  the  Act,  my  treatment  was,  after  ordering  perfect 
quietness,  to  give  at  the  onset,  to  an  adult  pig,  from  two  to  four  ozs.  of 
olive  oil,  with  from  lo  to  20  drops  of  croton  oil,  along  with  warm-water 
injections  every  six  or  eight  hours,  at  the  same  time  tempting  the 
animal  to  drink  milk  and  cold  water  containing  from  one  to  two 
drachms  of  bicarbonate  of  soda.  I  had  one  case,  many  years  ago,  of  a 
fancy -bred  sow,  which  had  a  very  severe  attack;  and  although  the 
blotches  on  the  skin  turned  black,  she  recovered.  Strange  to  say,  she 
received,  altogether,  above  a  drachm  of  croton  oil  at  different  times 
during  its  illness. 

471.  When  pigs  are  injudiciously  fed  on  too  much  uncooked  foods, 
such  as  Indian  meal,  raw  potatoes,  &c.,  numerous  red  and  purple 
blotches  of  various  sizes  are  noticed  on  different  parts  of  the  body. 
This  must  not  be  confused  with  swine  fever,  as  the  symptoms  are 
widely  different.  When  these  blotches  are  due  to  indigestion,  there  is  little 
or  no  constitutional  disturbance  or  prostration  ;  the  animal  will  also 
take  a  little  food,  seems  lively,  and  will  run  about  as  if  it  ailed 
little  or  nothing.  Treatment  for  such  a  case  is  to  give  well-boiled 
oatmeal  and  barley  flour  gruel  and  milk  to  drink,  with  teaspoonful 
doses  of  bicarbonate  of  soda,  night  and  morning,  for  a  few  days. 




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472.  The  organs  of  respiration  are,  first,  the  Nose,  which  is  divided 
by  a  bony  and  cartilaginous  septum  (septum  nasi)  into  two  chambers — 
the  right  and  left  nasal  chambers  ;  secondly,  the  Larynx  ;  next  the 
Trachea,  or  windpipe  ;  trhen  the  Bronchi  and  Bronchial  tubes  ; 
the  Lungs  ;  the  Thorax,  or  chest  ;  the  Pleurae ;  and  the 

473.  The  Nasal  Chambers  (Plate  XXXIIL,  No.  3).— The  right 
and  left  nasal  chambers  of  the  horse  each  contain  ttvo  bones — one 
above  (the  superior),  and  one  below  (the  inferior).  They  are  made  up 
of  very  fine  sheets  of  bone,  covered  with  mucous  membrane,  and 
rolled  up  like  a  Turk's  turban,  and  are  called  turbinated  bones. 
These  bones  give  an  extensive  surface  for  the  distribution  of  the 
nerves  concerned  in  the  sense  of  smell,  as  well  as  for  the  ramification 
of  the  blood-vessels  which  warm  the  air  as  it  passes  over  their  surface 
to  enter  the  windpipe.  The  membrane  covering  them  clears  the  air 
from  solid  particles  of  dust  before  it  passes  to  the  sinuses  of  the  head 
or,  by  way  of  the  windpipe,  to  the  lungs.  The  cow  has  three  turbinated 
bones  in  each  chamber,  also  a  canal  (called  Jacobson's  canal)  in  the 
floor  of  the  nasal  chamber,  which  communicates  with  the  mouth. 
The  cavities  in  the  horn  cores  of  ruminants  are  also  in  communication 
with  the  nasal  chambers. 

474.  The  Larynx  (Plate  XXXIIL,  No.  6)  is  situated  at  the  back 
of  the  throat,  and  is  composed  of  five  pieces  of  cartilage,  or  gristle,  of 
different  shapes,  which  are  so  placed  and  joined  that  they  are  movable 
on  one  another,  thus  regulating  the  inlet  and  outlet  of  the  air.     These 

cartilages  are  named  the  thyroid,  cvicoid,  arytenoid  (2),  and  epiglottis. 
They  are  held  together  by  ligaments,  and  moved  by  muscles.  The 
cavity  of  the  larynx  is  lined  by  a  very  sensitive  mucous  membrane. 

475.  The  Trachea  (Plate  XXXIII.,  No.  8),  or  windpipe,  is  a  long 
tube  running  from  the  larynx  to  the  roots  of  the  lungs,  where  it 
divides  into  two  bronchi.  It  is  made  up  of  a  number  of  ring-shaped 
pieces  of  cartilage,  held  together  by  elastic  ligamentous  tissue,  and  is 
thus  capable  of  flexible  movement.  It  is  lined  internally  with  mucous 

476.  Thyroid  Gland  (Plate  XXXIII.,  No.  iOj.— This  gland  is 
ductless,  and  consists  of  two  lobes  placed  one  on  each  side  of  the 
trachea,  near  its  junction  with  the  larynx.  It  is  larger  in  the  young 
than  in  the  adult  animal. 

477.  The  Thymus  Gland  (Plate  XXXIII.,  No.  19)  is  a  single  body, 
found  lying  on  the  under  side  of  the  trachea  at  the  entrance  to  the  chest. 
It  is  large  in  the  very  young  animal,  but  gradually  disappears  after 
birth.  The  functions  of  the  Thyroid  and  Thymus  glands  are  not,  as 
yet,  perfectly  understood.  Although  described  in  this  place,  they 
have  nothing  to  do  with  respiration. 

478.  The  Bronchi  (Plate  XXXIII. ,  Nos.  10  and  11)  are  two  in 
number,  one  going  to  the  right  lung  and  the  other  to  the  left.  They 
divide  and  subdivide,  ramifying  through  the  substance  of  the  lungs, 
until  they  are  too  small  to  be  seen  by  the  naked  eye.  The  smaller 
branches  and  the  air-cells,  in  which  they  terminate,  form  clusters 
called  lobules.  The  divisions  and  subdivisions  resemble  a  tree  with 
branches  ;  the  air-cells  resembling  the  leaves. 

479.  The  Lungs,  or  Lights  (Plate  XXXIII..  Nos.  12  and  13)— 
right  and  left — are  the  principal  organs  of  respiration.  They  are  of  a 
fine,  soft,  spongy  texture,  pale  pink  in  colour,  and  very  light  and  porous, 
owing  to  the  air-cells  containing  air  ;  as  a  consequence,  the  lungs  can 
float  in   water.       In  the  horse,  the  right  lung  is  divided  into  three  lobes 

and  the  left  lung  into  two  ;  while  in  the  coiv,  the  right  is  divided  into 
four  lobes,  and  the  left  into  two.  The  inter-lobular  tissue  is  also  found 
in  greater  abundance  in  the  cow  than  in  the  horse.  The  nutrient 
blood-vessels  of  the  lungs  are  the  bronchial  arteries  and  veins. 
The  functional  vessels  are  the  pulmonary  arteries  and  veins,  which 
are  much  larger  than  the  nutrient  vessels.  The  pulmonary  artevies 
convey  the  blood  from  the  right  side  of  the  heart  to  the  lungs  to  be 
purified,  while  the  pulmonary  veins  return  it  to  the  left  side  of  the 
heart,  as  described  in  the  lecture  on  "  Circulation  "  (par.  405). 

480.  The  Thorax,  or  Chest,  has  a  part  of  the  back-bone  for  a 
roof,  the  breast-bone,  or  sternum,  for  a  floor,  the  ribs  and  muscles  for 
lateral  walls.  The  diaphragm  is  a  strong  musculo-membranous 
partition,  which  separates  the  chest  from  the  belly,  or  abdominal 
cavity.     The  inside  of  the  thorax  is  lined  by  the  pleura. 

481.  The  Pleura  is  a  fine,  serous  membrane,  which  lines  the  inside 
of  the  ribs  on  both  sides  (pleura  costalisj,  and  covers  the  anterior  surface 
of  the  diaphragm.  From  the  top  of  the  chest  and  under  side  of  the 
back-bone,  it  descends  through  the  middle  of  the  chest  to  the  sternum, 
dividing  the  thorax  into  two  lateral  halves  and  forming  the  mediastinum, 
which  encloses  and  covers  the  heart.  The  pleura  is  also  reflected 
over  the  outside  of  the  lungs  themselves,  and  is  then  called  the  pleura 

482.  Respiration,  or  breathing,  is  the  act  by  which  a  constant 
interchange  of  gases  takes  place  between  the  atmosphere  and  the 
blood.  Two  distinct  movements  are  noticed  during  respiration — 
(i)  inspiration  and  (2)  expiration.  Inspiration  is  the  act  by  which 
the  lungs  become  filled  with  air,  for  the  purpose  of  purifying  the 
blood,  as  described  in  the  lecture  on  "  Circulation  "  (par.  405). 
Kxpiration,  on  the  other  hand,  is  the  act  whereby  the  air  in  the 
lungs,  charged  with  carbonic  acid  gas  and  other  impurites,  is  expelled 
from  the  body.  Each  inspiration  occupies  about  thrice  the  length  of 
time  taken  up  by  an  expiration.  The  air  which  passes  to  and  fro 
during  ordinary  respiration  is  called  the  "  tidal  air  "  ;  the  "  reserve  air  " 


is  that  which  can  be  voluntarily  ejected  after  ordinary  expiration  ; 
''  complemental  air,'"  is  that  which  can  be  taken  in  after  ordinary 
inspiration;  and  ^^  residual  aiy,"  is  that  which  remains  after  forced 
expiration.  Horses  in  large  towns  suffer  more  from  derangement  of 
the  respiratory  organs  than  those  in  the  country,  and  are  considerably 
worse  to  treat,  owing  to  want  of  good  fresh  air  and  loose  boxes.  Pit 
horses  are  similar  to  town  horses ;  their  treatment  is  quite  different 
from  that  of  those  in  the  country — the  doses  of  medicine  being  only 
half  the  usual  quantity,  and  stimulating  remedies  succeeding  best. 

483.  Cubic  Air-space  for  the  Horse. — The  horse  is  said  by 
some  to  require  1,200  cubic  feet  of  air-space  for  healthy  respiration. 
The  following  extracts  from  Colonel  Fitzwygram's  "  Horse  and 
Stables  "  show  the  great  variation  that  exists  in  the  cubic  space  of 
different  stables  : — 

Royal  Mews 

Marlborough  House  Stables    . . 
South-Eastern  Railway  Company 
London  General  Omnibus  Company 
Cab-Horse  Stables  (average)    . . 
Hyde  Park  Barracks  . . 
Aldershot  Cavalry  Barracks    . .    • 
Dublin  Royal  Barracks 
Woolwich  (New  Model) 

2,500  Cubic  Feet  per  Horse. 

1,700  „ 



2,284  ,, 

560  ,, 


484.  Cubic  Air-space  for  the  Cow. — A  great  deal  has  been  said 
and  written  respecting  the  cubic  air-space  requisite  for  the  cow.  No 
one  will  deny  that  a  good  supply  of  pure  air,,  as  well  as  light,  is  most 
essential  for  the  welfare  and  health  of  our  domestic  animals.  Yet,  it 
is  not  exactl}^  the  600  or  800  cubic  feet  of  air  for  each  cow  that  is 
required,  so  much  as  proper  provision  for  the  exit  of  the  foul  air. 
A  400  cubic  feet  air-space  for  each  cow,  with  proper  ventilation 
through  the  roof  by  the  aid  of  air  shafts  and  louvres,  will  do  more 
for  the  well  being  of  the  animal  than  600  or  800  cubic  feet  with 
improper  ventilation.  All  vent  holes  in  the  sides  of  stables  and 
byres  should  be  discarded,  and  ventilation  by  the  aid  of  air  shafts 
through  the  roof  adopted  instead. 



485.  The  respiratory  organs,  being  delicate,  are  extremely  susceptible 
to  derangement  and  disease  in  this  ever-changing  climate  of  ours,  and 
all  sudden  chills  and  changes  of  temperature — especially  from  cold  to 
heat — are  very  liable  to  have  a  baneful  effect.  Apart  from  purely 
atmospheric  differences,  we  sometimes  have  horses  subjected  to,  what  I 
may  term,  artificial  changes  of  temperature,  and  these  are  even  more 
prone  to  be  accompanied  by  injurious  results  than  are  the  natural 
changes.  For  instance,  when  a  young  horse  is  brought  in 
from  grass,  for  the  first  time,  put  into  the  stable  and  there  tied  up, 
along  with  a  number  of  other  horses  ;  or  it  may  be  it  is  turned  into  a 
small,  stuffy  loose  box,  commonly  called  a  "  hnll,^'  or  more  properly 
"  hole,'''  where  the  doors,  windows,  and  ventilators  (if  there  are  any) 
are  closed  to  keep  out  the  cold.  All  this  is  done  with  an  utter 
disregard  of  the  climatic  conditions  to  which  the  animal  has 
been  exposed  outside,  and  consequently  the  sudden  change  from  the 
cold  clear  air  to  the  warm  air  of  the  stable  (which  the  breathing  of  the 
other  horses  rapidly  contaminates),  or  to  the  cooped  up  "/;»//"  (the 
atmosphere  of  which  is  soon  rendered  impure  by  the  animal's  own 
breathing)  is  very  apt  to  produce  an  attack  of  congestion  of  the  lungs. 
Young  horses,  then,  when  first  brought  in,  should  be  placed  in  a  well- 
ventilated  airy  box,  say,  for  the  first  ten  days  or  so,  thus  making  the 
change  more  gradual.  Again,  young  green  animals,  when  sold  and 
taken  from  the  country  into  the  town,  should  at  first  be  put  into  a 
separate  box  or  stable,  so  as  to  acclimatize  them  to  their  new 
surroundings  before  they  are  stabled  with  other  seasoned  horses. 

486.  The  Nose. — Occasionally  growths  of  a  cartilaginous  or 
fibrinous  nature,  also  long  necked  tumours,  or  polypi,  are  met  with 
in  the  nasal  chambers,  firmly  attached  to  the  turbinated  bones  or  the 
septum  of  the  nose.  These  growths  produce  a  peculiar  snoring 
sound,  and  are  generally  accompanied  by  a  foetid  discharge  from  the 
nose,  particularly  when  the  bones  are  implicated.  The  only  treatment 
of  any  avail  is  to  cast  the  horse  and  remove  the  obstruction  by  an 
operation,  which  should  be  performed  by  a  professional  man.      Some 


horses  are  subject  to  small  warts  covering  the  tip  of  the  nose,  which 
often  become  very  troublesome,  but  dressing  with  acetic  acid,  twice  a 
week,  will  be  found  to  answer  well  in  most  of  these  cases. 

487.  Broken  Nose. — The  bones  of  the  nose  may  be  broken  or 
delved  in,  from  some  injury,  such  as  a  kick  from  another  horse  or  by 
the  horse  itself  running  away  and  coming  in  contact  with  a  stone  wall 
or  other  obstruction.  The  loose  pieces  of  bone  must  be  removed,  the 
bleeding  stopped  by  the  application  of  cold  water  and  styptics,  and 
the  parts  dressed  as  a  contused  wound, 

488.  Haemorrhage,  or  bleeding  from  the  nose,  both  in  the  horse 
and  cow,  may  arise  from  other  causes  than  injuries,  or  from  growths 
in  the  nasal  passages.  The  bleeding  may  be  either  from  the  lining 
membrane  of  the  nose  or  from  the  lungs,  and  I  have,  on  several 
occasions,  seen  profuse  haemorrhage  from  the  nose  of  the  cow  follow 
difficult  parturition.  Treatment  :  Perfect  quietness  is  necessary, 
with  a  plentiful  application  of  cold  water  to  the  forehead  and  face,  and 
the  nostrils  should  be  plugged  with  sponge,  cotton  wool,  &c.,  &c. 
Give,  also,  half-ounce  doses  of  tincture  of  iron,  every  four  or  six 
hours,  in  three  gills  of  cold  water,  followed  with  eggs  beaten  up  in 
milk,  and  water  to  drink. 

489.  The  nasal  chambers  and  frontal  sinuses  of  the  sheep  are  at 
times  infested  by  the  larvae  of  the  gad-fly  (oestrus  ovis),  which 
resemble  the  "  warbles  "  found  in  the  cow's  back  or  the  "  bots  "  in  the 
horse's  stomach.  At  one  time,  it  was  thought  that  the  larvae  were 
developed  from  eggs  deposited  within  the  nostrils,  but  it  is  now  stated 
that  the  perfect  fly  deposits  the  young  live  larva  within  the  rim  of  the 
nostril,  whence,  by  means  of  small  hooks,  it  crawls  up  inside  the  nose, 
where  it  develops.  After  remaining  there  for  about  ten  months  to 
mature,  it  then  drops  out  of  the  nose  on  to  the  ground,  and  buries 
itself  in  the  earth  for  a  few  weeks,  when  it  emerges  in  the  form  of 
the  perfect  insect  to  re-commence  its  life  cycle  ;  the  usual  time  for 
the  fly  to  make  its  appearance  being  during  the  summer  months. 
Symptoms  :   When  the  fly  attacks  the  sheep  to  deposit  its  larva-,  the 


sheep  hold  their  noses  close  to  the  ground,  or  under  the  body  of  their 
companions,  and  try  to  get  away  from  their  tormenters.  When  the 
parasite  gains  its  habitat,  it  causes  sneezing  and  a  discharge  from 
the  nose.  Treatment  is  of  little  avail,  but  injecting  a  mixture  of 
two  parts  of  turpentine  and  four  of  olive  oil  up  the  nostrils  may  be 
tried.  Prevention  :  Smear  the  sheep's  nose,  once  a  week,  during 
the  summer  months,  with  a  mixture  of  equal  parts  of  green  tar  and 
palm  oil. 

490.  Catarrh  or  Cold. — The  skull  contains  sinuses,  or  cavities, 
which  give  strength  and  lightness  to  the  head,  and  have  communication 
with  the  atmosphere  through  the  medium  of  the  nostrils.  These 
cavities  are  subject  to  irritation  and  inflammation,  and  they  are  so 
affected  in  cases  of  common  cold,  which  is  of  so  frequent  occurence  in 
early  spring.  This  may  be  called  simple  catarrh  or  cold  in  the 
head.  Symptoms  :  In  such  cases,  there  may  or  may  not  be  much 
constitutional  disturbance,  nor  rise  of  temperature,  but  the  animal 
seems  dull  and  languid,  the  coat  is  staring,  and  watery  discharges 
come  from  the  eyes  and  nostrils.  Immediately  these  conditions  are 
observed,  and  the  horse  is  noticed  not  to  take  its  food  freely,  it  should 
be  knocked  off  work,  put  into  a  nice,  dry,  airy  loose  box,  clothed  well, 
have  its  legs  bandaged,  and  be  nursed  for  a  few  days.  Boiled  barley, 
a  little  treacle  and  bran,  with  a  table-spoonful  of  nitrate  of  potash 
should  be  given  night  and  morning.  Carrots  and  green  food  are 
of  great  service,  and  hay  tea  should  be  given  to  drink.  These 
apparently  simple  cases  are  always,  however,  to  be  regarded  as 
dangerous,  for,  if  neglected,  or  should  the  horse  get  another  chill,  they 
may  end  rather  suddenly  in  congestion  of  the  lungs,  followed  by 
death.     Again,  neglected  cases  may  run  on  into  nasal  gleet. 

491.  Nasal  Gleet  is  a  chronic  mattery  discharge  from  one  or  both 
nostrils.  Now,  the  discharges  from  the  nostrils  are  from  so  many 
different  causes,  such  as  chronic  inflammation  of  the  lining  membrane, 
abscesses  in  the  sinuses,  diseased  teeth,  abscesses  in,  and  affections  of, 
the  pharynx,  larynx,  and  the  lungs,  and  also  from  that  formidable 
disease  called  glanders,  that  it  is  of  the  very  greatest  importance  that. 


in  cases  with  such  discharge,  a  professional  man  be  consulted  at  once, 
to  determine  the  nature  of  the  complaint,  and  to  treat  accordingly. 
Treatment  :  In  cases  of  abscesses  in  the  sinuses,  or  of  a  diseased 
molar  tooth,  the  parts  have  to  be  opened  out — for  which  purpose  a 
tubular  saw,  termed  a  trephine,  is  employed — and  the  tooth  removed, 
or  the  abscess  dressed,  as  the  case  may  be.  Sunple  nasal  gleet  is,  at 
times,  successfully  treated  by  puffing  iodoform  up  the  nostrils  with  an 
insufflator,  or  by  injecting  15  grains  of  chinosel,  dissolved  in  half-a- 
pint  of  tepid  water,  up  the  nostrils. 

492.  Glanders. — In  the  horse,  this  is  a  very  dangerous,  contagious 
and  inoculable  disease,  due  to  the  presence  of  a  micro-organism 
called  the  bacillus  mallei.  It  is  found  in  the  acute,  sub-acute,  and  chronic 
forms.  In  the  old  coaching  days,  when  stables  were  badly  constructed, 
with  low  ceilings  and  insufficient  ventilation,  glanders  was  very  rife  ; 
and,  though  it  is  now  seldom  seen  in  the  country,  it  is,  I  am  sorry  to 
say,  even  more  prevalent  now  in  towns  than  formerly.  A  horse 
suffering  from  chronic  glanders  ma}'  go  on  working  and  feeding  for 
months  before  anything  particular  is  noticed  about  it  ;  except  that  its 
coat  looks  ragged  and  unhealthy,  and  the  lining  membrane  of  the  nostril 
may  be  of  a  peculiar  leaden  hue.'  The  animal  generally  has  a  slight 
discharge  from  one  nostril,  particularly  the /f//, and  a  small  enlargement 
under  the  left  jaw,  firmly  attached  to  the  bone.  At  first,  the  nasal 
discharge  in  glanders  resembles  healthy  pus,  of  a  yellow  colour,  and  it 
has  a  tendency  to  stick  round  the  nostrils,  but  there  is  no  foetid  smell 
accompanying  it.  As  the  case  proceeds,  the -discharge  is  occasionally 
streaked  with  blood.  On  examining  the  nostril,  the  septum  nasi,  or 
division,  will  be  found  to  be  ulcerated,  the  ulcers  having  a  very  peculiar 
appearance,  which  needs  the  eye  of  the  expert  practitioner  to  detect, 
and,  as  a  rule,  these  when  once  formed  rarely  heal  up.  The  lungs  of 
a  glandered  horse,  on  post-mortem,  are  found  to  be  studded  all  over  (in 
clusters  or  separatel}')  with  small  nodules,  or  tumours — the  miliary 
tubercle.  Glanders  should  be  reported  immediately  it  is  suspected,  as 
it  is  ver}'  dangerous  to  both  man  and  beast,  and  inoculation,  from  the 
chronic,  will  cause  the  acute  form,  and  death  in  a  ver)^  short  tmie. 


493-  Farcy  is  a  disease  allied  to  glanders,  and  may  be  considered 
under  the  same  head.  It  may  be  either  acute  or  chronic.  In  the  former, 
one  (or  more)  of  the  hmbs  swells,  with  a  great  amount  of  constitutional 
disturbance,  accompanied  by  a  rise  of  temperature.  The  absorbent 
vessels,  or  lymphatics,  become  distended,  like  cords,  and  small  buds 
(farcy  buds)  form  at  the  valves  of  these  vessels,  and  these  generally 
in  due  course  burst,  and  discharge  a  thin  purulent  fluid.  Glanders 
and  farcy  are  both  under  the  Contagious  Diseases  (Animals)  Act, 
and  being  very  dangerous  diseases,  should  be  reported  immediately 
on  being  noticed  or  suspected,  and  the  animal  ought  to  be  destro_yed 
at  once.  Thorough  disinfection  of  the  stable  is  also  of  the  greatest 
importance,  in  order  to  prevent  the  spread  of  the  disease. 

494.  In  doubtful  cases  of  Glanders,  a  preparation  called  Mallein  is 
now  frequently  injected  under  the  skin  on  one  side  of  the  neck.  If 
the  animal  is  suffering  from  Glanders,  a  painful  swelling  arises  at  the 
seat  of  the  injection,  with  constitutional  disturbances,  there  being  a 
rise  of  temperature  of  three  to  five  degrees.  If  Glanders  is  not  present, 
no  re-action  takes  place.  It  may  be  noted  that  some  authorities  state 
that  the  repeated  injection  of  Mallein  into  the  body  of  a  glandered 
horse  has  a  curative  action  as  well  as  a  protective  influence,  rendering 
the  animal  immune  from  further  attacks.  The  question  has  not  yet 
been  definitely  settled. 

495.  Coughs  may  be  acute  or  chronic,  and  can  only  be  looked  upon 
as  a  symptom.  They  may  arise  from  a  variety  of  causes,  such  as  sore 
throat,  bronchitis,  inflammation  of  the  lungs,  worms  or  parasites  in  the 
wind-pipe,  diseases  of  the  heart,  &c.,  or  from  foreign  bodies  in  the  throat 
or  stomach;  and  also  through  reflex  action  from  parasites  in  the  stomach 
or  liver.  Now,  as  all  these  have  distinct  and  peculiar  sounds,  it  is 
therefore  of  the  greatest  importance  to  find  out  the  cause  before  any 
proper  treatment  can  be  recommended,  or  adopted.  Neglected  simple 
catarrh  may  cause  a  slight  cough  from  irritation  of  the  lining  of  the 
throat,  in  which  case  a  stiaiulating  embrocation,  applied  round  the 
throat  from  ear  to  ear,  may  give  some  relief.  For  preparations  for  the 
relief  of  Cough  see  Appendix,  and  for  further  treatment  par.  490. 


496.  Laryngitis,  or  Inflammation  of  the  Larynx,  commonly 
called  sore  throat,  may  result  from  an  injury,  neglected  catarrh,  or  a 
chill,  from  the  animal  being  exposed  to  draughts  when  heated,  from 
the  irritating  effect  of  smoke  from  burning  buildings,  or  from  chemical 
fumes.  It  may,  or  may  not,  be  accompanied  by  any  constitutional 
disturbance.  When  simple,  the  application  of  a  mild,  stimulating 
embrocation  (see  Appendix),  or  of  mustard,  mixed  with  cold  water  to 
the  consistency  of  thin  cream,  and  rubbed  round  the  throat,  along  with 
soft  food  and  good  nursing,  as  recommended  for  catarrh  [par.  490),  will 
generally  set  the  matter  right  in  a  few  days  ;  but  if  the  attack  be  acute, 
it  may  prove  very  dangerous,  and  end  in  the  horse  becoming  a  roarer. 
Symptoms  :  At  the  commencement  the  animal  is  dull  and  wear}^ 
hanging  first  on  one  leg,  and  then  on  another  ;  the  nose  is  poked  out, 
the  coat  is  on  end,  the  temperature  is  elevated  from  103°  to  106°,  the 
mouth  is  hot  and  there  is  frothing  round  the  lips,  the  eyelids  are 
partly  closed,  the  visible  mucous  membranes  are  congested,  the 
breathing  is  quickened  and  accompanied  by  a  noise  as  the  air  passes 
over  the  inflamed  surface,  and  there  is  a  sore,  frightened  cough  ;  pain 
is  evinced  when  the  throat  is  pressed,  and  there  seems  great  difficulty 
in  swallowing  even  small  quantities  of  water,  or  other  fluid,  a  portion 
of  these  coming  back  through  the  nostrils  in  the  act  of  drinking. 
Treatment  :  Immediately  the  animal  is  noticed  to  be  thus  affected,  it 
should  be  put  into  a  good  roomy  loose  box,  the  body  well  clothed,  the 
legs  bandaged,  and  a  mild  cantharides  liniment  applied  to  the  throat 
(see  Appendix).  I  have,  for  years,  tried  all  kinds  of  methods  of  applying 
a  poultice,  but  never  could  fix  one  to  my  satisfaction.  Its  weight 
distresses  the  animal,  and  there  is  great  difficulty  in  getting  it  to  keep 
close  enough  to  the  throat.  The  best  plan,  then,  is  to  apply  a  smart 

497.  In  all  throat  affections,  it  is  dangerous  to  give  draughts  ;  yet, 
if  8  to  10  ounces  of  linseed  oil,  with  i  to  i^  ounces  of  spirits  of  nitre 
can  be  administered  at  the  start,  good  effects  may  result,  but  if  there 
is  any  difficulty  in  swallowing,  do  not  attempt  to  drench  the  animal. 
Steaming  the  nostrils,  by  putting  a  dessert-spoonful  of  carbolic  acid, 
turpentine,  or  eucalyptus  oil  (the  latter  for  preference)  on  a  sop  of  hay 


in  the  bottom  of  a  bucket,  pouring  boiling  water  on  it,  and  holding  the 
animal's  head  over  the  bucket  for  twenty  minutes,  doing  it  four  or 
five  times  a  day,  has  an  excellent  and  soothing  effect.  The  nostrils 
at  the  same  time  should  be  washed  with  "  sanitas  "  or  vinegar  and 
warm  water.  The  inhalation  and  washing  above  noted  are  also  to 
be  highly  recommended  in  cases  of  catarrh  and  bronchitis.  (For 
this  purpose,  never  put  tlie  head  inio  a  nose  hag).  Nitrate,  or  chlorate  of 
potash,  in  2  to  3  drachm  doses,  given  in  bran  mashes,  or  in  cold  water 
night  and  morning;  with  linseed  jelly  and  milk,  or  hay  tea  to 
drink,  can  be  recommended.  Electuaries,  composed  of  extract  of 
belladonna,  powdered  chlorate  of  potash,  and  honey  are  sometimes 
used.  A  small  piece  of  this  is  put  mto  the  horse's  mouth  three  or 
four  times  a  day,  but  I  do  not  subscribe  to  this  treatment,  as  it  retards 
recovery  and  prevents  the  patient  feeding.  Should  the  case  assume  a 
serious  aspect,  by  the  internal  parts  becoming  congested  and  swollen, 
with  danger  of  suffocation,  and  the  animal  makes  a  roaring  noise, 
then  tracheotomy  must  be  performed.  This  is  done  by  cutting  into  the 
windpipe,  and  inserting  a  tube  through  which  the  animal  can  breathe, 
independently  of  the  nostrils  (Plate  LI.,  No.  7).  The  operation  is  easily 
performed,  and  should  not  be  delayed  too  long,  as,  when  the  horse  is 
much  oppressed  in  getting"  breath,  some  of  the  fluid  which  it  attempts  to 
drink  may  pass  down  into  the  lungs,  and  produce  congestion,  while, 
when  the  tube  is  in,  any  fluid  which  may  trickle  down  the  windpipe 
comes  out  at  the  tube.  I  have  frequentl}-  seen  this.  In  all  cases  of 
throat  affections,  strange  as  it  may  seem,  the  horse  is  much  fonder  of 
dry  than  of  soft  food  or  fluids.  Should  the  bowels  be  very  costive, 
they  can  be  regulated  b}'  giving,  night  and  morning,  from  i|-  to  2  oz. 
of  Epsom  salts  in  a  mash,  with  a  little  treacle.  A  good-sized  piece  of 
lump  rock  salt  should  be  placed  in  the  manger  for  the  patient  to  lick, 
and  also  a  good  bunch  of  gorse  (whins)  hung  up  in  the  box  for  the 
horse  to  pick. 

498.  Strangles,  technically  called  fehra  pyogenica,  is  a  febrile  sup- 
purative disease,  most  commonly  seen  in  young  horses,  particularly 
at  the  age  of  two  to  three  years.       It  may  be  of  a  simple  or  complicated 
nature  ;  in  the  latter  case  it  is  termed  irregular,  or  bastard  strangles, 


The  name  strangles,  no  doubt,  originates  from  the  strangHng  or 
choking  sensation,  which  must  be  caused  by  the  abscesses  formed 
under  the  jaw,  round  the  throat,  and  beneath  the  ears.  It  is  mostly 
seen  during  the  spring  months,  or  when  young  horses  are  newly 
brought  in  from  grass,  and  in  the  midst  of  their  dentition.  The 
simple  form  may  pass  off  very  mildly,  without  much  disturbance,  the 
small  abscesses  coming  to  a  head,  and  bursting,  with  no  bad  results 
following.  Good  nursing  and  ventilation  are  all  that  is  necessary, 
and  these  are  very  essential  in  every  case.  Soft  mashes,  green  food, 
carrots,  or  potatoes,  may  also  be  given  with  great  advantage.  If 
necessary,  a  small  dose  of  linseed  oil — lo  to  15  ounces — may  be 
administered,  or  one  ounce  doses  of  Epsom  salts  can  be  given  in  a 
mash  or  in  drinking  water  every  six  hours,  until  the  bowels  respond, 
and  nitrate  water  should  be  offered  to  drink. 

499.  In  the  complicated  form,  or  bastard  strangles,  the  abscesses 
develop  in  an  irregular  manner,  some  forming  under  the  jaw,  and 
others  under  the  ears,  or  on  the  side  of  the  face,  bursting  and  forming 
again.  Such  a  case  requires  skilled  attention,  as  it  may  result  in 
pyaemia,  in  which  condition  abscesses  are  formed  in  various  parts  of 
the  body.  The  horse  in  this  state  becomes  feverish,  the  temperature 
rises  to  105°  and  106,°  and  the  pulse  is  quick  and  small ;  there  is  no 
appetite  ;  the  coat  stands  on  end  ;  and  in  some  cases  the  legs  swell, 
and  the  abscesses  under  the  ears  become  so  large  that  the  animal  is 
threatened  with  suffocation,  and  tracheotomy  has  to  be  performed. 
The  bowels  in  such  cases  must  be  regulated  with  mashes,  or  green 
food.  Purgatives  must  be  avoided,  but,  if  necessary,  an  ounce  or  two 
of  sulphate  of  soda  in  a  mash,  or  in  the  drinking  water  may  be  given 
twice  a  day,  while  a  good  stimulating  liniment  should  be  applied  to 
the  throat  (see  Appendix),  at  the  same  time  the  nose  should  be  steamed 
{pav.  497).  Chlorate  of  potash,  in  two  drachm  doses,  given  in  the 
drinking  water,  along  with  20  drops  doses  of  strong  hydrochloric  acid, 
twice  a  day,  also  answers  well ;  or  one  drachm  doses  of  sulphate  of 
quinine  may  be  given,  night  and  morning,  with  10  drops  sulphuric 
acid,  in  one  pint  of  cold  water. 


500.  Young  colts  should  never  be  castrated  when  cases  of  strangles 
are  prevalent,  as  the  result  of  the  operation  may  prove  troublesome  ; 
for  abscesses  may  form  in  the  groin  and  neighbouring  parts. 
Strangles  frequently  terminates  in  Roaring. 

501.  Roaring  is  a  peculiar  noise  made  by  the  horse  during  the  act 
of  mspiration,  when  put  to  heavy  or  fast  work.  It  may  arise  from 
obstruction  of  various  kinds  in  the  air  passages,  but  is  very  often 
traceable  to  a  hereditary  tendency.  Injuries  to  the  throat  by  foreign 
bodies,  setting  up  irritation  and  inflammation  of  the  pharynx  and 
larynx ;  tight  reining  of  carriage  horses,  as  with  bearing-reins ; 
severe  colds,  &c.,  are  all  liable  to  produce  the  disease,  while  long 
peacock-necked  horses  are  more  prone  to  it  than  short-necked  ones. 
The  complaint  is  mainly  due  to  the  muscles,  particularly  on  the  left 
side  of  the  larynx,  becoming  wasted  away — atrophied  ;  losing  their 
bright  red  colour,  and  assuming  the  appearance  of  yellow  strings,  so 
that  they  are  unable  to  do  their  work  of  separating  the  cartilages 
during  the  act  of  breathing.  Thus  the  left  side  remains  stationary, 
and  the  vocal  cord  inside  the  larynx  hangs  loose  and  limp,  so  that,  on 
inspiration,  more  air  rushes  into  the  passage  than  can  be  conveniently 
accommodated  ;  and  if  the  breathing  be  in  any  way  hurried  from 
exercise,  this  air,  forcing  itself  through  the  half-opened  passage, 
produces  the  roaring  noise. 

502.  The  wasting  of  the  muscles  above  referred  to  is  considered  to  be 
due  to  loss  of  nerve  power.  The  nerve  supplying  them  is  the  inferior 
laryngeal,  a  branch  of  the  pneumogastric.  The  nerves  on  the  two 
sides  of  the  neck  and  chest  are  known  as  the  right  and  left  recurrent 
laryngeals.  The  latter  passes  down  into  the  chest,  winds  round  the 
aorta,  just  above  the  heart,  then  proceeds  up  the  neck  with  the  carotid 
artery  to  supply  the  muscles  of  the  left  side  of  the  larynx.  It  has  a 
much  longer  course  than  the  right  nerve,  and  it  is  generally  considered 
to  be  more  liable  to  derangement.  Thus  it  is  thought  that  the  left  side 
of  the  larynx  is  more  especially  affected  in  roaring ;  be  this  as  it  may, 
mares  and  ponies  are  rarely  so  much  affected  as  the  heavier  stallions 
and  geldings.     Several  operations  have  been  tried  for  its  cure,  but, 

so  far,  in  my  opinion,  nothing  is  better  than  tracheotomy;  by  this, 
a  horse  can  be  made  serviceable  for  years,  either  for  fast  or  slow  work. 

503.  In  an  examination  for  soundness, it  isamatter  of  vast  importance 
to  carefully  test  the  wind.  In  a  strong  horse,  particularly,  it  is  usual 
to  put  the  animal  against  the  wall,  and  feign  to  strike  it.  If  the 
subject  be  a  roarer,  it  will,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  give  a  long 
groan  ;  but  if  a  sharp  grunt  be  emitted,  the  probability  is  that  the 
horse  is  only  a  nervous  grunter.  Nevertheless,  the  animal  may  make 
no  sound  whatever,  and  yet  be  a  confirmed  roarer  ;  and,  therefore,  I 
consider  this  a  very  imperfect  test..  The  best  plan  is  either  to  gallop 
the  horse  some  distance,  or  to  make  it  pull  a  heavy  load  up  hill. 
These  trials  will  soon  prove  whether  the  animal  is  a  roarer  or  not. 

504.  Whistlers  and  Highblowers  are  modified  forms  of  roarers, 
and  should  always  be  regarded  with  suspicion.  The  causes  are 
generally  similar  to  those  which  produce  roaring. 

505.  Bronchocele  or  Goitre. — This  is  an  enlargement  of  the 
thyroid  gland  [Plate  XXXIII. ,  No.  20),  by  no  means  common  in 
domestic  animals,  but  of  frequent  occurrence  in  human  beings, 
especially  those  living  in  limestone  districts,  near  high  mountains. — 
e.g. — the  Alps  and  Himalaya.  Iodine  preparations  I  have  found 
to  have  the  best  effect,  such  as  two  drachm  doses  of  iodide  of 
potassium  given  once  a  day  in  a  mash,  for  ten  days  or  so,  and  iodide 
ointment  applied  to  the  enlargement  once  every  third  day  [see 

506.  Bronchitis,  or  inflammation  of  the  lining  membrane  of  the 
bronchial  tubes  in  the  lungs,  may  either  be  acute  or  chronic,  and  may 
affect  one  or  both  lungs  ;  while  either  the  large  or  small  branches  of  the 
bronchial  tubes  may  be  aUacked  separately,  or  in  conjunction.  It  is 
a  very  serious  complaint  ;  for  if,  from  the  inflammatory  process,  some 
of  the  bronchial  passages,  particularly  the  larger  branches,  become 
blocked  up,  the  blood  cannot  get  properly  oxygenated,  and  impure 
blood  is  therefore  sent  through  the  system,  acts  on  the  nerve  centres, 
and  causes  great  debility  very  earl}^  on  in  the  complaint.     Symptoms: 


As  a  rule,  the  horse  will  not  lie  down  in  chest  affections  ;  in  acute 
attacks  of  bronchitis,  it  w\\\,  in  many  cases,  at  an  early  stage,  be 
found  leaning  against  the  stall  for  support.  Again,  on  account  of  the 
circulation  of  impure  blood,  oxydation  of  the  tissues  cannot  go  on,  and 
coldness  of  the  extremities  and  the  surface  of  the  body  is  the  result. 
In  health,  there  is  a  certain  amount  of  moisture  always  present  in  the 
mucous  lining,  but,  in  the  early  stages  of  this  complaint,  on  applying 
the  ear  to  the  windpipe,  at  the  lower  part  of  the  neck,  a  dry  crisp  sound 
is  heard  in  the  bronchial  tubes.  However,  as  the  case  advances,  this 
gives  way  to  a  loose  slobbery  noise,  while  the  cough,  which  is  at  first 
dry,  hard,  and  sore,  becomes,  similarly  changed  to  a  soft  and  loosened 
one.  Great  care  must  betaken  at  this  later  stage,  as  the  inflammatory 
mucous  material,  on  being  thrown  off,  makes  its  way  up  the  wind- 
pipe to  be  coughed  up  and  discharged  by  the  nose.  The  causes  of 
bronchitis  are  similar  to  those  of  ordinary  colds,  and  are  various,  such 
as  chills,  removing  from  cold  to  hot  stables,  or  any  sudden  changes  of 
temperature,  east  winds,  smoke,  chemical  fumes,  parasites  or  foreign 
bodies  in  the  bronchial  tubes,  &c.  In  the  cow,  during  the  early  spring 
months,  when  east  winds  are  prevalent,  it  is  a  very  common  accom- 
paniment to  retention  of  the  second  cleansmg,  when  the  flow  of  the 
debris  from  the  womb  has  been  checked.  It  ma}'  also  be  caused  by 
moving  the  animal  too  early  after  calving. 

507.  Generally  speaking,  all  derangements  and  diseases,  more 
especially  of  the  respiratory  organs,  are  ushered  in  by  a  shivering  fit. 
If  this  be  noticed,  the  animal  should  be  well  clothed  up,  and  a  good 
stimulant,  such  as  half-a-pint  of  whisky  in  as  much  water,  or  from  one  to 
two  ounces  each  of  aromatic  spirit  of  ammonia  and  spirits  of  nitre,  or 
two  ounces  acetate  of  ammonia,  and  one  ounce  of  spirit  of  nitre,  may  be 
administered  in  one  pint  of  cold  water.  As  a  rule,  however,  the  first 
thing  that  is  noticed  is  that  the  animal  is  very  dull  and  languid,  with 
the  hair  standing  on  end.  The  inside  of  the  eyelids  is  red,  the  mouth 
is  hot,  the  head  droops,  the  breathing  is  more  or  less  accelerated,  and 
there  is  a  soft,  weak  pulse,  and  an  elevation  of  temperature  from 
about  103°  to  106°.  Treatment;  The  animal  should  be  put  into  a 
good,    dry,   well-ventilated    loose    box,   free   from    draughts,  woollen 


bandages  should  be  put  on  the  legs,  and  warm  sheets  on  the  body, 
also  a  pailful  of  cold  water  containing  a  table-spoonful  of  nitrate  of 
potash,  should  be  placed  in  the  box  for  the  patient  to  drink. 

508.  It  is  very  dangerous  to  use  purgatives  in  these  cases,  as  great 
debility  soon  sets  in,  and  the  aperient  however  slight, — even  8  ounces 
of  linseed  oil — may  set  up  superpurgation,  which  tends  to  remove  the 
inflammation  from  the  bronchial  tubes  to  the  lining  membranes  of 
the  intestines,  causing,  in  many  cases,  muco-enteritis  and  death.  Or, 
perhaps,  from  the  continued  purging,  the  inflammation  may  again  be 
shifted  to  the  feet,  producing  laminitis  or  founder.  This  shows  how  very 
necessary  it  is  to  know  what  the  chest  affection  really  is,  before  attempting  to 
treat  it  in  any  way.  In  all  chest  diseases  there  is  great  danger  in  giving 
drenches,  as  some  of  the  fluid  might  get  into  the  trachea  or  bronchial 
tubes,  causing  great  distress;  so,  if  a  drench  has  to  be  administered, 
it  must  be  done  with  great  caution.  Half-ounce  doses  of  carbonate  of 
ammonia  in  a  ball,  or  in  the  drinking  water,  every  six  or  eight  hours 
may,  however,  be  given  with  advantage,  and  if  the  cough  be  trouble- 
some, one  ounce  of  chlorodyne,  mixed  with  one  ounce  of  glycerine  can 
be  given  three  times  a  day  in  mashes  of  bran  or  boiled  barley,  containing 
a  little  treacle  or  sugar,  or  in  hay  tea,  nearly  cold.  Many  practitioners 
recommend  that  blankets  which  have  been  rung  out  of  hot  water  be 
applied  to  the  chest  with  a  waterproof  rug  above.  In  some  cases  this 
answers  well ;  in  others  it  has  a  very  oppressive  and  relaxing  effect,  and 
should  not  be  carried  too  far.  I  am  more  in  favour  of  slightly 
stimulating  both  sides  of  the  chest  behind  the  shoulder,  with  two 
tablespoonfuls  of  mustard,  well  mixed  in  one  pint  of  cold  water,  after 
which  a  piece  of  flannel,  cotton  wool,  or  wadding  should  be  put  round 
the  body,  and  warm  woollen  clothing  put  over  all.  I  also  strongly 
advocate  the  steaming  of  the  nose  and  air  passages  as  recommended 
in  Laryngitis  (par.  497).  Food  of  an  easily  digestible  nature  must  be 
given,  such  as  boiled  barley  and  bran,  milk  and  water,  linseed  jelly, 
carrots,  potatoes,  green  food,  chopped  whins  (gorse),  &c.  It  is  also  a 
good  practice  to  feed  patients  (discharging  from  the  nose)  from  buckets, 
or  troughs,  as  near  to  the  ground  as  possible,  so  as  to  give  an  easy 
means  of  exit  to  the  discharge. 


5og.  Congestion  of  the  Lungs. — This  is  a  very  common  term- 
ination of  many  diseases,  and  is,  in  some  cases,  very  easily  produced. 
For  example,  when  an  animal  is  suffering  from  a  slight  cold,  with 
relaxed  system,  a  sudden  chill  will  induce  congestion  of  the  lungs,  and 
kill  the  animal  in  a  few  hours.  On  account  of  its  running  its  course 
so  rapidly,  in  many  cases,  there  is  little  time  to  combat  the 
disease.  It  is  often,  in  fact,  worse  to  handle  than  inflammation  of 
the  lungs.  The  difference  between  congestion  and  inflmnmation  is, 
that  in  the  former,  the  blood  stagnates  in  the  tissues  of  the  lungs 
like  water  in  a  sponge,  but  there  is  no  visible  structural  change  of  the 
part  ;  for  want  of  tone,  the  blood  accumulates,  giving  the  lungs  a 
deep  brownish-black  appea^rance.  Yet,  when  they  are  put  into  water, 
they  do  not  sink  to  the  bottom,  but,  being  loaded  with  blood,  sink  just 
below  the  surface — water-logged,  as  it  were.  Inflammation,  on  the 
other  hand,  changes  the  structure.  The  lungs  become  solid,  similar  in 
appearance  to  the  liver,  and,  when  put  into  water,  sink  to  the  bottom 
like  lead,  the  air-cells  bemg  completely  blocked  up  by  inflammatory 
products;  whereas,  in  congestion,  they  were  merely  pressed  and  not 
interfered  with  by  the  congested  vessels.  Congestion  is,  at  times, 
readily  induced,  (especially  in  a  badly-conditioned  horse),  by  a 
heavy,  fast  run  with  hounds,  when  the  animal  has  been  galloped 
to  a  standstill.  When  the  animal  is  thus  affected,  the  head  is 
extended,  the  nostrils  dilated,  the  breathing  is  short,  quick,  and 
panting,  the  legs  are  spread  wide  apart,  and  the  muscles  of  the  body 
and  hmbs  are  all  in  a  quiver.  The  rider  having  dismounted,  the 
girths  should  be  slackened,  and  the  horse's  head  turned  to  the  wind  ; 
then,  after  it  has  settled  down  a  little,  the  contents  of  the  horseman's 
flask,  or  that  of  his  companions  should  be  given,  with  an  equal 
quantity  of  water  ;  the  patient  should  next  be  carefully  led  to  the 
nearest  box,  when  four  drachms  carbonate  of  ammonia  made  into  a 
ball,  with  a  little  linseed  meal  and  water  should  be  given  at  once,  and 
the  body  sheeted,  and  legs  bandaged,  as  detailed  in  pav.  507. 

510.  In  acute  congestion,  if  early  on  the  scene,  I  know  of  no  better 
or  quicker  relief  than  that  obtained  by  taking  three  or  four  quarts  of 
blood  from  the  jugular  vein  ;  this  takes  off  the  pressure,  allows  freedom 


to  the  right  side  of  the  heart,  and  gives  the  functional  vessels  a  httle 
liberty  to  relieve  themselves.  If  this  be  followed  up  by  the 
administration  of  stimulants, — and  nothing  is  better  than  the 
carbonate  of  ammonia  bail  named  in  par.  509,  given  every  four  or 
six  hours, — the  result  will  generally  be  favourable.  The  after- 
treatment  should  be  much  the  same  as  that  recommended  under 
"  Bronchitis,"  pay.  507.  x\ny  of  the  foregoing  complaints  may  end 
in  pneumonia  or  inflammation  of  the  lungs. 

511.  Pneumonia. — In  this,  the  substance  of  the  lung  undergoes 
inflammatory  action  and  structural  change;  the  air-cells  become 
blocked  up,  and  consolidation  of  the  lungs  takes  place,  in  which  either 
a  portion  of  a  lung,  or  one  lung,  or  both,  may  be  involved.  Pneumonia, 
arising  as  it  does  from  a  variety  of  causes,  and  passing  through  many 
stages,  requires  careful  treatment,  and  should  be  placed  in  the  hands  of 
a  skilled  practitioner  without  delay.  When  it  is  certain  that  the  disease 
really  is  true  pneumonia,  then  more  heroic  treatment  may  be  adopted 
than  that  used  for  bronchitis.  Treatment  :  At  the  early  part  of  the 
attack,  when  the  animal's  breathing  is  hurried,  the  nostrils  dilated, 
the  under  side  of  the  eyelids  red,  and  the  pulse  full  and  oppressed, 
with  a  temperature  ranging  from  105"  to  106°  ;  the  extraction  of  five  or 
six  quarts  of  blood  has  a  wonderfully  good  effect — at  least,  such  is  the 
case  in  country  practice — and  gives  prompt  relief.  This  ma}'  be 
ace  mpanied  by  a  dose  of  from  10  to  20  ounces  of  linseed  oil,  mixed 
with  I  'ue  to  two  ounces  of  spirits  of  nitre,  and  10  to  15  drops  of  tincture 
of  aconite  (Fleming's).  Blankets  wrung  out  of  hot  water,  as  described 
under  bronchitis,  may  be  applied  to  the  chest,  and  nitrate  of  potash 
offered  in  the  drinking  water,  with  soft  food,  as  also  recommended  for 
bronchitis.  Good  nursing  all  through  is  highly  essential.  Associated 
with  this  disease,  we  may  have  pleuro-pneumonia,  as  in  cattle,  in 
which  both  the  lungs  and  their  covering  (the  pleurae)  are  involved, 
and  the  treatment  is  the  same  as  in  pneumonia. 

512.  Pleurisy  consists  in  inflammation  of  the  pleurae  ;  that  is,  the 
serous  membrane  which  lines  the  chest  and  covers  the  lungs  (par.  481 ). 
This  is  a  very  painful  complaint  ;  the  animal  stands  still,  appears  to 


be  frightened  to  move,  the  elbows  are  turned  out,  and  the  ribs  are  as 
stationary  as  possible.  The  breathing,  which  is  ver)'  hurried,  is  for  the 
most  part  carried  on  by  the  abdominal  muscles,  thus  causing  a  ridge  or 
line — the  pleuritic  line — from  the  elbow  point  to  the  haunch-bone.  If 
made  to  move,  the  animal  groans  with  pain  ;  the  eyelids  are  red,  the 
nose  is  poked  out,  and  the  pulse  is  full  and  strong.  At  times,  a  painful 
frightened  cough  is  emitted.  When  both  surfaces  of  the  pleurae  are 
involved  in  the  inflammatory  action,  bands  of  fibrin  are  formed  between 
the  lungs  and  the  walls  of  the  chest.  This  formation  will  take  place 
in  the  space  of  from  thirty  to  forty  hours,  while  the  chest  becomes  full 
of  water,  on  one  or  both  sides,  producing  the  condition  known  as 
hydro-thorax.  At  first,  the  Treatment  to  be  adopted  is  similar  to 
that  given  under  piuinnonia,  (par.  511.) 

513.  Hydro-thorax,  or  water  in  the  chest,  sometimes  arises  from 
attacks  of  Bronchitis,  Pneumonia,  Heart  Disease,  and 
Pleurisy.  The  symptoms  are  somewhat  analogous  to  those 
observed  in  Pleurisy,  but,  on  applying  the  ear  to  the  lower  portion 
of  the  neck,  just  above  the  breast  bone,  the  water  can  generally  be 
distinctly  heard  splashing  in  the  chest.  The  animal  is  much  oppressed 
and  stands  with  the  elbows  pointing  outwards,  and  at  times  the  limbs 
are  swollen.  Treatment  :  Relief  is  best  obtained  by  tapping  the 
chest  with  a  trocar  and  canula  [Plate  LI.,  No.  5),  and  drawing  off  the 
fluid  (but  this  should  only  be  attempted  by  a  qualified  practitioner), 
following  up  the  operation  by  the  administration  of  iodine  and  iron 
tonics  {see  Appendix),  combined  with  suitable  dmretics,  good  nutritious 
food,  and  plenty  of  fresh  air. 

514.  In  all  acute  cases  of  chest  affections,  on  account  of  the  horse's 
breast -bone  being  set  vertically,  the  animal  will  not  lie  down  for  fear 
of  suffocation,  so  that  as  the  case  progresses,  lying  down  is  a  good  sign. 
Cattle,  on  the  other  hand,  having  a  flat  sternum,  or  breast-bone,  and 
joints  at  the  lower  end  of  the  ribs  as  well,  can  lie  down  throughout 
the  whole  attack. 

515.  Asthma,  or  Broken  Wind. — This  is  by  no  means  so  common 
as  it  used  to  be.     It  may  be  said  to  exist  in  two  forms.     The  first  of 


these  consists  of  spasms,  or  a  rigid  contraction  of  the  bronchial  muscles, 
induced  by  the  inhalation  of  certain  matters,  such  as  new-made  hay 
(producmg  hay  asthma  or  hay  fever).  This  form  is  oftener  seen  in 
cattle  than  in  horses,  more  particularly  after  hay-time,  when  the 
animal  is  put  on  to  the  fog,  or  after-math.  There  is  great  difficulty  in 
the  breathing,  which  is  of  a  tight  spasmodic  character,  and  it  is  accom- 
panied by  a  wheezing,  squeaking  sound.  The  eyes  are  staring,  and 
the  nostrils  distended.  The  animal  will  take  no  food  during  the 
attack,  which  may  last  from  four  to  twenty-four  hours.  For  this  form 
of  the  complaint,  great  relief  is  obtained  by  putting  the  animal  into  a 
roomy  loose  box,  or,  better  still,  outside  on  an  old  grassing  if  the 
weather  is  fine,  and  giving  such  remedies  as  camphor,  digitalis, 
chloral  hydrate,  belladonna,  &c.,  (see  Appendix),  or  by  causing  it 
to    inhale  the  jnmes  of  eucalyptus  oil  or  terehene  (par.  497). 

516.  The  second  form  is  of  much  more  importance,  and  is  due  to 
structural  change  in  the  lungs  ;  some  of  the  small  air  cells  having 
become  ruptured,  the  air  finds  its  way  through  the  tissue  of  the  lungs 
to  beneath  the  pleura,  and  gives  the  surface  of  the  lungs  a  blubbery 
appearance,  called  emphysema.  This  form  of  the  malady  is,  at 
times,  due  to  a  bad  attack  of  influenza,  bronchitis,  or  pneumonia, 
but  more  frequently  it  is  caused  by  bad  food — more  particularly 
musty  hay,  and  corn — or  by  putting  the  animal  to  too  hard  an 
exertion,  such  as  starting  off  full  trot  immediately  after  feeding. 
Such  causes  act  not  only  mechanically,  but  also  on  the  gastric 
branches  of  the  pneumo-gastric  nerve,  which,  by  reflex  action, 
implicate  the  lung  or  chest  branches.  As  this  form  of  complaint 
is  incurable,  the  great  point  is  to  get  the  animal  to  work  com- 
fortably, and  for  this  purpose  the  feeding  must  be  regulated  ; 
nutritious  diet  of  not  too  bulky  a  character  ought  to  be  given,  and 
plenty  of  fresh  air  allowed.  A  case  of  this  kind  does  best  out  of  doors. 
The  affected  animal  always  has  a  peculiar  way  of  breathing.  The 
inspiration  is  performed  with  comparative  ease,  but  the  expiratory 
effort  is  double,  the  flank  falling  with  a  jerky  motion.  The  cough  is 
also  noticeable,  being  a  long,  dry,  droning  bark,  which  is  characteristic 
of  the  disease.     On  applying  the  ear  to  the  lower  part  of  the  windpipe, 


a  crackling,  hissing  sound  is  also  to  be  heard  in  the  lungs.  Treat- 
ment is  of  little  avail,  but  a  cough  ball  may  be  given  every  night 
for  a  week  (see  Appendix)  ;  but  from  two  or  three  grain  doses  of 
arsenic  once  a  day  for  ten  days  or  a  fortnight  given  in  a  mash 
answers  best  (sec  Appendix). 

517.  Formerly,  unprincipled  dealers  used  to  practise  all  sorts  of 
tricks  in  selling  an  anmial  thus  affected — such  as  pouring  one  or  two 
pounds  of  lead  shot,  with  a  pound  of  melted  butter,  down  the  horse's 
throat.  This  weighed  the  stomach  down,  taking  the  pressure  off  the 
diaphragm,  and  thus  allowed  the  lungs  more  play,  when  the  horse 
breathed  almost  naturally.  Another  practice  was  to  cut  a  hole  into 
the  abdominal  cavity,  close  to  the  rectum,  when  the  air  being  allowed 
access,  rushed  in,  and  had  the  effect  of  assisting  the  breathing,  and 
this  also  seemed  to  have  a  controlling  action  on  the  double  breathing. 
I  have  seen  a  few  cases  of  this  type  in  the  early  part  of  my  professional 
career,  but  they  are  rare  now-a-days. 

518.  Influenza  is  a  fever  of  an  Epizootic  type,  and  may  be  regarded 
as  a  morbid  condition  of  the  blood,  with  a  specific  character,  varying 
very  much  in  degree,  according  to  the  nature  of  the  attack  and, the 
condition  of  the  patient.  Some  cases  are  very  slight,  while  others  are 
of  a  more  virulent  type,  being  accompanied  by  great  prostration  and 
general  debility.  Influenza  in  the  horse  has  an  incubative  stage  of  about 
four  or  five  days,  and  the  duration  of  an  attack  varies  from  ten  days  to 
even  twenty  days.  It  is  of  a  very  infectious  nature  and  usually  follows 
in  the  wake  of  traders  in  horses,  all  classes  of  horses  being  subject  to  its 
influence.  It  makes  itself  manifest  in  four  different  forms,  such  as — 
(ist)  Simple  Catarrhal  Fever;  (2nd)  Catarrh,  with  Chest 
Complications;  (3rd)  Catarrh,  with  Bilious  Fever;  and  (4th) 
CEdematous  or  Exudative  Cellulitis,  recognisable  by  the  swollen 
limbs  and  eye-lids. 

519.  Simple  Catarrhal  Fever  resembles  very  much  simple  Cat- 
arrh or  common  cold,  (pav.  490).  The  symptoms  are  somewhat 
analogous,  and  similar  treatment  may  be  adopted. 

520.  Catarrh,  with  Chest  Complications,  is  of  a  more  critical 
character,  as  the  lungs,  bronchial  tubes,  pleura,  and  the  heart  coverings 
become  implicated.  The  breathing  is  very  much  quickened,  and  the 
temperature  runs  up  to  io6^  and  107°  F.,  while  the  eyes  and  nose 
discharge  quantities  of  matter.  The  symptoms  are  somewhat  similar 
to  those  seen  in  Bronchitis  (par.  506),  and  the  Treatment  should  be 
as  stated  in  pars.  507  and  508. 

521.  Catarrh  and  Bilious  Fever.  In  these  cases  the  distinguish- 
ing difference  in  the  symptoms  is  the  yellowness  of  the  under-side  of 
the  eyelids,  and  the  lining  membrane  of  the  nose  and  mouth.  The 
attack  may  come  on  suddenly  with  slight  symptoms  of  colic  ;  or  it 
may  crawl  on  insidiously  for  two  or  three  days  before  making  itself 
manifest,  when  the  animal  becomes  very  dejected  and  weak.  The 
Treatment  is  similar  to  that  noted  for  the  two  former  cases,  with  the 
addition  of  small  doses  of  calomel,  which  I  find  to  answer  well  when 
given  in  half-drachm  doses  in  a  little  mash,  or  in  a  ball  every  eight 
hours,  until  three  doses  are  administered. 

522.  CEdematous  or  Exudative  Cellulitis,  commonly  called 
Pink-eye,  is  recognisable  by  the  legs  and  eye-lids  becoming  swollen. 
The  lining  membrane  of  the  eye-lid,  nose,  and  mouth  are  in  such  cases 
of  a  pink  colour.  Pink-eye  is  of  a  very  variable  character  ;  at  times  it 
is  so  slight  that  scarcely  anything  amiss  can  be  noticed,  only  the  eye- 
lids are  puffed-up,  with  a  watery  discharge  coming  from  the  corner  of 
the  eye,  and  one  or  more  of  the  legs  may  be  slightly  swollen  about  the 
joints  and  shanks.  At  other  times  the  eyes,  face,  and  muzzle  are 
much  enlarged,  and  the  legs  very  much  distended.  The  animal 
refuses  its  food,  can  scarcely  stir,  is  very  languid  and  much  depressed, 
breathing  becomes  quick,  and  the  temperature  rises  up  to  103^  and 
106°  F.  Treatment:  Hypo-sulphate  of  soda  may  be  given  night  and 
morning  in  two  ounce  doses,  with  drachm  doses  of  sulphate  of  quinine 
every  eight  hours.  In  some  cases,  chlorate  of  potass  and  iron  tonics 
answer  well.  Further  treatment  and  feeding  should  be  as  noted  in 
par.  508. 

^2^.   Seeing  that  all  cases  of  affections  of  the  respiratory  organs  are 


somewhat  analogous  at  the  commencement,  they  should  be  placed 
under  the  care  of  a  professional  expert  without  delay,  and  not 
tampered  with  by  giving  quack  medicines. 

THE    PIG. 

524.  This  animal,  although  subjected  to  the  worst  forms  of  insanitary 
conditions,  rarely  suffers  from  derangement  of  the  respiratory  organs. 
Cases  of  Laryngitis  are  sometimes  met  with,  also  Bronchitis  and 
Inflammation  of  the  Lungs.  The  conditions  of  nursing  and  treatment 
as  named  for  the  dog  (par.  525)  can  be  followed,  but  the  doses  of 
medicine  there  noted  must  be  doubled. 

THE    DOG. 

525.  Like  all  other  animals,  the  dog  suffers  from  derangement  and 
diseases  of  the  Respiratory  Organs — such  as.  Laryngitis,  Bronchitis, 
Congestion  of  the  Lungs,  Pneumonia,  Pleurisy,  Hydro-thorax,  and 
Asthma.  When  the  animal  is  seen  aihng,  it  should  at  once  beput  into 
a  warm,  dry,  well-ventilated  room  or  kennel,  with  the  bed  well  raised 
from  the  floor,  which  should  be  covered  with  sawdust  or  moss  litter. 
Should  the  weather  be  cold  and  raw,  and  an  oil  stove  (well  guarded), 
be  put  into  the  kennel,  it  will  be  found  very  serviceable,  keeping  the 
room  or  kennel  at  a  proper  temperature.  A  mild  dose  of  opening 
medicine  should  first  be  administered,  such  as  two  to  eight  drachms 
each  of  castor  oil  and  syrup  of  buckthorn,  according  to  the  size  of  the 
animal.  When  necessary  apply  to  each  side  of  the  chest,  behind  the 
shoulders,  some  stimulative  embrocation,  (see  Appendix)  over  which 
apply  a  good  layer  of  absorbent  cotton-wool,  and  retain  it  in  its  place 
with  a  bandage  round  the  body;  or  a  piece  of  flannel  three  or  four 
ply  thick  wrung  out  of  hot  water  may  be  rolled  round  the  body  behind 
the  shoulder,  covered  with  a  waterproof  cover,  and  secured  with  a 
bandage.  The  following  medicine  can  also  be  administered,  i.e.,  from 
one  to  four  drachms  of  liquor  ammonia  acetatis,  along  with  20  to  60 
drops  of  spirits  of  nitre,  given  every  eight  or  ten  hours  in  one  wine- 
glassful  of  cold  water  or  linseed  tea.  When  a  cough  is  present  and 
troublesome  the  cough  mixture  for  dogs,  (see  Appendix)  can  be  used 


twice  daily,  supplemented  when  necessary  by  one  of  the  aperient  dog 
pills  noted  in  par.  321 .     (see  also  Appendix). 

526.  After  the  active  symptoms  have  abated,  and  the  dog  weak,  then 
tonics  may  be  serviceable.  One  teaspoonful  each  of  Parrish's  syrup 
and  glycerine,  given  in  water  twice  a  day  answers  well,  or  two  to  six 
grains  of  sulphate  of  quinine  in  a  wineglassful  of  port  wine  may  be 
administered.  The  food  to  be  given  must  be  of  an  easy  digestible 
nature,  such  as  beef  tea,  mutton  or  chicken  broth,  and  milk  and  bread. 

527.  Asthma,  or  difficult  breathing  (pars.  515  and  516)  is  mostly 
seen  in  aged,  over-fed,  pampered  dogs.  It  is  generally  due  to 
improper  feeding,  and  is  usually  associated  with  liver  complications. 
For  symptoms,  treatment,  and  feeding,  see  pay.  321 . 

528.  Distemper  is  a  contagious  febrile  disease  of  a  specific 
character,  and  although  it  may  attack  dogs  at  all  ages,  it  is  mostly 
seen  in  puppies,  and,  like  measles  in  the  human  subject,  generally 
occurs  only  once  in  a  life-time.  Some  breeds  of  dogs  suff'er  more  from 
the  malady  than  others.  It  attacks  various  parts  of  the  body,  such 
as  the  respiratory  organs,  or  those  of  digestion,  or  the  nervous  system. 

529.  The  organs  of  respiration  are,  however,  the  most  subject  to  an 
attack  of  the  malady,  and  when  the  puppy  is  observed  to  be  dull, 
languid,  depressed,  and  off"  its  food,  with  a  dry  muzzle,  and  a 
discharge  from  the  eyes  and  nose,  it  may  be  assumed  that  it  is 
"  breeding"  distemper.  It  is  highly  necessary  that  the  patient  should 
be  well  cared  for  at  the  outset,  should  at  once  be  put  into  comfortable 
quarters,  (par.  525)  and  have  administered  a  dose  of  castor  oil,  and 
syrup  of  buckthorn.  This  should  be  followed  up  every  eight  hours 
with  a  dose  of  from  10  to  60  grains  of  hypo-sulphate  of  soda,  dissolved 
in  one  wineglassful  of  cold  water,  to  which  from  i  to  6  grains  of  sul- 
phate of  quinine  has  been  added.  The  hypo-sulphate  and  quinine 
mixture  I  have  found  to  answer  splendidly.  For  further  treatment 
and  feeding,  see  pars.  525  and  526. 

530.  Bad  attacks  of  distemper  in  dogs  occasionally  end  in  Chorea. 
This  is  a  derangement  of  the  nervous  system,  for  which  there  is  nothing 


better  than   Easton's  syrup,  and  of  this  from  one  to  two  teaspoonfuls 
in  water  may  be  given  twice  a  day. 


531.  Affections  of  the  respiratory  organs  in  cattle  are  not  of  such 
common  occurrence  as  with  the  horse.  Colds,  chills,  changes  of 
temperature,  east  winds,  &c.,  as  a  rule,  affect  the  digestive  organs  of 
cattle  more  than  those  of  the  respiratory  system. 

532.  Acute  Catarrh  in  the  cow  is,  however,  occasionally  met  with, 
particularly  in  Irish  cattle  that  have  been  brought  across  the  water 
in  the  early  spring  months.  The  complamt  is  of  a  febrile  character, 
and  of  a  low  type,  while  it  is  generally  accompanied  by  exhaustive 
diarrhoea.  The  patient  stops  feeding  and  chewing  the  cud,  the  nose 
is  dry,  there  are  excessive  watery  discharges  from  the  eyes  and  nose, 
and  there  is  great  languor  and  depression  present.  As  the  case 
proceeds,  the  eyes  become  red  and  gummy,  and  the  secretion  crusts 
around  the  nostrils  ;  the  animal  lies  constantly,  and  will  scarcely  get 
up,  the  case  finally  assuming  a  typhoid  character.  Good  nursing  is 
eminently  necessary  ;  clothe  the  body  well,  and  make  the  patient  as 
comfortable  as  possible  :  give  to  drink  linseed  jelly  and  milk,  or  hay 
tea,  or  gruel,  and  administer,  twice  a  day,  either  one  drachm  sulphate 
of  quinine  and  10  drops  strong  sulphuric  acid  in  one  pint  of  cold  water, 
or  three  to  four  drachms  of  chlorate  of  potass,  with  25  drops  of  strong 
hydrochloric  acid,  in  cold  water,  with  occasional  half-pint  doses  of 
linseed  oil  when  necessary.  Aromatics,  such  as  ginger,  aniseeds,  etc., 
given  in  gruel  occasionally  will  also  be  found  to  act  beneficially. 
Steaming  and  washing  the  nostrils,  as  recommended  in  par.  497,  are 
of  great  service. 

533.  Bronchitis,  Congestion  of  the  Lungs,  Pneumonia,  and 
Pleurisy,  arise  in  the  cow  from  somewhat  similar  causes  as  in  the 
horse,  and,  again,  require  somewhat  similar  treatment,  (pars,  from 
506  to  512). 

534.  Bronchitis  and  Pneumonia,  I  frequently  meet  with  in  the 
cow,    following   parturition,    more    particularly   in    the    early    spring 


months.  These,  in  many  cases,  have  a  septic  tendency.  Parturient 
bronchitis  in  the  cow  is  usually  of  a  sub-acute  nature,  the  animal  drops 
off  feeding  and  chewing  the  cud,  secretion  of  milk  is  nearl}^  suspended, 
the  flesh  falls  off  very  quickly,  the  animal  has  a  languid  appearance, 
and  there  is  a  painful,  sore  cough,  yet  the  breathing  is  not  much 
disturbed.  While  the  parturient  pneumonia  is  of  a  more  acute  character, 
the  symptoms  are  somewhat  similar,  only  the  cough  is  not  so 
frequent  or  so  painful,  and,  on  appl3'ing  the  ear  to  the  side  of  the 
chest,  the  lungs  are  heard  to  have  a  peculiar,  jerky,  squeaky  sound, 
while  the  breathing  is  also  much  quicker,  and  abdominal.  The 
following  Treatment  answers  well  in  both  cases: — Put  the  animal  into 
a  good  loose  box,  and  apply  mustard  and  water,  mixed  to  the  thickness 
of  cream,  behind  the  shoulders  for  about  i6  inches  broad,  (extending 
from  the  spine  down  to  the  breast  bone),  and  over  this  place  a  piece 
of  newspaper,  covering  with  a  sheet  and  girth.  Also  give  five  ounce 
doses  of  linseed  oil,  once  a  day,  following  this  up,  every  eight  hours, 
with  a  dose  of  half-a-drachm  of  carbolic  acid  (B.P.),  and  half-an-ounce 
glycerine,  in  milk  or  water,  tempting  the  appetite  with  an3'thing  that 
the  animal  will  eat,  and  giving  to  it  good  nursing. 

535.  The  most  formidable  of  all  chest  affections  in  the  cow,  which 
we  have  to  deal  with,  is  Pleuro-Pneumonia,  or  combined  inflamma- 
tion of  the  lungs  and  pleurae.  There  are  two  kinds  of  Pleuro- 
pneumonia— the  simple  and  the  contagious.  On  account  of  the 
structural  arrangements  of  the  lungs  of  the  cow,  I  have  seen  post- 
mortem appearances  exhibited  in  the  lungs,  resembling  those  of 
pleuropneumonia  (contagious^,  but  which  I  have  traced  to  a  needle, 
or  wire,  passing  in  its  course  from  the  stomach  to  the  heart,  through 
these  organs;  and  I  have  had  numbers  of  cases — single,  solitary  cases — 
of  simple  pleuro-pneumonia,  which  showed  all  the  mdixh\ed  post-mortem 
appearances  of  contagious  pleuro-pneumonia,  but  the  lungs  were  of  a 
more  purpley  hue,  and  more  gritty. 

536.  Simple  Pleuro-Pneumonia. — The  symptoms  are  analogous 
to  those  of  the  contagious  form,  (par.  537 )  but  of  a  more  acute  nature, 
and  the  cases  are  solitary,  i.e.,  there  is  not  a  general  outbreak  of  the 


malady.  The  treatment  recommended  for  the  simple  form,  is  to  give 
in  water  every  eight  hours,  lo  drops  of  Fleming's  tincture  of  aconite, 
and  three  drachms  of  potass  nitrate,  also  when  required,  half-a-pint 
of  linseed  oil  every  night,  and  to  apply  the  mustard  mixture  to  the  sides 
as  recommended  in  par.  534. 

537.  Contagious  Pleuro-Pneumonia  is  a  specific  inflammation 
of  the  lungs,  somewhat  resembling,  in  my  opinion,  specific  erysipelas 
in  the  human  subject.  It  may  be  acute,  siib-acufe,  or  chronic,  and  part 
of  one,  or,  perhaps,  both  lungs  may  be  affected.  In  some  cases,  the 
animal  shows  no  symptoms  of  illness — feeding,  chewing  the  cud,  and 
milking  ;  and  the  great  rise  of  temperature  may  be  the  first  thing  to 
attract  attention  to  the  cHest,  where  the  sounds  peculiar  to  this 
disease  are  heard.  Primarily,  there  are  crepitating  murmurs  ;  next,  a 
squeaking,  jerky  friction,  or  rubbing  sound;  finally,  the  lung  solidifies, 
and  no  sound  is  to  be  heard  over  that  area.  On  striking,  or  tapping 
the  chest,  over  this  part,  there  is  a  dull,  solid  response.  In  an  acute 
case,  the  animal  drops  off  feeding,  stops  chewing  the  cud,  and  giving 
milk  ;  stands  stiff  and  thoughtful,  with  nose  poked  out,  sides  dropped 
in,  and  flat  ;  the  breathing  is  fast,  and  entirely  done  by  the  abdominal 
muscles  :  there  is  a  short,  dry,  characteristic  cough,  and  the  temper- 
ature generally  ranges  from  104°  to  106°.  Auscultation,  or  listening 
to  the  sounds  in  the  chest,  with  the  history  of  the  case,  assists  the 
professional  practitioner  in  arriving  at  a  diagnosis.  As  the  disease  has 
now  been  stamped  out  under  the  Contagious  Diseases  (Animals)  Act, 
no  treatment  is  allowed.  Inoculation  is,  however,  carried  on  in  some 
countries,  with  great  success,  and  I  have  myself  seen  it  tried  with  the 
best  results. 

538.  Tuberculosis,  Consumption,  or  Scrofula,  is  prone  to 
attack  all  the  parts  of  the  body — bones,  joints,  glands,  brain,  intestines, 
and  lungs,  and,  although  the  muscular  tissue  is  seldom  the  seat  of  the 
disease,  in  generalized  tuberculosis,  the  glands  situated  in  their  midst 
may  be  so.  The  lungs,  however,  seem  to  be  afflicted  with  the  largest 
share  of  its  attentions.  Tuberculosis  attacking  the  lungs  of  the  cow, 
may  be  acute  or  chrcnic.      In  the  former,  I  have  seen  the  lungs,  and 


inside  of  the  walls  of  the  chest,  studded  all  over  with  small  tubercular 
nodules,  either  grouped  together  or  continuous.  The  animal  may 
possibly  have  been  doing  well  up  to  the  time  it  was  noticed  to  be 
severely  ill — in  fact  it  may  be  quite  fat.  These  cases,  on  their  com- 
mencement, exhibit  all  the  symptoms  of  pleuro-pneumonia,  and  it 
may  onl}'  be  through  the  post-movtem  examination  that  the  true  state 
of  affairs  is  found.  In  an  acute  case  the  only  difference  in  the 
symptoms  I  have  noticed  between  it  and  pleuro-pneumonia  has  been 
(i)  the  history  of  the  case,  and  (2)  the  absence  of  the  dead  sound  on 
striking  or  tapping  the  walls  of  the  chest. 

539.  In  a  chronic  case  an  animal  may  go  on  feeding,  thriving,  and 
doing  well,  and  nothing  may  be  observed  until  it  is  slaughtered,  v^hen 
masses  of  tubercular  matter  are  found  studded  throughout  the  lung 
substance,  some  in  a  fluid  condition,  others  semi-fluid  or  solid, 
and  enclosed  in  a  capsule,  while  others  are  of  a  cheesy  consistency,  or 
of  a  calcareous  nature.  An  animal  affected  like  this,  when  the  disease 
is  distinctly  localised,  I  think,  might  be  used  for  human  food;  but  when 
it  shews  the  symptoms  of  tuberculosis  during  life,  by  falling  off  in  flesh, 
though  feeding  and  milking  ;  having  a  bad  cough,  being  also  hide- 
bound, and  with  a  yellow  scruffy  skin,  in  fact,  having  all  the  symptoms 
of  a  "  piner,"  the  sooner  it  is  either  buried  or  cremated  the  better. 

540.  Tuberculosis  is  due  to  the  tnbei'ciilai'  bacilli,  and  is  said  to  be 
infectious  by  inhalation,  ingestion,  and  inoculation.  It  may  be  so  where 
animals  have  a  hereditary  tendency  to  it,  or  have  cohabited  for 
some  length  of  time  with  others  thoroughly  diseased.  Looking 
backwards  for  a  number  of  years,  I  can  call  to  mind  one  particular 
bull,  whose  stock — sons,  grandsons,  and  great-grandsons,  &c.,  have 
introduced  the  disease  amongst  herds  where  formerly  it  was  never 
known.  Even  up  to  the  present  day  I  can  put  my  finger  on  some  of 
this  bull's  diseased  descendants.  This  is  not  an  isolated  case,  for 
within  my  own  experience  I  could  give  many  similar  illustrations. 
Strange  to  say,  the  malady  rarely  shews  its  appearance  until  the 
animals  are  coming  to  puberty  (two  years  old.)  The  same  seems  to 
hold  good  in  the  human  subject.     When  there  are  two  closely  related 


families,  having  one  mother,  but  two  different  fathers,  (the  first  husband 
being  consumptive,  the  second  being  strong  and  health}^,)  tlie  children 
by  the  consumptive  father  are  usually  stricken  by  the  fell  disease  on 
their  reaching  the  age  of  puberty,  while  the  family  bjahe  healthy  father 
are  hearty  and  well,  without  the  least  symptoms  of  the  malady — 3^et  all 
the  time  they  have  been  living  and  sleeping  under  the  same  roof,  and 
feeding  at  the  same  table.  Again,  calves,  newly-born,  have  often  been 
found  to  be  tubercular.  Where  did  they  get  the  disease  from  ?  With 
these  facts  before  me,  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  disease  is  spread 
as  much  by  heredity  as  by  either  inhalation  or  ingestion,  and  then  more 
by  the  male  subject  than  by  the  female. 

541.  Seeing  that  the  disease  is  so  very  rife,  particularly  in  well-bred 
animals,  as  well  as  in  dairy  cows, — in  fact,  the  extent  to  which  it  is 
found  in  the  latter  is  very  appalling — I  think  it  should  be  scheduled 
under  a  special  Tuberculosis  Act,  or  under  a  separate  form  or  order  of 
the  Contagious  Diseases  (Animals)  Act.  The  Government  should, 
in  dealing  with  such  cattle,  have  a  special  form  for  destroying  them, 
and  compensating  the  farmer,  butcher,  or  other  parties  financially 
interested.  If  the  disease  is  so  frightfully  spread  by  the  use  of  milk 
from  tubercular  cows,  as  is  generally  thought,  Government  should 
then  have  all  dairy  cattle  subjected  to  the  action  of  the  Tuberculin 
test,  (the  tuberculin  being  prepared  under  Government  supervision) 
and  those  animals  showing  a  rise  of  temperature  should  be  separated 
from  the  others,  and  be  either  fed  off,  or  destroyed,  compensation 
being  given  according  to  circumstances.  If  this  were  done,  the  country 
would  be  astounded  when  it  learned  the  extent  to  which  this  disease 
exists  amongst  our  milk  and  butter  producers.  I  have  tried  the 
tuberculin  test,  both  with  healthy  and  diseased  subjects,  and  find  it 
generally  to  be  a  good  and  fairly  reliable  diagnostic  agent.  I  may  also 
note  that  I  have  had  my  attention  frequently  drawn  to  a  large  number 
of  rabbits  that  were  badly  affected  with  tuberculosis. 

542.  Within  the  last  few  years  a  great  deal  has  been  said  and 
written  on  Tuberculosis.  The  general  belief  has  been  that  the 
microbe  or  parasite  that  causes  the  disease  in  the  human  subject  and 


the  domestic  animal,  was  one  and  the  same.  Professor  Koch,  the 
discoverer  of  the  tubercular  bacillus,  as  well  as  of  the  diagnostic 
agent.  Tuberculin,  however,  startled  the  world  in  igoi,  when  he  made 
it  known  at  the  congress  on  Tuberculosis,  held  in  London,  that  he 
had  failed  to  infect  animals  with  tuberculosis  when  they  had  been 
inoculated  with  the  human  bacilli,  and,  that  after  various  experi- 
ments, he  "felt  justified  in  maintaining  that  human  tuberculosis 
differs  from  bovine,  and  cannot  be  transmitted  to  cattle."  Although 
not  an  experimenter,  I  have  for  years  thought  and  said  that  there 
must  be  some  great  difference  between  the  two.  My  reason  for 
holding  this  opinion  was,  that  farm  servants, — both  male  and  female, 
who  worked  among,  and  tended  cattle  so  affected,  and  who  often 
drank  quantities  of  milk  in  a  warm  state,  which  they  had  newly  drawn 
from  the  udders  of  tubercular  cows, — are  healthy  people,  and,  as  a 
class,  it  would  be  difficult  to  find  another,  so  free  from  consumption. 
Further,  I  know  a  number  of  butchers  who  trade  in  these  tubercular 
animals,  who  have  not  only  told  me  that  they  have  eaten,  but  I  have 
seen  them  eat  the  flesh  of  tubercular  carcases,  both  raw  and  cooked, 
without  taking  any  harm,  in  fact,  they  are  splendid  specimens  of 
healthy  subjects. 

543.  With  reference  to  the  hereditary  nature  of  the  disease. 
Professor  Koch  says  "though  hereditary  tuberculosis  is  not  absolutely 
non-existent,  it  is  nevertheless  extremely  rare,"  and  again  he  says  "  I 
should  estimate  the  extent  of  infection  by  the  milk  and  flesh  of 
tubercular  cattle,  and  butter  made  from  their  milk,  as  hardly  greater 
than  the  hereditary  transmission."  While  agreeing  with  him  on  the 
milk  and  meat  question,  my  experience  leads  me  to  differ  with  him 
respecting  the  hereditary  tendency  of  the  malady.  Calves  are  born 
tubercular,  and  the  problem  to  be  solved  is,  how  do  they  become 
affected  ?  It  cannot  be  by  direct  ingestion  or  inhalation.  Again, 
how  can  the  fact  be  explained,  that  the  disease  is  known  to  run  in 
certain  families  of  the  human  subject  for  generations,  such  families 
cohabiting  with  other  families  that  remain  free,  and  the  same  holds 
good  in  certain  bloods  of  cattle.  If  the  disease  itself  is  not  directly 
transmitted  at  conception,  then,  perhaps  a  hereditary  diathesis,  or  a 


hereditary  predisposition  is  conveyed.  The  ptomaines  arising  from 
the  bodies  of  the  bacilH  may  possibly  have  a  baneful  effect  on  the 
germs  of  a  future  generation,  rendering  them  liable  to  become,  on 
development,  a  fruitful  seed  bed  for  the  propagation,  growth,  and 
distribution  of  a  new  series  of  tubercular  bacilli.  These  bacilli,  it  may 
be  taken  for  granted,  are  not  all  that  is  required,  there  must  also  be 
a  suitable  seed  bed,  replete  with  all  the  necessary  conditions  for 
fostering  and  developing  the  growth  of  the  bacilli.  Although  I  am  a 
strong  advocate  for  plenty  of  fresh  air,  sunshine,  and  proper 
ventilation,  all  of  which  are  highly  necessar}'^  for  giving  healthy  tone 
to  the  structures  of  the  body  ;  yet  they  will  neither  cure  nor  prevent 
consumption  as  long  as  the  tubercular  bacilli,  and  suitable  subjects 
are  present.  As  a  proof  of  this,  the  cows  in  New  Zealand,  suffer  as 
much  from  Tuberculosis  as  those  in  the  British  Isles — yet  they  have 
plenty  of  sunshine  and  well  ventilated  air  space — living  as  they  do  in 
the  open  air,  with  the  blue  canopy  of  heaven  as  their  covering. 
Though  Tuberculosis  cannot  be  cured  under  the  open  air  treatment, 
yet  it  may  be  arrested,  but  the  patient  has  to  be  well  cared  for,  as  it 
is  subject  and  liable  to  have  a  relapse  at  any  moment.  With  an 
experience  of  half-a-century  in  my  profession,  (cattle  excepted)  I  have 
only  met  with  one  case  of  tuberculosis  in  the  horse,  five  cases  in  the 
pig — (animals  that  are  largely  fed  on  milk),  and  none  in  the  dog — (an 
animal  that  is  a  great  feeder  on  raw  beef) :  nor  have  I  seen  it  m  the 

544.  Hoose,  or  Husk,  in  Calves.— This  is  an  irritation  of 
the  trachea  and  bronchial  tubes,  caused  by  small,  white,  thread-like 
worms  (stvongylns  micnivHs)  gaining  access  to  the  windpipe.  It  is  not 
nearly  so  common  as  it  was  some  years  ago.  The  great  cause  is 
putting  young  calves  out  to  grass  at  the  back-end  of  the  year  (August 
and  September)  on  strong  wet  soils,  and  leaving  them  there  after  sun- 
down. The  symptoms  are  first  noticed  in  September  and  October, 
when  the  animal  is  heard  to  have  a  sharp,  tickling,  husky  cough; 
the  flesh  falls  off  fast,  and  the  calf  soon  shows  a  starved  appearance  ; 
next  the  cough  increases  in  frequency,  and  finally  becomes  very 
troublesome,  being  accompanied  by  occasional  diarrhcea.     Although 


the  animal  may  still  take  its  milk,  it  does  not  thrive,  and  finally  it  dies 
(worn  out)  from  exhaustion,  the  post-mortem  revealing  large  numbers  of 
worms  in  the  windpipe. 

545.  Treatment  for  this  complaint  is  not  at  all  tnnes  satisfactory. 
The  affected  animals  should  have  good  warm  well  ventilated  boxes,  and 
clean  dry  beds.  Turpentine,  in  dessert-spoonful  doses,  in  a  teacupful 
of  linseed  oil  and  milk,  given  every  third  day,  answers  as  well  as  any- 
thing. At  the  same  time  the  system  should  be  kept  up  as  far  as 
possible,  by  giving  linseed  jelly  or  well-boiled  gruel,  made  of  equal 
parts  of  oat  and  barley  meals,  and  milk,  supplementing  it  with  a 
mixture  of  crushed  oats,  cake,  bran,  and  a  little  salt.  Fumigation, 
with  chlorine  or  sulphur  fumes,  is  sometimes  resorted  to,  but  I  think 
iodine  fumes  are  more  beneficial.  For  the  purpose  of  fumigation, 
one  drachm  of  iodine  should  be  placed  on  a  hot  brick,  and  this  having 
been  put  into  a  bag,  the  calf's  head  should  be  held  in  the  bag  for  a  few 
moments.  This  destroys  the  worms,  but  the  parasities  have  to  be 
coughed  up  afterwards,  so  that  good  nursing  is  still  required.  In  some 
parts  of  the  country  intertracheal  injections  of  a  mixture  of  turpentine, 
carbolic  acid,  chloroform,  and  oil  of  almonds  are  resorted  to  with  great 
success.  But  the  best  thing  is  not  to  have  the  complaint  at  all ;  and 
where  the  system  is  carried  out  of  keeping  the  calves  indoors,  and 
giving  them  cake,  corn,  bran,  and  a  little  salt,  until  they  are  twelve 
months  old,  it  is  rarely  heard  of.  Dressing  the  disease-producing 
grazing  lands  in  early  spring  with  10  cwts.  crushed  rock  salt  to  the 
acre  has  a  magical  effect  in  preventing  the  complaint. 

546.  Bronchitis. — Young  calves,  during  the  winter  and  early 
spring  months,  often  suffer  from  acute  bronchitis,  with  congestion  of 
the  lungs.  The  complaint  is  most  frequently  found  in  badly- ventilated 
boxes,  or  "  hulls,"  which  have  low-lying  floors,  wet  soppy  beds,  and 
bad  drainage.  The  symptoms,  which  much  resemble  hoose,  are  more 
acute,  and  are  generally  accompanied  by  diarrhoea,  but  no  worms  are 
found  in  the  air-passages.  The  lining  membrane,  however,  of  the 
bronchial  tubes  is  thickened,  and  the  lungs  are  more  or  less  congested. 
When  first  observed,  the  calves  must  be  removed  to  better  and  more 


comfortable  quarters,  and  a  little  mustard  and  water  should  be  well 
rubbed  into  the  sides,  behind  the  shoulders,  also  a  mixture  of  2  to  3 
drachms  each  of  acetate  of  ammonia,  spirits  of  nitre,  and  syrup  of 
squills,  should  be  given  three  times  a  day.  If  the  cough  is  trouble- 
some, a  teaspoonful  of  chlorodyne  may  be  added.  The  food  should  be 
the  same  as  recommended  for  hoose  (par.  545). 

547.  Acute  Congestion  of  the  Lungs  in  calves  is  occasionally 
met  with  in  an  enzootic  form,  having  all  the  appearance  of  being 
infectious.  I  have  seen  six  and  seven  calves,  from  one  to  two  months 
old  die  m  as  many  days  from  this  disease.  The  complaint  is  mostly 
seen  in  raw,  damp,  muggy  weather,  and  like  bronchitis  is  found  in 
badly  appointed  boxes.  The  malady  runs  its  course  m  about  thirty 
or  forty  hours,  and  on  account  of  the  tender  age  of  the  patient  and  the 
acute  nature  of  the  attack  there  is  very  little  chance  for  treatment  to 
be  successful.  The  calves  must  be  removed  at  once  to  more  comfort- 
able quarters,  and  the  treatment  to  be  adopted  is  the  same  as 
recommended  in  pay.,  546. 


548.  Sheep  are  also  subject  to  derangement  and  disease  of  the 
respiratory  organs,  similar  to  those  of  otlier  domestic  animals,  but,  on 
account  of  their  fine  organizition,  and  their  open  air  life,  they  are 
generally  too  far  gone  before  they  are  noticed  to  be  ailing,  and  for 
any  successful  treatment  to  be  carried  out: — certain  parasitic  diseases 
of  the  lungs  excepted.  In  stormy  wintry  weather,  when  sheep  are 
folded  on  unsheltered  pastures,  it  is  not  uncommon  to  see  and  hear  of 
large  numbers  dying  of  acute  congestion  of  the  lungs.  When  such  is 
the  case,  the  remaining  animals  should  be  removed  to  more  sheltered 
quarters,  and  easily  digestible  and  nutritious  food  should  be  supplied, 
such  as  crushed  oats,  bran,  and  cake.  Lambs,  at  times,  also  die  in 
great  numbers  from  a  somewhat  similar  cause,  and  n:iust  receive  the 
same  treatment. 

549.  Verminous  or  Parasitic  Bronchitis,  or  Hoose  (Paper 
Skin.) — This  is  one  of  the  most  common  maladies  seen  m  lambs,  and 
has  already  been  dealt  with  (pay.  338  and  339). 



550.  ALL  the  actions  of  the  Hving  body  are  governed,  more  or  less, 
by  the  nervous  system,  which  consists  of  two  distinct  portions  ;  the 
cerebrospinal,  and  the  sympathetic  or  ganglionic.  The  brain  is  the  great 
centre  of  the  nervous  system,  and  the  special  senses,  such  as  smell, 
taste,  &c.,  are  connected  with  and  controlled  by  it.  Two  of  these 
special  organs,  i.e.  the  eye  and  the  ear,  will  be  noticed  in  this  lecture. 

551.  The  Cerebro-spinal  system,  {Plate  XXXIV.,  A.  to  D.) 
embodies  the  brain,  the  spinal-cord,  and  the  nerves  given*  off  from 
each.  Those  from  the  spinal-cord  are  for  sensation  and  motion, 
whilst  from  the  brain,  as  already  indicated,  there  arises  the  nerves 
of  special  sense. 

552.  The  Sympathetic  or  Ganglionic  system,  (Plate  XXXIV.,  E.j 
or  the  nerves  of  organic  life,  are  not  immediately  under  the  influence 
of  the  will,  and  are  made  up  of  a  double  chain  of  knots  or  ganglia. 
They  run  through  the  length  of  the  body,  on  each  side  of  the 
back-bone,  and  give  off  fibres  to  control  the  involuntary  movements  of 
the  internal  organs,  such  as  the  heart  and  blood-vessels,  respiratory 
and  digestive  organs,  &c.,  these  fibres  having  free  communication 
with  the  spinal  nerves. 

553.  The  Nerve  Tissue  itself  is  composed  of  both  a  fibrous  and 
a  cellular  structure  ;  the  latter,  or  grey  substance,  is  found  in  the 
outer  portions  of  the  convolutions  of  the  brain,  and  in  the  middle 
of  the  spmal  cord  and  the  ganglionic  nerve  centres  ;  while  the  fibrous 
substance  is  both  white  and  grey,  and  is  found  m  the  white  matter  of 
the  brain  and  spinal-cord. 



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554-  The  Brain  consists  of  soft  white,  and  grey  nervous  matter, 
and  fills  the  irregular  cavity  of  the  skull  or  cranium.  It  is  divided 
into  four  parts  : — 

I. — The  cerebrum,  or  large  brain,  (Plate  XXXIV.,  A.) 
composing  about  three-fourths  of  the  whole  orga'n. 

2. — The  cerebellum,  or  small  brain,  (Plate  XXXIV.,  B.J 
situated  immediately  behind  the  cerebrum. 

3.— The  pons  varolii,  (Plate  XXXV.,  B.  4.)  or  bridge, 
connecting  the  right  and  left  portions  of  the  cerebellum. 

4. — The  medulla  oblongata,  (Plate  XXXIV.,  C.J  or  con- 
necting link  between  the  spinal-cord  and  the  brain 

555.  The  Brain  is  covered  by  three  coats  or  membranes,  called  the 
Meninges.  These  are  (i)  Dura  Mater, — a  tough,  fibrous  membrane, 
lying  in  immediate  contact  with  the  bony  skull ;  (2)  the  Arachnoid 
membrane  (spider-web),  or  middle  coat, — a  very  fine,  delicate, 
membrane  ;  and  (3)  the  Pia  Mater,  which  covers  the  surface  of  the 
bram, — a  very  fine,  extensive  membrane,  made  up  of  a  net-work  of 
small  blood-vessels.  The  last-named  membrane  follows  and  covers 
all  the  convolutions  of  the  brain,  and  supplies  it  with  blood. 

556.  The  Cerebrum,  (Plate  XXXV.,  A.  1.1.  and  B.  1.  I.J,  or  large 
brain,  is  divided  by  a  fissure,  into  two  hemispheres,  each  of  which  is 
mapped  out  into  numerous  convolutions  of  grey  matter,  covering 
white  fibrous  nerve-material.  The  cerebrum  is  said  to  be  the  main 
seat  of  sensation,  reason,  and  will. 

557.  The  Cerebellum,  (Plate  XXXV.,  A.  2.,  B.  2,  2.),  or  small 
bram,  has  a  nuddle  lobe  (vermis)  and  two  lateral  hemispheres,  made 
up  of  convolutions,  that  are  smaller  than  those  of  the  cerebrum,  and 
differently  arranged.  The  grey  nerve  substance  is  abundant,  and 
external  to  the  white  nerve  tissue.  The  cerebellum  is  thought  to 
control  and  regulate  the  voluntary  muscular  actions  of  the  body. 


558.  The  Medulla  Oblongata  (Plate  XXXV.,  A.  3.,  B.  3.)— the 
connective  medium  between  the  brain  and  the  spinal  cord — consists 
of  white  and  grey  nerve  matter,  but  differs  from  the  brain  in  having 
the  grey  matter  internally.  Its  functions  are  of  vast  importance  to 
life,  as  it  regulates  and  controls  the  actions  of  breathing,  swallowing, 
&c.,  &c. 

559.  The  Spinal  Cord  (Plate  XXXIV.,  D.  and  Plate  XXXV.,  C.  1. 
to  8.)  is  a  long,  irregular,  cylindrical  mass  of  nerve  matter,  running 
through  the  vertebral  column.  It  is  composed  of  white  matter 
externally,  the  centre  being  grey,  and,  like  the  brain,  it  is  covered  with 
three  similar  membranes.  As  it  passes  along  the  vertebral  canal, 
nerves  are  given  off  in  pairs,  and  pass  out  between  each  vertebral 
section.  The  tipper  root  of  these  nerves  is  sensory,  conveying  sensation 
from  the  part  of  the  body  to  which  it  is  distributed,  to  the  brain.  The 
lower  vcot  of  these  pairs,  on  the  other  hand,  conveys  motor-power  from 
the  brain  to  the  muscles,  &c.,  that  are  supplied  by  it,  these  being 
more  or  less  under  the  control  of  the  will. 

560.  The  Cranial  Nerves,  or  nerves  given  off  from  the  brain 
direct,  are  arranged  in  pairs,  12  in  number: — 

ist  pair. — The  Olfactory,  which  go  to  the  nose,  and  give  the 

special  sense  of  smell. 
2nd  pair. — The   Optic,  which   go  to  the  eye,  and  give  the 

special  sense  of  sight. 
3rd  pair. — The  Motores  Oculorum,  which  supply  the  muscles 

of  the  eyeballs  (with  two  exceptions)  with  motor  power. 
4th  pair. — The  Pathetic,  which  supply  one  muscle  of  each 

eyeball  with  motor  power. 

5th  pair. — The  Trifacial,  which  are  mixed  (sensory  and 
motor)  nerves,  and  supply  the  different  parts  of  the 
face,  tongue,  &c. 

6th  pair. — The  Abducens,  which  supply  one  muscle  of  each 
eyeball  with  motion. 




















































7th  pair. — The  Facial,  being  the  great  motor  nerves  of  the 

8th  pair. — The  Auditory,  which  go  to  the  ear,  and  suppl}' 
the  special  sense  of  hearing. 

gth  pair. — The  Glosso-Pharyngeal,  being  the  qiixed  sensory 
and  motor  nerves  that  go  to  the  tongue,  pharynx,  &c. 

loth  pair. — The  Pneumo-gastric  or  Par-vagum,  being  mixed 
nerves  that  supply  stomach,  lungs,  pharynx,  trachea,  &c. 
These  are  very  important  nerves. 

nth  pair. — The  Spinal  accessory,  which  are  motor  nerves. 

I2th  pair. — The  Hypo-glossal,  which  supply  the  tongue,  and 
are  also  motor  nerves. 

561.  Although  the  brain  is  the  seat  of  emotion,  reason,  and  sensation, 
it  is  of  itself  non-sensitive,  as  portions  of  it  may  be  cut  away  with 
little  or  no  effect.  I  remember  a  case  where  a  groom  was  thrown 
from  a  horse,  and  kicked  on  the  side  of  the  head,  just  above  the  left 
ear  ;  the  skull  was  driven  in,  and  a  portion  of  the  brain  protruded  i^ 
inches.  It  could  be  handled  with  the  fingers  without  causing  the 
patient  any  uneasiness,  yet,  if  his  lips  were  touched,  the  body  was 
thrown  into  frightful  contortions  ;  he  bemg  at  the  time  semi-conscious. 
The  protrudmg  portion  was  left  alone,  when  it  gradually  receded,  and 
within  a  week  had  returned  to  its  proper  place,  a  splendid  recovery 
being  made. 




562.  The  Functional  Derangement  and  Diseases  of  the  brain 
and  nervous  system  are  not  of  so  frequent  occurrence  in  the  domestic 
animals  as  they  are  in  the  human  subject,  yet,  from  their  peculiarity 
and  obscurity,  they  are  most  interesting,  arising  as  they  do  from  a 
great  variety  of  causes.  Functional  disturhmice  is,  in  man}'  cases,  due  to 
reflex  action;  the  real  cause  being  very  remote  from  the  brain,  as,  for 
instance  : — derangement  or  disease  of  any  portion  of  the  digestive 
organs,  such  as  stomach-staggers  in  horse  and  cow,  or  worms  in 
the  stomach  and  intestines  ;  or  it  ma}-  arise  from  affections  of  the 
urinary  and  generative  systems,  such  as  hysteria,  epileptic  fits, 
puerperal  eclampsia  and  parturient  apoplex}',  biliary  and  uraemic 
poisoning,  and  it  also  may  be  due  to  mineral  (lead)  and  vegetable 
poisoning.  Before,  therefore,  suitable  treatment  can  be  adopted,  it  is 
of  the  utmost  importance  to  find  the  cause  ;  failing  this,  the  acute  and 
most  prominent  symptoms  must  have  immediate  attention,  and  be 
relieved  as  far  as  possible. 


563.  Professor  Williams,  in  "  The  Principles  and  Practice  of  Veterinary 
Medicine  "  (page  505,  8th  Edition),  gives  in  a  tabulated  form,  the 
difference  in  symptoms,  so  as  to  distinguish  between  disease  of  the 
brain  substance,  and  of  its  coverings.  Usually,  when  the  substance 
of  the  brain  is  affected,  the  symptoms  are  of  a  quiet  drowsy  nature, 
whereas,  when  the  coverings  are  attacked,  the  symptoms  are  of  a  very 
excitable,  convulsive,  and  spasmodic  character. 

564.  Phrenitis,  or  inflammation  of  the  brain  and  of  its  coverings, 
in  the  horse,  is  happily  very  rare.  In  two  cases  observed  by  me,  the 
horses  were  seized  suddenly,  and  commenced  to  worry  and  bite 
surrounding  objects.     On  putting  them  into  a  loose  box,  they  roamed 


round  and  round,  rushing  first  to  one  side,  and  then  to  the  other, 
biting  at  the  manger  and  hay-rick,  snapping  at  the  bars  of  the  latter, 
and  even  worrying  at  their  own  limbs,  attempting  to  climb  up  the 
sides  of  the  box  with  their  fore  feet,  falling  over  backwards,  and  when 
lying  on  their  side,  the  limbs  moved  as  if  in  full  trot,  the  breathing 
was  loud  and  quick,  perspiration  rolled  off  their  bodies,  eyes  were 
staring,  rolling,  and  bloodshot,  mouth  open  and  frothy,  and  at  intervals 
they  gave  out  peculiar  screams  or  cries  ;  when  on  their  feet,  they  were 
dangerous  to  approach.  Treatment  :  While  down,  the  animals  were 
secured,  and  well  bled  from  the  temporal  artery  ;  chloral-hydrate  and 
bromide  of  potassium  were  also  administered,  and  cold  water  applied 
to  the  head,  but  all  to  no  purpose,  as  both  animals  had  to  be 

565.  Organic  Changes,  such  as  abscesses  in  the  horse's  brain, 
may  arise  from  complicated  or  "  bastard  "  strangles.  This  pyaemia 
form  of  strangles,  unfortunately,  in  some  seasons  is  not  uncommon. 
Like  the  commencement  of  all  brain  affections,  when  the  abscesses 
are  developing  in  that  organ,  there  is  great  drowsiness  and  dullness, 
the  horse  hangs  its  head  in  a  sleepy  condition,  with  pulse  full  and 
slow,  and  breathing  quiet  and  deep;  and  any  food  that  is  taken  is 
eaten  in  a  sort  of  mechanical  manner.  As  the  case  progresses,  the 
animal  commences  to  wander  round  the  box,  presses  its  head  in  the 
manger,  or  against  the  wall,  the  breathing  and  pulse  becomes  quicker, 
and  finally,  the  animal  hangs  its  head  on  one  side,  and  day  after  day, 
walks,  so  to  speak,  round  and  round  its  own  head,  making  it  a  centre. 
These  cases  always  end  fatally.  On  post-mortem,  the  brain  is  found  to 
be  a  mass  of  pus,  or  matter  ;  thus  showing,  in  cases  of  simple 
strangles,  how  necessary  it  is  that  every  care  and  attention  should  be 
paid  at  the  commencement,  and  remedial  measures  be  adopted  so  as 
to  prevent  these  fatal  terminations. 

566.  Hydrocephalus,  or  water  on  the  brain,  I  have  met  with 
in  young  foals,  their  foreheads  being,  as  a  result,  much  enlarged  and 
distended.  The  little  animals  were  very  dull  and  sleepy,  yet  they  took 
milk  freely.       As  they  grew  bigger  and  stronger,  the  water  became 


absorbed,  and  after  small  doses  of  bromide  and  iodide  of  potassium, 
with  a  little  exsiccated  sulphate  of  iron,  had  been  given  daily,  the 
bones  of  the  head  flattened  down  into  their  normal  condition.  These 
cases  are  more  frequently  found  in  the  foetus,  before  birth — in  calves 
particularly — when  the  bones  of  the  skull  have  to  be  broken  down 
with  knife,  hook,  or  forceps,  before  delivery  can  be  accomplished. 

567.  Ectopia  Cerebralis  is  a  congenital  malformation  where  the 
brain  is  developed  outside  the  bones  of  the  skull,  and  has  been  found 
in  cases  at  parturition,  and  although  the  young  animals  may  be 
fully  developed,  and  born  alive,  they  soon  expire. 

568.  Tumours  in  the  brain  of  adult  animals  are  met  with 
occasionally,  and  may  exist  for  some  time  without  causing  any 
disturbance,  but  the  first  symptoms  to  be  noticed  are  those  described 
under  abscesses.  Setons  and  blisters,  behind  the  ears,  may  be 
serviceable,  and  iodide  and  bromide  of  potassium  may  be  given  night 
and  morning,  in  doses  of  one  to  two  drachms  each.  Tumours  of  a 
tubercular  nature  are  more  commonly  found  in  the  brain  of  the  cow, 
with  symptoms  analogous  to  those  given  under  abscesses  in  the  brain 
of  the  horse,  (par.  565)  and  including  loss  of  sight,  &c.  There  are 
numerous  other  tumours  found  in  the  brain,  the  chief  of  these  being 
of  the  bony,  and  melanotic  varieties. 

569.  Sturdy,  Gid,  or  Turnsick.— This  is  an  affection  of  the  brain 
due  to  the  presence  of  a  brain  tumour,  or  rather  a  watery  cyst,  or 
bleb,  which  is  the  cystic  stage  of  the  tcsnia  ceenurus — a  tape  worm 
affecting  the  dog.  This  cyst,  which  is  known  as  the  ccemtrus  cerebralis, 
is  developed  from  a  segment  of  the  worm,  which  is  passed  out  of  the 
bowel  along  wdth  the  faeces.  The  segment  contains  a  large  number 
of  eggs,  and  is  supposed  to  be  taken  up  and  swallowed  along  with  the 
herbage  on  which  the  animal  feeds.  On  reaching  the  stomach,  the 
heat  therein  soon  sets  the  young  embryo  at  liberty,  and  it  is  then 
taken  into  the  circulation,  and  carried  by  the  blood  stream  to  the 
brain,  which,  being  its  natural  habitat,  is  preferred  to  any  other  part 
of  the  body,  and,  therefore,  selected  for  its  abode,  and  further  trans- 


formation.  Here,  by  its  hooked  processes,  it  finds  its  way  through 
the  walls  of  the  vessels,  into  the  substance  of  the  brain,  and  there  the 
cyst,  or  hydatid,  is  formed.  Should  the  brain  of  a  sheep,  or  calf, 
containing  this  cyst,  be  given  to  a  dog,  tape  worms  of  this  particular 
kind  will  again  be  reproduced,  and  so  the  cycle  of  life  is  carried 
on.  Sheep  are  more  subject  to  this  affliction  than  any  other  animal, 
but  1  have  seen  a  number  of  young  stirks,  aged  from  12  to  18  months, 
affected  and  of  these,  several  recovered  after  being  operated  upon. 

570.  Symptoms.— The  first  symptom  noticeable,  is  gradual  loss  of 
flesh  by  the  animal,  which  carries  the  head  on  one  side,  and  walks  in 
a  circular  direction  ;  or,  it  may  hold  the  head  upwards  and  backwards, 
and  walk  with  high-stepping,  jerky  action.  This  variation  in  the 
symptoms  depends  upon  the  part  of  the  brain  affected  ;  if,  on  the 
right  side  of  that  organ,  the  animal  will  circle  to  the  left,  and  vice- 
vevsa  ;  while,  if  in  the  middle,  the  animal  steps  high  and  jerky. 

571.  Treatment.— Many  farmers  and  shepherds  are  expert 
operators  for  the  removal  of  the  cyst.  The  old  method  of 
operation  was  to  determine  the  position  of  the  cyst  by  feeling  for  a 
softening  of  the  bone.  The  wool  was  then  clipped  off,  and  the  part 
burnt  through  with  a  red-hot  poker  ;  a  goose  quill  was  next  inserted, 
and,  by  its  means,  the  fluid  and  hydatid  sac  were  removed.  A 
plaster  of  tar  or  pitch  was  next  placed  over  the  part  and  completed  the 
operation.  The  new  form  of  procedure  is  to  open  the  parts  by  means 
of  a  fine  trocar  and  canula,  and  to  draw  off  the  fluid  with  the  aid  of  a 
syringe,  the  sac  being  next  removed  by  a  pair  of  forceps.  Success  in 
these  operations  greatly  depends  on  the  locality  of  the  tumour. 

572.  Prevention.— Seeing  that  the  disease  originates  from  a  tape 
worm,  in  the  dog,  the  method  of  prevention  is  obvious.  Dogs  must 
either  be  kept  off  the  pastures  or  else  they  ought  to  have  periodical 
doses  of  worm  medicine,  and,  vv'hile  under  treatment,  it  is  well  to  keep 
them  closely  shut  up.  The  heads  and  brains  of  diseased  sheep 
should  be  burnt,  instead  of  being  given  to  the  dogs,  as  is  generally 
the  case.     Applications  of  salt  to  the  pastures  also  have  a  good  effect. 


573-  Concussion    of  the    Bram,   in    the  horse,   is  generally  the 
result  of  the  animal   rearing  up   and  falling  over  backwards,   or  of 
running  away  and  coming  suddenly  m  contact  with  some  obstruction. 
When  there  is  no  fracture  or  displacement  of  the  bones,  the  horse  may 
lie  quiet  (stunned)  for  a  short  while,  and  then  regaining  consciousness, 
get  up  and  seem  none  the  worse.     In  these  cases,  care  must  be  used, 
and  the  animal  kept  perfectly  quiet  for  a  few  days  ;  little  or  no  food  is 
to  be  given  for  the  first  24  hours,  and  then  feed  sparingly,  for  a  few 
days  after,  with  easily  digested  food.     In  other  cases,  the  animal  may 
lie  motionless,  with  little  or  no  sensation,  the  eye  rolling  about  with 
the  pupil  dilated,   pulse   small  and   quick,   and   breathing  slow  and 
heavy.     These  symptoms  may  last  for  three  or  four  days,  after  which, 
the  patient  begins  to  show  signs  of  consciousness,  by  attempting  to 
raise  its  head,  and  if  assisted  to  a  recumbent  position,  (by  the  attendant 
placing  his  knee  behind  the  horse's  shoulder,)  it   may  drink  a  few 
mouthfuls  of  cold   water.     With   such   a   case  there  is  a  chance  oi 
recovery,  provided  that  from  the  time  of  the  accident,  the  patient  has 
had  every  attention,  having  been  carefully  turned  over  from  side  to  side 
every  six  or  eight  hours,  and  well  bedded  with  clean  dry  straw,  the  urine 
removed  with  the  catheter,  and  the  rectum  emptied  by  the  hand  every 
eight  hours,  a  good  dose  of  opening  medicine  having  been  given  at  the 
outset,  VIZ. : — four  to  six  drachms  of  aloes  dissolved  in  half  a  pint  of 
hot  water,  along  with    12  to   20   ounces  of  linseed  oil.       When  the 
animal  shows  signs  of  recovery,  by  endeavouring  to  rise,  it  should 
be  carefully  lifted  on   to  its   feet,   by  the  aid  of   slings  and   chain- 
blocks  ;    after  the  first  few  minutes'  struggle  in  attemptmg  to   find 
its   feet,    it    is    astonishing   how   rapidly   recovery   ensues.       Again, 
cases  have    occurred    where    portions  of   the   occipital   bone,   which 
articulate  with  the  first  bone  of  the  neck  (atlas),  have  been  fractured, 
but  not  displaced,  until   several  hours  after.       In    one   case,    which 
came  under  my  observation,  on  the  animal  falling  over  backwards, 
it  instantly  jumped  up,  walked  about  a   dozen   steps,   then   fell  on 
its  side  as  if  shot,  lying  with  legs  extended,  eyeballs  rolling  about, 
breathing    heavily,    and   giving    now    and    again    a   few    spasmodic 
struggles  with  the  fore  legs  ;    it  never  rose  again,   and   finally   died 


suddenly,  from  the  fractured  pieces  of  bone  becoming  displaced, 
and  pressing  upon  the  medulla  oblongata — the  connecting  medium 
between  the  brain  and  spinal  cord.  In  cases  of  this  kind,  it  is 
advisable  to  keep  the  animal  as  quiet  as  possible,  and  await  results. 

574.  Apoplexy,  or  Congestion  of  the  Brain,  is  extremely  rare, 
though  very  sudden  in  its  attack.  It  ma\'  be  described  as  occurrmg 
in  two  forms  ;  either  from  some  organic  lesion  of  the  brain  ;  or,  from 
reflex  functional  derangement.  In  the  former  it  may  be  due  to  an 
overloaded  or  congested  state  of  the  blood  vessels,  causing  pressure 
on  the  brain  substance,  or  from  rupture  of  a  vein  with  hcvniorvhage,  and 
the  formation  of  a  clot,  causing  loss  of  power  and  sensation.  When 
such  cases  affect  the  horse,  sensibility  and  motion  are  completely  lost, 
a  fatal  termination  occurring  in  a  few  hours. 

575.  Functional  Apoplexy. — This  may  be  best  described  under 
that  very  common  complaint  known  as  parturient  apoplexy. 


576.  Parturient  Apoplexy,  Milk-fever,  or  Dropping  after 
Calving. — Of  all  our  domestic  aniiuals,  the  cow  is  by  far  the  greatest 
sufferer  from  this  complaint,  though,  as  a  rule,  it  is  only  attacked  at  the 
third  or  subsequent  calving.  The  Ayrshire  and  Shorthorn  breeds 
seem  most  predisposed  to  it,  but  in  certain  localities,  and  on  certain 
soils,  heavy  milkers  of  any  breed  are  liable  to  it,  especially  if  at  grass, 
when  its  effects  are  more  fatal  than  when  they  are  fed  on  dry  food 
indoors ;  it  is,  however,  not  so  frequent,  nor  yet  so  fatal,  when  cold 
east  winds  prevail.  Moreover,  it  seldom  follows  where  there  has  been 
any  difficultv  in  calving,  it  being  most  common  when  the  cow  has 
calved  without  any  assistance.  The  real  cause  of  this  so-called  milk 
fever  is  not  yet  exactly  known.  My  opinion  is  that  it  is  due  to  a 
succession  of  shocks  to  the  system.  First- — Through  the  easy  expulsion 
of  the  waters  and  calf  from  the  womb.  Secondly — Through  the 
removal  of  the  calf  from  the  presence  of  the  mother,  and  not  allowing 



her  to  enjoy  the  pleasure  of  Ucking  and  cleaning  it  with  her  rough 
tongue.  Thirdly — Through  excitement  and  shock  caused  by  the  with- 
drawal of  all  the  milk,  at  once,  either  before  or  after  calving,  thus 
removing  the  pressure  too  suddenly,  this  in  turn  inducing  paralysis  of 
the  milk  cells,  a  total  cessation  of  the  milk  secretion,  and  collapse  of 
the  nervous  S3''stem. 

577.  If  paralysis  of  the  milk-producing  parts  of  the  udder  is  caused 
by  the  sudden  withdrawal  of  all  the  milk  at  once,  then  the  nervous 
power  is  impaired  by  the  pressure  being  too  quickly  removed,  and  the 
secretion  of  milk  is  thus  suspended.  It  stands  to  reason  that  the 
materials  which  enter  into  the  composition  of  the  "  colostrum," 
or  "  beastings,'"  which  are,  at  this  time,  contained  in  the  system  of 
the  cow — more  particularly  if  the  animal  is  a  deep  milker — would 
naturally  be  eliminated  from  the  bod}^  by  the  action  of  the  udder. 
But,  as  the  udder  is  not  working,  these  elements  are  retained  in  the 
circulatory  system,  acting  there  not  only  as  a  foreign  body,  but 
assuming  a  toxic  action,  affecting  the  nerve  centres,  and  causing  the 
peculiar  excitement  seen  in  the  early  stages  of  the  derangement ; 
this  excitement  being  succeeded  by  total  prostration  of  the  whole 
nervous  system,  in  which  all  the  organs  of  the  body  participate,  and 
is  followed  by  congestion  of  the  structures. 

578.  Symptoms. — As  a  rule,  milk  fever  symptoms  are  noticed  from 
about  four  to  six  hours  after  the  second  milking,  or  from  a  few  hours 
after  calving,  up  to,  say,  the  fifth  day,  or  until  the  beastings  are  cleared 
out  of  the  system.  Occasionally  the  symptoms  are  recognisable  prior 
to  calving,  particularly  if  the  cow,  owing  to  the  great  distension  of 
the  udder,  has  been  milked.  The  first  symptom  to  be  noticed  is  a 
thoughtful  expression  of  the  face,  manifested  by  a  peculiar  holding  up 
of  the  head,  and  pointing  out  of  the  nose,  while  the  eyes  stare  right 
in  front  ;  there  is  also  paddling  of  the  hind  legs,  and  switching 
of  the  tail,  while  the  animal  staggers  about  the  stall  with  a 
spasmodic  rigid  twitching  of  the  muscles,  in  the  region  of  the  stifles, 
which  seem  to  be  pulled  backwards,  and  to  a  certain  extent,  are  beyond 
control.     This  is  followed   by  a  stage  of  excitement,  when  the  animal 


tumbles  all  over  the  place,  first  on  to  its  shoulders,  then  on  to  its  head  ; 
or,  it  may  fall  on  to  its  side,  and  lie  with  its  legs  extended,  the 
abdomen  distended  like  a  drum,  breathing  heavily,  tossing  the  head 
about,  rolling  the  eyes,  and  finally  sinking  into  a  deep  coma.  In 
other  cases,  it  may  fall  on  to  the  breast-bone  and  belly,  roll  the  head 
from  side  to  side,  and  then  turn  it  towards  the  flank,  resting  the  lower 
jaw  on  the  ground,  and  in  this  position  it  falls  into  a  comatose 
condition  {Plate  XLVIIL,  23.) 

579.  Treatment. — This  is  not  always  as  satisfactory  as  could  be 
wished,  depending  as  it  does  upon  the  nature  and  severity  of  the 
attack,  and  upon  the  age  and  condition  of  the  patient,  while  the  earlier 
the  attack,  the  more  difficult  is  its  treatment.  The  normal  temper- 
ature of  the  cow  ranges  from  100^  to  102°,  yet,  in  milk  fever  cases,  the 
temperature,  as  a  rule,  falls  to  99°  or  97^^.  Should  the  temperature 
rise  to  104°  or  105°,  and  the  animal  be  very  wild  and  excitable,  the 
abstraction  of  from  three  to  five  quarts  of  blood,  has  a  beneficial  effect. 
Formerly,  I  used  to  wash  the  body  all  over  with  several  pails  of  cold 
water  ;  then  I  scraped  the  animal  well  down,  and  applied  a  sheet 
wrung  out  of  cold  water,  over  which  was  put  two  or  three  dry  woollen 
rugs,  and  to  cover  all,  a  waterproof;  next,  a  dose  of  chloral  hydrate  and  . 
bromide  of  potassium,  f  oz.  to  f  oz.  of  each,  dissolved  in  cold  milk  was 
given,  followed  by  2  lbs.  of  castor  oil,  and  2  lbs.  of  treacle,  in 
gruel,  as  a  drench.  Since  ivriting  the  first  edition  of  this  book,  the 
treatment  of  milk  fever  in  coivs  has  undergone  a  great  change.  Immediately 
an  animal  is  attacked,  under  the  new  treatment,  a  dose  of  chloral 
hydrate  and  bromide  of  potassium,  as  already  noted,  is  administered  ; 
then  all  the  milk  is  drawn  from  the  udder  ;  next,  an  injection  is 
made  up  by  dissolving  two  drachms  of  iodide  of  potassium  in  one 
quart  of  water,  that  has  been  boiled  and  allowed  to  cool  down  to  90^ 
F.  A  fourth  part  of  this  solution  is  then  injected  by  an  ordinary 
india-rubber  enema  syringe,  to  which  a  special  teat  tube  is  attached, 
into  each  quarter  of  the  udder.  This  treatment  has  been  exceedingly 
successful,  there  being  fully  95  per  cent,  of  recoveries.  Great  care, 
however,  must  be  taken,  that  the  teat  and  enema  syringe  are 
scrupulously  clean,   also  the  vessels   used  in   making  the   injection. 


The  teat  tube  must  be  scalded  in  boiling  water  before  and  after 
use.  If  care  is  not  taken  to  have  instruments  and  vessels  clean,  and 
disinfected,  there  is  danger  of  inducing  mammitis  or  inflammation 
of  the  mammary  gland.  Under  this  treatment,  purgatives,  as  a  rule, 
are  not  required,  for  in  the  course  of  30  to  40  hours  slight  diarrhoea 
generally  follows.  The  treatment  is  known  as  that  of  Schmidt's,  but 
as  far  back  as  1877  I  drew  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  cause  of 
the  derangement  originated  in  the  mammary  gland,  and  Schmidt's 
treatment  confirms  the  conclusions  I  then  arrived  at.  In  all  cases 
the  animal  should  be  kept  trussed  up  on  its  breast-bone  and  belly, 
with  bundles  of  straw,  or  bags  of  chaff,  or  sawdust  ;  never  allow  the 
coiv  to  lie  on  its  side.  Having  given  the  medicine  noted,  and  injected 
the  iodide  of  potassium  solution  into  the  udder,  leave  the  patient 
alone,  with  the  exception  of  turning  it  from  one  side  to  the  other, 
every  six  hours.  The  hand  should  be  well  soaped  and  introduced  into 
the  rectum,  and  the  hard-baked  dung  cleared  out,  and,  if  necessary 
the  catheter  passed  and  the  urine  removed. 

580.  When  coma  sets  in,  no  attempt  should  be  made  to  force 
anything  down  the  animal's  throat,  as  there  is  great  danger  of  its 
passing  down  the  wind-pipe  on  to  the  lungs,  and  producing  congestion, 
or  perhaps  a  fatal  lung  affection.  Subsequent  treatment  must  be 
adapted  to  the  progress  of  the  case.  If  in  the  course  of  from  12  to 
24,  or  even  36  hours,  the  patient  begins  to  show  signs  of  returning 
consciousness,  by  holding  the  head  up,  pricking  the  ears,  and  lookmg 
round,  it  should  be  offered  a  few  mouthfulsof  cold  water,  bran,  or  hay 
tea  ;  after  a  little  while,  it  will  attempt  to  rise  to  its  feet,  and  evince  a 
desire  for  food  by  eating  the  bedding,  while  ihe  secretion  of  milk 
returns  ;  when  this  takes  place,  nothing  more  is  required  but  nursing 
the  cow  for  a  few  days.  A  small  quantity  of  milk  should,  however, 
be  removed  at  intervals  of  from  six  to  eight  hours.  I  do  not  agree  with 
continually  drawing  off  the  milk  as  fast  as  it  is  secreted,  and  therefore 
recommend  leaving  some  in  the  udder  to  stimulate  further  secretion. 
Frequent  hand  rubbing  is  also  of  very  great  service  as  a  stimulant 
to  the  gland. 


581.  Terminations.— In  many  cases,  after  the  apoplexy  has  passed 
off,  and  the  secretion  of  milk  has  returned,  the  animal  may  be  feeding 
and  chewing  the  cud,  yet  it  cannot  get  up.  In  some  instances  the 
patient  recovers  the  use  of  its  limbs  in  the  course  of  from  three  days 
to  three  weeks,  or  it  may  linger  on  for  six  or  seven  weeks,  having  to  be 
turned  from  side  to  side,  four  or  five  times  in  the  day  ;  in  other  cases, 
although  it  regains  the  use  of  the  fore  limbs,  the  hind  ones  remain 
paralyzed,  and  the  animal  is  consequently  sold  to  the  butcher.  Again, 
according  to  the  severity  of  the  attack,  the  case  may  terminate  fatally 
in  six  or  eight  hours,  or  it  may  linger  on  in  a  comatose  condition  for 
several  hours.  If  the  patient  gets  into  a  relaxed  condition,  settles  flat 
down  into  the  bed,  and  seems  to  lose  all  tone  of  the  muscles,  has  the 
hind  legs  wide  apart,  sits  on  the  hocks,  the  points  of  which  stick  oat 
below  the  rump  bone,  breathes  heavily,  puff's  at  the  cheeks,  drops  the 
lower  jaw,  and  shows  no  sensation  when  the  eyeball  is  touched,  its 
condition  may  be  looked  upon  as  hopeless. 

582.  Sometimes  gangrene  takes  place  in  one  of  the  hind  quarters  of 
the  body,  arising  either  from  the  rupture  of  a  blood-vessel,  or  from 
extreme  congestion.  The  animal  thus  aff"ected  may  regain  conscious- 
ness, and  even  take  food,  but  the  breathing  is  very  quick  and  laboured, 
while  the  affected  quarter  swells  up,  and  on  being  tapped  by  the  fingers, 
has  a  ratthng  sound.  Such  cases  almost  always  have  a  fatal 
termination,  though  now  and  again  an  odd  case  survives  the  attack, 
and  so  far  recovers  that  it  commences  to  feed,  chew  the  cud,  and  seems 
to  do  well  for  five  or  six  days,  after  which  it  begins  to  cough,  loses  its 
appetite,  and  finally  dies  from  breaking  up  of  the  lungs,  or  what  may 
be  termed  acute  consumption,  caused  by  the  congested  state  of  the 
vessels  of  the  lungs  during  the  coma,  or  from  matters,  that  have  been 
horned  in,  falling  into  the  windpipe  and  bronchial  tubes. 

583.  From  experience,  I  would  recommend  in  all  cases  of  milk  fever 
that  occur  after  the  fourth  calving,  if  the  animal  is  in  prime  condition 
and  the  attack  severe,  that  the  butcher  be  called  in  instead  of  the 
veterinary  surgeon. 


584-  Prevention  of  Milk  Fever. —  In  this  respect  I  would  note  four 
points.  First — If  possible,  do  not  turn  the  cow  out  to  grass  until  it  has 
calved,  and  give  plain  food  of  not  too  watery  a  nature.  Second — 
Immediately  the  cow  shows  signs  of  calving,  have  it  removed  to  a  loose 
box  for  that  purpose,  and  leave  it  there  with  the  calf  for  four  or  five 
days,  or  until  the  beastings  are  all  cleaned  out  ;  this  can  be  easily 
ascertained  by  boiling  the  milk,  when,  if  colostrum  be  present,  the  milk 
will  curdle.  It  is  a  good  practice  also  to  remove  a  little  milk  from  the 
udder  occasionally  by  the  hand.  Third — Five  or  six  days  before  the 
cow  is  due  to  calve,  give  2  lbs.  castor  oil,  in  treacle  gruel,  and  repeat 
the  dose  24  hours  prior  to  calving,  or  as  near  that  time  as  possible. 
This  treatment  I  have  found  to  be  of  the  greatest  benefit.  Salts  do 
not  answer  in  my  district,  neither  before  nor  after  calving.  Fourth — 
If  the  calf  and  mother  cannot  be  left  together  for  four  or  five  days, 
then  only  small  quantities  of  milk  should  be  withdrawn  every  four  or 
five  hours.  Never,  on  any  account,  take  all  the  milk  at  once  from  the  big 
congested  udder  of  a  deep  milker. 

585.  Hysteria,  although  very  rare,  is  sometimes  met  with  both  in 
the  mare  and  in  the  cow,  but  more  frequently  in  the  latter.  It  seizes 
the  animal  very  suddenly  ;  more  particularly  is  this  so  when  it  is 
coming  into  service  for  the  first  time.  In  the  mare,  at  times,  the  head 
is  pulled  upwards  and  backwards  ;  the  eyes  are  very  watchful  ;  the 
nostrils  are  dilated,  and  on  touching,  or  even  approaching  the  patient, 
it  becomes  very  excited  ;  it  may  kick  and  struggle,  or  rear  up,  and  fall 
over  backwards.  In  the  heifer,  the  symptoms  are  somewhat  similar 
to  those  in  the  mare  ;  it  is,  however,  more  subject  to  convulsions,  and 
falls  down  suddenly,  bellows  loudly,  champs  and  foams  at  the  mouth, 
and  grinds  the  teeth.  The  eyes  roll  about,  and  there  are  strong 
muscular  tremblings,  and  contortions  of  the  limbs  and  neck,  as  if  the 
patient  were  in  a  fit. 

586.  Treatment  for  Hysteria. — Bleeding,  to  the  extent  of  five  or 
six  quarts,  is  very  useful,  followed  up  by  dashing  cold  water  over  the 
head  ;  and  after  the  paroxysm  has  passed,  ^  oz.  each  of  chloral 
hydrate  and  bromide  of  potassium,  in  a  pint  of  cold  milk,  should  be 


administered.  If  desirable,  one  to  two  drachms  of  the  extract  of 
belladonna  may  be  substituted  for  the  chloral  and  bromide.  From  20 
to  30  ounces  of  linseed  or  castor  oil  should  also  be  given,  and  it  may 
be  found  necessary  to  repeat  the  bromide  every  eight  hours.  As  a 
rule,  however,  the  symptoms  disappear  m  a  few  hours. 

587.  Epilepsy.     (Fits).     This  peculiar  nervous  derangement  may 
arise  from  a  number  of  causes,  such  as  retarded  dentition  ;  worms  in 
the  stomach  and  bowels  ;  improper  food,  causing  intestinal  disorder  ; 
and  uterine  complications.     The  attack  is  generally  very  sudden  ;  the 
animal  stops  instantly,  trembles  ah  over,  and  falls  to  the  ground,  the 
whole  muscular  system  being  thrown  into  violent  contortions.     There  ^ 
is  a  pecuHar  rocking  and  working  of  the  head  and  limbs,  and  rolHng  of 
the  eyeball,  which  turns  in  under  the  upper  eyelid.      The  teeth  are 
firmly  held  together,  and  a  frothy  discharge  comes  from  the  mouth. 
The  heart  beats  fast  and  loud,  while  the  breathing  is  suspended  for  a 
few  moments  ;  and  dung  and  urine  are  involuntarily  ejected.     After  the 
convulsive  attack  has  passed,  the  patient  frequently  falls  into  a  long 
deep  sleep,  from  which  it  awakes,  showing  little  or  no  ill  effects,  with 
the  exception  of  a  slight  languor  and  listlessness.     The  Pig  and  the 
Dog  are  the  greatest  sufferers  from  this  affliction.     Young  pigs  are 
very  often  attacked,  especially  if  fed  too  largely  upon  badly  prepared 
maize  meal.     This  stuff,  therefore,  should  always  be  weU-hoiled,  and 
even  then,  used  very  sparingly  amongst  young  pigs  under  two  months 
old.     Feeding  on  pollards  or  parings,  answers  much   better,  and  is 
certainly  safer.     In  the  dog,  retarded  teething,  and  tape  and  other 
worms   m   the   alimentary  canal,   are   responsible   for   most   cases   of 

588.  Treatment  of  Fits.— When  the  patient  is  seized,  every  care 
should  be  taken  to  keep  it  from  injurmg  itself,  and  a  free  access  of  air 
should  be  allowed  in  all  cases.  Benefit  will  be  derived  from  a 
continual  cold-water  douche  on  the  head.  If  the  teeth  are  firmly 
clinched  together,  a  piece  of  wood  or  some  other  suitable  substance 
must  be  pressed  in  between  them,  to  prevent  the  tongue  being  injured. 
After  the   attack  has  passed  over,  a  careful  examination  ought  to  be 


made,  to  discover  the  cause.  If  the  teeth  are  at  fault,  the  offending 
ones,  or  shells  must  be  removed,  and,  if  necessary,  the  gums  scarified  ; 
but,  if  worms  are  suspected,  a  dose  of  worm  medicine,  (see  Appendix), 
followed  by  a  purgative,  should  be  given.  As  a  nerve  sedative,  either 
the  bromide  of  soda  or  potassium  (par.  586)  may  be  administered  with 

589.  Puerperal  Eclampsia. — Several  cases  of  this  peculiar 
epileptic  form  of  nervous  excitement  in  cows  have  come  under  my 
observation,  ranging  from  cows  on  the  point  of  calving  to  cows 
that  have  been  calved  several  days.  At  first,  the  cow  is  noticed  to 
be  very  excitable,  paddling  with  the  hind  feet,  switching  the  tail, 
pointing  out  the  nose,  and  holding  the  head  upwards  and  backwards  ; 
the  eyes  are  wild  and  staring,  and  the  milk  secretion  is  partially 
suspended  ;  in  fact,  the  animal  shows  all  the  early  symptoms  of  an 
attack  of  milk  fever.  But  by  far  the  most  prominent  symptom  is  the 
extreme  sensitiveness  of  the  skin,  for  the  moment  you  touch,  or  even 
attempt  to  touch  its  body,  the  cow  will  give  a  loud  bellow,  open  the 
mouth  wide,  stick  out  the  tongue,  and  attempt  to  jump  to  one  side 
and  kick  out.  The  breathing  is  very  quick,  and  the  pulse  is  full  and 
strong.  Treatment. — Bleeding  to  the  extent  of  from  four  to  six 
quarts,  followed  with  from  four  to  eight  drachm  doses  of  chloral 
hydrate  in  a  pint  of  cold  milk,  is  serviceable.  This  medicine  can  be 
repeated,  four  or  five  hours  afterwards,  if  required.  The  following, 
however,  should  be  administered  as  a  purgative,  viz.  : — 2  lbs.  castor  oil, 
and  2  lbs.  treacle,  in  two  quarts  of  thin  gruel ._  Asa  rule,  this  mode  of 
treatment,  along  with  spare  feeding  on  nice  digestible  food,  is  very 

590.  Sunstroke  (see  Stomach  Staggers,  pars.  245  and  305). 

591.  Louping-ill,  Trotter-ill,  Trembling,  or  Sheep  Staggers. — 

This  malady  is  more  common  in  sheep,  than  in  any  other  animal ;  cows, 
however,  are  sometimes  affected.  It  is  mostly  seen  in  Scotland  and 
the  North  of  England,  more  particularly  in  Northumberland.  It 
generally    appears   in   the   spring,   about    the    middle   of  April,   and 


in  certain  places  again  in  October,  seeming  to  be  greatly  favoured  by 
cold,  showery  weather.  For  years,  great  loss  has  been  sustained  by  its 
ravages,  and  numerous  investigations  have  been  carried  on  for  the 
discovery  of  the  cause,  yet  there  is  still  a  great  difference  of  opinion 
on  this  point.  Farmers  and  shepherds,  living  on  the  disease-producing 
or  affected  farms,  say,  that  wherever  the  rough,  coarse,  white  grasses, 
(principally  the  dead  and  decaying  foliage  of  the  previous  year's  growth 
of  sweet-scented  vernal  (anthoxanthmi  odoratum),  known  as  "  tath,")  are 
in  abundance,  the  complaint  is  rife,  and  they  have  an  idea  that  these 
grasses  have  something  to  do  with  the  malady.  The  late  Principal 
Wilhams,  of  the  New  Veterinary  College,  Edinburgh,  from  investiga- 
tions carried  on  by  him  for  some  considerable  time,  was  of  opinion 
that  the  malady  is  due  to  a 'specific  microbe,  and  that  the  tick  (ixodes) 
plays  a  very  important  part,  in  acting  as  host  for  some  of  the  trans- 
formations of  the  germ.  Dr.  Klein,  in  1893,  investigated  the  matter 
for  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Northumberland,  K.G.,  and  reported  that— 
"  The  disease  has  a  seasonal  and  local  epidemic  character,'"  and  that  "  the 
malady  strongly  pointed  as  belonging  to  the  class  of  infectious  diseases,  and  was, 
apparently,  communicated  from  one  animal  to  another;"  yet,  he  says: — 
^' The  causa  causans  of  the  disease  is  contained  on,  or  in  the  soil;"  also 
"  When  the  disease  prevails,  a  fence  between  one  sheep  farm  and  the  next,  was 
occasionally  found  to  be  the  boundary  between  the  infected  and  non-infected  area." 
Now,  if  the  soil  be  the  cause  of  the  first  case,  why  should  it  not  be  the 
cause  in  all  the  succeeding  cases  that  are  susceptible  to  its  influence, 
seeing  that  as  many  as  from  seven  to  ten  sheep  will  die  in  24  hours  ? 
My  view  is,  that  louping-ill  is  allied  to  certain  enzootic  diseases,  and, 
like  red  water  in  cattle,  is  common  to  certain  localities  and  soils,  from 
the  same  common  cause.  I  think  it  is  due  to  the  indigestible  and 
innutritious  nature  of  the  decaying  grasses,  producing  derangement  of 
the  digestive  organs,  and  deterioration  of  the  blood,  and  this  in  turn 
acts  on  the  nerve  centres,  inducing  a  want  of  co-ordination  of 
movement;  hence,  trembling  and  imperfect  action  of  the  limbs.  Or, 
the  complaint  may  be  from  some  reflex  nervous  action,  arising  from 
the  irritating  effects  of  the  innutritious  herbage  on  the  stomach, 
producing  the  symptoms  pecuUar  to  the  malady. 


592.  Symptoms. — The  first  symptoms  to  be  noticed  are  that  the 
head  is  carried  erect,  with  staring  eyes,  and  there  is  a  staggering  jerky 
gait,  with  muscular  twitchings  and  trembhngs  of  the  body.  Next  the 
falling  down  and  struggling  of  the  animal  will  attract  attention,  and 
this  will  be  followed  by  convulsions,  paralysis,  and  death.  Many  of 
the  animals  die  suddenly;  others  linger  on  for  several  days,  and  finally 
recover,  if  removed  at  once  from  the  disease-producing  pasture  and 
carefully  nursed.  Now,  if  certain  animals  recover  when  removed  from 
an  affected  area,  there  appears  to  be  some  hope  of  preventing  in  some 
degree  an  outbreak  of  the  malady,  and  I  would  therefore  recommend  : — 
1st. — That,  at  the  back  end  of  the  year,  the  mowing  niachine  should 
be  run  over  the  land,  to  cut  down  all  the  rough  coarse  grass,  and  this 
should  be  allowed  to  lie  on  the  ground  to  rot,  and  so  act  as  a  manure 
for  the  succeeding  year's  grass.  2nd. — If  practicable,  apply  from  10 
to  12  cwt.  rough  crushed  salt  to  the  imperial  acre,  which  will  not  only 
kill  the  grass,  but  also  the  tick  (providing  it  has  its  winter  shelter 
amongst  the  grass,  and  that  it  is  the  medium  by  which  the  disease  is 
spread).  3rd. — If  this  cannot  be  done,  then  lay  large  lumps  of  rock 
salt  all  over  the  pastures,  for  the  sheep  to  lick  at  their  leisure.  In  the 
West  of  Cumberland  (Millom),  a  large  park  was  for  years  notorious 
for  red  water  and  dysentery  in  cattle,  and  sheep  staggers  (louping-ill) 
in  sheep;  as  many  as  100  fatal  cases  of  the  last  mentioned  occurring  in 
one  season.  Yet  by  the  application  of  120  tons  crushed  rock  salt  to  the 
grazing  portion  of  the  park,  these  diseases  were  eradicated.  The  same 
success  has  also  attended  the  application  of  salt  to  disease  infested  areas 
both  in  Surrey  and  Leicestershire,  and  the  result  of  a  10  ton  trial,  on 
a  20  acre  field,  at  Leithen  Hall,  near  Moffat,  (which  took  place  in  i8g6,) 
has  clearly  demonstrated  that  whatever  be  the  cause,  dressing  land  with 
salt  may  now  be  regarded  as  a  specific  for  louping-ill. 

593.  Chorea,  Shivering,  Stringhalt,  or  Clicking,  are  modified 
forms  of  a  peculiar  derangement  of  the  nervous  system,  (characterized 
by  involuntary,  spasmodic  muscular  jerkings,  twitchings,  and 
tremblings,)  that  is  analogous  to  St.  Vitus'  dance  in  the  human  subject. 
The  cause  of  the  derangement  is  not  really  known  ;  some  authorities 
say  it  is  due  to  lesions  of  the  brain,  and  others,  to  an  affection  of  the 


spinal  cord  ;  there  are,  however,  various  other  theories.  Although  the 
disease  niay  have  a  hereditary  tendency,  my  opinion  is  that,  in  the 
majority  of  cases,  retarded  dentition  has  a  great  deal  to  do  with 
inducing  it  (par.  348),  as  the  complaint  is  seldom  noticed  before  the 
animal  Is  rising  three  years  old.  It  is  not  so  common  in  the  mare  ; 
but  big  heavy  cart  horses  are  much  affected,  more  particularly  in  their 
hind  extremities.  When  the  fore  limbs  are  attacked,  the  symptoms 
are  of  a  trembhng  character,  and  are  best  observed  while  the  animal 
is  eating  a  feed  of  oats,  when  the  muscles  of  the  shoulders  and  legs  are 
noticed  to  be  all  in  a  quiver.  In  other  cases,  on  the  horse  being  put 
back,  it  drags  its  fore  feet  on  the  heels,  after  the  manner  of  one 
suffering  from  acute  founder.  The  drinking  of  cold  water,  in  suspected 
cases,  usuahy  provokes  the  nervous  twitchings  and  tremblings  above 
referred  to. 

594.  Chorea.— I  have,  on  several  occasions,  seen  a  horse,  rising 
three  years  old,  suddenly  attacked  with  acute  chorea,  when  at  work  in 
the  plough.  It  would  stop,  and  fall  on  to  its  head  or  side,  and 
sometimes  come  over  backwards  ;  on  rising,  it  seemed  to  have  little  or 
no  control  over  the  muscles  of  the  limbs,  having  both  fore  and  hind 
legs  spread  wide  apart,  to  keep  it  from  faUing,  while  the  head, 
hanging  in  a  listless  manner  was  swung  from  side  to  side.  In  these 
attacks,  if  made  to  stir,  the  animal  staggers  and  falls  ;  or  it  may  place 
its  side  against  a  wall  for  support.  As  the  case  proceeds,  should  the 
patient  be  turned  out  to  grass,  and  be  made  to  trot  or  canter,  it  pulls  the 
legs  up  very  high,  in  a  jerky  fashion.  When  stopped  suddenly,  it  may 
perhaps  fall  on  to  its  head  or  shoulder,  and  go  tail  over  head ;  or  the  fore 
feet  may  be  planted  forward  like  posts,  the  body  swinging  from  side 
to  side.  These  cases  never  sufficiently  recover  to  be  of  much  service 
in  saddle  or  harness,  but  may  do  ploughing  and  harrowing  fairly  well. 
Two  drachm  doses  of  bromide  of  potassium,  and  two  scruples  of 
exsiccated  sulphate  of  iron,  given  daily,  followed  up  with  one  drachm 
doses  of  nux  vomica,  are  very  beneficial  in  such  cases. 

595.   Shivering  is  sometimes  readily  noticed  when  the  animal  is 
standmo-  m  the  stable,  for,  on  being  made  to  move  over  from  one  side 


of  the  stall  to  the  other,  the  tail  is  suddenly  jerked  upwards  and  quivers, 
while  the  great  muscles  of  the  thighs  and  quarters  assume  a  rigid 
condition.  On  putting  the  animal  back,  the  hind  legs  are  moved  in  a 
stiff  straddling  manner,  the  animal  backing  witli  great  difficulty. 
Horses  thus  affected,  when  in  the  stall,  always  stand  stretched  out, 
with  the  hind  legs  back,  and  the  point  of  the  toe  in  the  channel. 

596.  Stringhalt  is  known  by  a  sudden,  spasmodic  clicking  up  of 
one  or  both  hind  legs.  It  is,  at  times,  seen  when  the  animal  is  turned 
quickly  round,  or  if  made  to  stand  perfectly  still,  and  then  walked 
smartly  forward,  when  it  is  noticed  at  the  first  step.  It  is  also  exhibited 
when  forcibly  backed  or  excited,  but  slight  cases  are  difficult  to  detect, 
as  the  clicking  action  is  not  always  noticeable,  the  horse  only  showing 
the  peculiar  action  at  irregular  intervals.  Cases  have  been  known, 
where  horses  have  been  bred  and  worked  on  the  farm  until  they  were 
five  or  six  years  old:  they  have  then  been  "made  up,"  and  sold  at 
public  auctions  without  any  unsoundness  being  manifested,  but  after 
having  been  put  on  rail,  and  taken  out  at  the  end  of  the  journey,  they 
have  been  found  to  be  confirmed  cases  of  stringhalt  or  shivers. 
Whether  this  is  due  to  fright  on  being  railed  for  the  first  time,  or  from 
the  jerking  they  get  in  the  horse-box,  while  shunting  at  the  stations, 
is  questionable  ;  but  it  is  a  matter  of  great  moment  to  both  buyer  and 
seller.  It  is  needless  to  add  that  animals  affected  with  these  nervous 
disorders  are  classed  as  unsound  ;  yet,  they  can  work  for  years,  and 
carry  very  heavy  loads  forward,  but  have  very  great  difficulty  in 

597.  Dogs  also  suffer  very  much  from  chorea,  it  being  a  frequent 
sequel  to  distemper  (par.  528).  In  such  cases,  Fellows'  compound 
syrup  of  hypo-phosphates  can  be  used  with  beneficial  effect. 

598.  Spinitis  is  inflammation  of  the  spinal  cord  and  its  coverings. 
This  may  occur  in  an  acute  or  chronic  form,  but  either  is  very  rare.  It 
may  also  arise  from  rheumatic  affections,  and  injury  to  the  backbone 
from  concussion,  &c.  In  the  acute  form,  the  animal  is  suddenly 
attacked,  showing  great  pain,  and  perspiring  freely.     It  throws  itself 


down,  rising  again  with  great  difficulty,  and  strong  muscular 
contortions  are  evident,-in  fact,  the  symptoms  resemble  an  acute 
attack  of  inflammation  of  the  bowels,  or  azoturia.  Treatment.— 
Nerve  sedatives,  such  as  chloral  hydrate,  belladonna,  or  hypodermic 
injections  of  morphia,  along  with  a  good  dose  of  opening  medicine,  such 
as  linseed  or  castor  oil  should  be  given.  Hot  water  blankets  should 
be  applied  constantly  to  the  back,  and  the  rectum  must  be  emptied  by 
the  hand,  and  the  urine  drawn  off  by  the  catheter.  From  the  effusion 
which  takes  place  in  the  spinal  canal,  the  cases  usually  terminate 
fatally,  or  at  least,  in  paralysis. 

599.  Paralysis,  or  Stroke.— This  may  be  described  as  complete, 
partial,  local,  or  veflex,  and  1^  a  sudden  loss  of  power,  either  with  or 
without  sensation  ;  it  may,  however,  come  on  gradually.  Hemiplegia 
is  the  term  employed  when  only  one  side  of  the  body  is  attacked  ;  and 
Paraplegia  when  either  the  fore  or  hind  part  of  the  body  is  affected. 

600.  Complete  Paralysis  is  the  term  employed  when  motion  and 
sensation  throughout  the  body  are  suddenly  arrested,  as  in  milk  fever, 
stomach  staggers,  acute  lead  poisoning,  &c. 

601.  Partial  Paralysis  is  a  term  used  when  only  part  of  the  body 
is  affected. 

602.  Local  Paralysis  means  that  only  some  of  the  muscles  are 
involved.  This  form  is  frequently  seen  after  influenza,  strangles,  and 
lightning  shocks,  when  the  muscles  of  the  head  and  lips  of  the  afl"ected 
side  hang  loose  and  pendulous,  the  tongue  also  sometimes  suffering. 
The  animal,  on  getting  food  into  its  mouth,  has  no  power  to  roll  it  for 
mastication.     In  these  cases  the  food  has  to  be  removed  by  the  hand. 

603.  Reflex  Paralysis.— This  may  arise  from  impaction  of  the 
stomach  and  bowels  of  both  cattle  and  horses.  It  is  also  caused  by 
pressure  and  obstruction  in  the  urinary  and  generative  organs.  Cattle 
will  sometimes  lie  for  four  or  five  weeks  before  calving,  without 
having  the  power  to  rise,  and,  after  parturition,  get  up  without  any 


604.  Seeing  that  there  are  so  many  different  causes,  it  is  highly 
important  to  call  in  professional  aid  at  the  very  beginning,  and  have 
the  animal  treated  accordingly. 

605.  Lightning  Shock. — In  the  majority  of  cases  lightning  shock 
affects  the  nervous  system,  more  particularl}'  the  motory  nerves, 
causing  total  or  partial  paralj'sis,  while  the  sensory  nerves  become 
more  acute.  When  one  side  is  affected,  the  animal  carries  its  head  to 
one  side,  and  has  a  very  unsteady  gait,  staggering  from  side  to  side, 
vi'hile  the  muscles  on  the  side  of  the  face  affected  become  pendulous  and 
swollen,  or  the  neck  may  be  so  affected  that  the  animal  cannot  eat 
from  the  ground.  The  shock,  however,  may  be  such  that  the  animal 
loses  the  use  of  its  limbs,  and  cannot  get  up  ;  yet  it  can  feed  well,  and 
if  a  cow,  chews  the  cud.  These  various  symptoms  may  be  noticed, 
but  no  external  marks  are  visible.  When,  however,  the  electric  current 
strikes  the  body,  the  skin  and  hair  have  the  appearance  of  having  had 
a  red  hot  iron  run  over  them,  while  under  the  skin  the  tissues  are 
jelly  like  and  full  of  effused  material.  In  the  case  of  death  from 
lightning  the  blood  remains  iluid,  and  the  muscles  of  the  body  do  not 
stiffen,  but  are  flabby  and  soft. 

606.  Rabies. — This  frightful  malady,  although  formerly  described 
as  an  affection  of  the  nervous  system,  is  now  considered  to  be  due  to 
the  action  of  a  specific  microbe,  which  gains  entrance  to  the  system. 
Of  all  the  animals  that  are  subject  to  its  baneful  influence,  those  of  the 
dog  tribe  seem  to  be  most  prone.  In  some  cases,  the  patient  has  a 
great  horror  of  water,  the  sight  of  which  brings  on  a  peculiar  tetanic 
spasm  of  the  gullet,  causing  inability  to  swallow  (hence  the  name 
hydrophobia).  This  symptom  is,  however,  more  noticed  in  the  human 
subject  than  m  the  lower  animals,  as  a  rabid  dog  will,  at  times,  go  into 
the  water,  if  in  its  way,  and  lap  it  freely.  It  is  generally  thought 
that  extremely  hot  weather  favours  its  occurrence,  but,  as  previously 
stated,  it  depends  upon  the  introduction  of  the  disease-producing 
germ  into  the  system.  This  is  generally  accomplished  by  means  of  a 
bite  from  a  rabid  animal,  but  accidental  inoculation  may  take  place, 
through  an  abrasion  or  sore  on  the  skin  being  licked  by  the  tongue  of 


an  affected  animal.  It  has  been  observed,  that,  from  the  introduction 
of  the  germ  into  the  body,  to  the  period  at  which  the  malady  is  made 
manifest,  the  time  varies  to  a  great  extent ;  in  some  cases,  only  a  few 
days  elapse,  while  in  others,  months,  and  even  years,  intervene. 

607.  Symptoms. — In  this,  as  m  most  affections  of  the  brain  and 
nervous  system,  the  first  thing  noticeable,  particularly  in  the  dog,  is 
great  dullness,  accompanied  by  periods  of  excitement,  that  are  without 
apparent  cause.  An  affected  dog  has  a  tendency  to  eat  all  sorts  of 
rubbish,  dirt,  feathers,  leather,  &c.  ;  it  snaps  and  bites  at  anything 
which  may  come  in  its  path,  but  will  not  go  out  of  its  way  to  do  so. 
Again,  the  nature  of  the  animal  is  quite  changed  ;  if  it  has  previously 
been  very  mild  and  docile,  it  will  become  quite  irritable  and  inclined 
to  bite  its  best  friend,  and  vice  versa.  It  also  has  a  tendency  to  go  off 
by  itself,  going  with  a  peculiar  lounging,  swinging  gait,  taking  little  or 
no  notice  of  anything  unless  interfered  with.  The  head  and  ears 
hang  in  a  limp,  loose  fashion  ;  it  foams  at  the  mouth,  and  its  eyes  are 
bloodshot,  with  a  peculiar  sullen  far-off  look.  The  bark  or  howl  of  a 
rabid  dog  once  heard,  is  never  forgotten.  If  the  animal  is  not 
destroyed,  death  is  generally  preceded  by  convulsions  and  paralysis. 
On  account  of  the  great  danger  following  in  the  wake  of  a  rabid 
animal,  it  should  be  destroyed  immediately  the  fact  that  the  disease  is 
rabies  has  been  established.  Directly  a  bite  is  inflicted,  the  parts 
ought  to  be  well  washed  with  a  mixture,  made  of  one  part  carbolic 
acid,  and  four  parts  water  ;  or  it  should  be  dressed  with  tincture  of 
iron.  The  wound  may  be  cauterised,  and  caustics  in  solution  answer 
best,  as  they  get  well  into  the  bottom  of  the  wound  ;  solid  caustics  are 
not  so  reliable. 

608.  Pasteur,  the  great  French  scientist,  who,  for  a  number  of 
years,  devoted  a  great  amount  of  time  and  ability  to  conducting 
experiments,  in  order  to  find  a  preventive  for  this  direful  scourge,  at 
last  found,  that  portions  of  the  spinal  cord  of  rabbits,  which  he 
had  previously  rendered  rabid,  by  inoculating  with  the  virus,  could  be 
attenuated  to  a  variety  of  strengths.  When  these  preparations  of  the 
virus  of  rabies  are  injected  daily  into  the  body  of  a  patient  that  has 


had  the  misfortune  to  be  bitten  by  a  rabid  animal,  the  body  is  said 
to  be  rendered  immune  from  the  disease.  The  success  which  has 
attended  this  treatment,  and  the  large  number  of  cases  that  have 
been  inoculated,  almost  render  it  imperative  that  no  time  should  be 
lost  in  placing  a  bitten  subject  under  the  Pasteur  treatment.  The  idea 
that  underlies  treatment  by  inoculation,  is  to  bring  the  structures  of 
the  body  into  such  a  condition,  that  the  rabid  virus  fails  to  find  suitable 
food  for  its  development  and  multiplication.  In  this  way,  though  the 
germ  has  been  introduced  into  the  body,  the  disease  may  be  prevented. 
Fortunately,  owing  to  the  general  enforcement  of  the  muzzling  order 
for  dogs,  this  country  has  been  practically  free  for  some  time  past 
from  this  distressing  malady. 

609.  Tetanus,  or  Lock-jaw. — This  is  a  malady  that  is 
characterised  by  a  continuous,  stretched,  tense,  and  rigid  condition  of 
certain  voluntary  muscles  of  the  body.  It  is  of  a  fearfully  fatal  nature, 
and,  in  some  cases  in  its  acute  and  later  stages,  simulates  Rabies. 
Until  very  latel}',  it  also  was  described  as  an  affection  of  the  nervous 
system,  but  it  is  now  said  to  be  due  to  a  germ  termed  the  dvnm-stick 
bacillus,  so  called  from  its  resemblance  to  a  drum-stick.  Tetanus  is  of 
common  occurrence  in  the  horse,  more  particularly  in  hot  climates, 
and  is  met  with  in  three  forms, — acute,  sub-acute,  and  chronic, — the  first 
being  the  most  fatal.  It  was  formerly  classified  under  two  heads, 
and  when  no  cause  could  be  found,  it  was  called  idiopathic  tetanus  ; 
the  other,  arising  from  a  wound  with  an  external  opening,  was 
termed  traumatic  tetanus.  Now,  when  no  wound  can  be  observed,  it 
is  supposed  that  the  bacillus  finds  its  way  into  some  lesion  in  the 
lining  membrane  of  the  alimentary  track,  where  it  can  establish  its 

610.  Tetanus  commonly  follows  wounds  in  the  extremities,  par- 
ticularly punctured  wounds  in  the  feet  (the  majorit}^  of  my  cases  have 
resulted  from  these)  ;  it  also  sometimes  supervenes  on  operations, 
such  as  castration,  docking,  &c.,  no  matter  how  skilfully  they  may  be 
performed.  Experimental  microscopists  tell  us  that  the  disease- 
producing  germ  is  found  in  garden  mould,  and  that  tetanus  can  be 


produced  by  inoculation  with  such  soil.  This  appears  to  me  to  be  a 
strange  conclusion,  as  it  is  a  very  common  practice  of  mine,  on  seeing 
a  wound  showing  signs  of  healing,  to  leave  it  exposed  to  the  action  of 
the  air,  and  to  order  fine  dvy  soil  to  be  dusted  over  the  raw  surface. 
The  soil  I  find  to  be  a  good  absorbent  and  deodorizer,  and,  as  a 
rule,  the  wound  heals  quickly.  I  cannot  call  to  mind  a  single  case 
of  tetanus  followmg  this  treatment.  There,  however,  must  be 
something,  either  in  the  air,  surface  soil,  or  temperature,  to  account 
for  this  disease,  as,  during  a  period  of  40  years,  only  one  case  of 
tetanus  in  a  horse,  at  the  bottom  of  one  of  the  many  coal  mines 
visited,  has  come  under  my  own  observation  ;  yet,  as  a  rule,  the 
principal  portion  of  the  cases  met  with  in  the  pit-bottom  are  wounds 
in  the  feet. 

611.  There  are  three  terms  used  to  designate  the  varieties  of 
tetanus,  viz: — (i.) — Opisthotonos  :  when  the  head  is  pulled  upwards 
and  backwards,  and  the  tail  is  raised  by  the  tense  contraction  of  the 
muscles  of  the  back ;  (2.) — Empyosthotonos  :  when  the  head  is  depressed 
and  pulled  down  ;  and  (3.) — ■Plenrosthotonos  :  when  the  head  is  drawn 
to  one  side.  The  first  form  is  mostly  observed  in  the  horse,  but  the 
last  two  I  have  never  seen  in  the  horse,  though  I  have  noticed  them 
in  the  human  subject. 

612.  Tetanus  generally  makes  itself  manifest  from  about  the  sixth 
to  the  tenth  day  after  an  accident  or  operation,  just  when  the  wound 
is  healing.  If  the  wound  is  closely  examined,  it  will  be  observed,  should 
infection  have  taken  place,  to  have  a  peculiar  dusky  copper  colour, 
and  not  that  bright  strawberry-red  seen  in  healthy  granulations.  The 
organism,  or  bacillus,  that  is  supposed  to  cause  the  malady,  is  said  to 
confine  itself  to  the  wound  and  its  immediate  surroundings,  and  it 
excretes  or  manufactures  a  material,  which,  being  absorbed  into  the 
tissues,  acts  upon  the  nervous  structures,  and  produces  the  disease. 
With  reference  to  these  disease-producing  germs,  spores,  microbes 
or  bacilli, — in  other  words,  the  seeds  of  the  disease, — they  have,  for 
some  time  past,  been  experimented  with  by  a  number  of  microscopists 
in  the  laboratory,  and  there  cultivated,  grown,  and  tested  with  suitable 



food  (medium),  air,  moisture,  and  temperature.  Their  specific  nature 
has  been  determined  by  inoculation,  according  to  the  particular  disease 
to  which  they  belong  ;  but  when  such  a  disease  appears  in  the  farm- 
yard, or  in  the  sheep-fold,  there  seems  to  be  something  else  wanting 
besides  the  conditions  formulated  in  the  laboratory.  It  has  been 
observed  that  some  of  these  specific  germs,  like  the  germ  of  wheat 
or  of  other  grain,  retain  their  vitality  for  a  considerable  time  in  a  dry 
condition,  and  that  they  are  ever  present  with  us  in  air,  water,  and 
food.  Now,  if  they  are  so  ready  to  establish  their  action  when 
cultivated  in  the  laboratory,  all  conditions  being  suitable,  how  does  it 
happen,  that  the  various  specific  diseases  these  germs  are  said  to 
produce,  are  not  ever  present,  and  that  all  animal  life  has  not  been 
destroyed  ?  Probably  it  is  because,  like  seeds  of  higher  organisms  of 
every  kind,  the  surroundings  must  be  replete  and  complete  with  every 
necessary  condition  favourable  to  their  germination  and  development ; 
or,  it  may  be  essential  that  through  some  peculiarit}^  in  the  atmosphere, 
locality,  food,  or  other  influences,  acting  either  collectively  or  separately, 
the  body  of  the  patient  must  first  be  brought  into  such  a  condition  that 
the  particular  germ  specific  to  the  malady,  which  has  been  lying  latent, 
finds  the  circumstances  suitable  for  germination  and  growth. 

613.  Symptoms. — Tetanus  m  a  mild  form  is  not  readily  detected, 
but  in  its  acute  stages  the  symptoms  are  more  prominent.  The  first 
to  be  noticed  are  that :  If  the  animal  is  made  to  walk,  it  moves  stiffly, 
and  with  a  wooden  gait.  The  head  is  extended  forward,  nose  pointed 
out,  ears  pricked  out  in  front,  there  is  straddling  of  the  hind  legs,  the 
hocks  of  which  are  turned  out,  and  the  tail  is  raised  and  shaking.  If 
the  animal  is  in  the  stall,  the  hind  legs  are  placed  backwards,  wide 
apart,  with  the  points  of  the  hocks  turned  out,  the  tail  elevated  and 
quivering,  the  head  pulled  up,  and  the  eye  very  watchful  ;  whilst  the 
slightest  noise  seems  to  aggravate  the  symptoms.  On  approaching 
the  head,  the  animal  recedes  and  drags  the  fore  feet  backwards,  raising 
the  head  higher  ;  the  eye-ball  is  drawn  back  into  the  socket,  and  the 
haw  {memhrana  nictitans)  is  stretched  across  the  front  of  the  eye,  giving 
it  the  peculiar  appearance  of  a  squint.  The  latter  is  looked  upon  as  a 
confirming  symptom,  yet  the  jaws  may  still  be  slightl}^  movable.    But, 


as  the  case  proceeds,  the  symptoms  become  more  pronounced  ;  the 
muscles  of  the  face  have  a  tense  pinched  appearance;  the  nostrils  are 
wide  open,  and  there  is  foaming  at  the  mouth.  If  the  animal  is  made 
to  move  round,  it  turns  like  a  solid  block,  with  its  fore  legs  wide  apart. 
Patches  of  perspiration  are  noticed  on  various  parts  of  the  body,  and, 
in  some  cases,  it  sweats  profusely  all  over.  At  first,  the  pulse  is  not 
much  affected,  but  finally  becomes  quick,  hard,  and  oppressed.  The 
moment  the  animal  ceases  to  breathe,  all  the  muscles  of  the  bod}' 
become  relaxed,  soft,  and  flabby. 

614.  Treatment. — Having  seen  a  large  number  of  cases,  various 
modes  of  treatment  have  come  under  my  notice,  such  as  bleeding, 
phj^sicing,  hot  fomentations,  applying  a  newly  flayed  sheep's  skin  to 
the  body,  or  heavy  woollen  rugs,  giving  prussic  acid,  belladonna, 
aconite,  chloroform,  chloral  hydrate,  bromide  potass,,  opium,  &c.,  &c., 
recovery  being  sometimes  attributed  to  one  thing,  and  sometimes  to 
another.  I  have  also  tried  hypodermic  injections  of  the  various 
serums  and  anti-toxins  without  obtaining  any  beneficial  results.  My 
greatest  success,  however,  has  been  in  getting  the  affected  animal  into 
a  quiet,  secluded,  well-ventilated,  loose  box,  and  supporting  it  with 
slings  to  keep  it  from  falling,  for  if  it  once  gets  down,  it  very  rarely 
gets  on  to  its  legs  again  without  assistance.  If  called  to  the  case 
before  the  jaws  become  closed,  and  there  is  opportunity  for  giving  a 
dose  of  medicine,  a  six  to  eight  drachm  dose  of  physic  must  be  given, 
on  the  end  of  a  small  cane,  taking  great  care  not  to  excite  the  animal. 
Sheets  and  rugs  are  then  to  be  removed,  as  they  only  aggravate  the 
patient ;  leave  the  body  without  any  covering,  as  cold  acts  as  a  grand 
sedative.  Cases  recover  more  readily  in  extremely  cold  frosty 
weather,  than  in  hot.  If  there  be  an  external  wound,  clip  off"  the  hair 
from  about  it,  and  wash  well  with  one  part  of  Little's  phenyle,  and  60 
parts  of  cold  water  ;  then  apply  tincture  of  iron  to  the  wound,  and 
cover  it  well  up  with  a  good  plaster  of  extract  of  belladonna  over 
which  is  spread  a  thick  layer  of  cotton-wool.  Great  success  has 
attended  this  mode  of  treatment,  accompanied  by  alternate  hypodermic 
injections  of  pure  carbolic  acid  (B.P.)  and  glycerine,  and  a  mixture  of 
morphia  and  atropine,  30  to  40  drop  doses  of  each,  every  six  or  eight 


hours,  at  the  same  time  giving  one  to  two  oz.  sulphate  of  magnesia,  or 
hyposulphite  of  soda,  dissolved  in  a  pail  of  cold  water,  cold  hay-tea, 
or  milk  and  water,  placed  in  front  of  the  patient  in  such  a  position, 
that  it  can  suck  in  the  fluid  at  its  leisure.  Repeat  this  daily,  if 
necessary  ;  and  if  required,  warm  water  injections  containing  one  to 
two  oz.  of  glycerine  can  be  given  three  or  four  times  in  the  24  hours. 
All  solid  food  should  be  withheld  until  the  animal  is  so  far  convalescent 
as  to  be  able  to  assimilate  such  food  ;  then,  well-boiled  barley  and 
bran  are  strongly  recommended  with  green  food  (if  it  can  be  had), 
carrots,  &c.  It  usually  takes  from  six  to  eight  weeks  before  recovery 
can  be  boasted  of. 

THE     EYE. 

615.  The  Eye,  or  organ  of  vision,  is  of  globular  shape,  and  consists 
of  a  fibro-membranous  sac,  that  contains  transparent  humours  of 
different  densities,  which  act  as  refractors.  It  is  attached  to  its  bony 
socket  by  various  muscles,  and  sustained  in  a  steady  position  by  a 
cushion  or  pad  of  fat.  This  pad,  in  old  age,  becomes  absorbed,  and 
the  upper  portion  of  the  eye  sinks. 

616.  Protecting  the  front  of  the  eye,  we  have  two  movable  curtains, 
the  upper  and  lower  eyelids  ;  the  upper  being  the  larger,  and  more 
movable  of  the  two.  The  Eyelids  (Plate  XXXVI. ,  A.  5.)  are 
composed  of : — 

I. — The  Skin,  found  externally. 

2.- — ■Muscular  fibres,  to  control  their  movements. 

3. — The  Tarsal  cartilage,  to  give  stiffness  and  shape. 

4. — The  Conjunctiva,  (Plate  XXXVI.,  B.  1 .,  1 .),  or  mucous  lining, 
which  is  also  reflected  over  the  front  of  the  eye,  or  cornea. 

5. — The  Meibomian  glands,  {Plate  XXXVI.,  A.  10.,  10.),  which  are 
found  on  the  margin  of  the  eyelids,  and  secrete  an  oily  material,  that 
prevents  them  gumming  together. 


A.     THE  EYE. 



2.    2. 

The  Iris. 


Membrana  Nictitans  or  Haw. 


Puncta  Lachrymalis. 


Upper  Lid  cut  across,  showing  6. 


Lachrymal  Gland. 


Corpora  Nigra. 


Outer  Canthus. 


Inner  Canthus. 

lO     lO. 

Meibomian  Glands. 


Lachrymal  Canal, 


I.  I. 



The  Cornea. 

3-  3- 

Sclerotic  Coat. 

4-  4- 

Choroid  Coat. 




Anterior  Division  of  Aqueous  Chamber. 

7-  7- 

Vitreous  Humour — Posterior  Chamber. 


Crystaline  Lens. 


Capsule  of  Crystalline  Lens. 

lO.   lO. 



Pupillary  Space. 


Posterior  Division  of  Aqueous  Chamber. 


Ciliary  Processes. 


Yellow  Spot. 


Central  Artery  of  Retina. 

i6.  i6. 

Optic  Nerve. 


6. — The  Eyelashes,  which  are  the  tine  hairs  that  are  found  on  the 
free  edges  of  the  eyelids,  and  are  niore  abundant  on  the  upper  hd  than 
the  lower,  their  purpose  being  to  assist  in  preventing  the  entrance  of 
foreign  bodies. 

617.  The  Lachrymal  Gland  [Plate  XXXVI.,  A.  6.)  is  situated  on 
the  upper  portion  of  the  eyeball,  and  secretes  the  tears,  which  keep 
the  front  of  the  eye  moist  and  clear  ;  the  tears  pass  through  the 
lachrymal  duct  into  the  nose. 

618.  The  Membrana  Nictitans,  or  Haw,  {Plate  XXX VI.,  A.  3.), 
is  a  cartilaginous  structure,  situated  to  the  inner  side  of  the  eyeball. 
Its  function  is  to  remove  foreign  bodies,  and  shield  the  eye. 

619.  The  Eyeball  is  composed  of  three  coats,  viz.  : — i. — The 
Sclerotic  and  Cornea  ;  2. — The  Choroid  and  Iris  ;  and  3.— The 

620.  The  Sclerotic  coat  {Pla'e  XXXVI.,  B.  3.  3.)  is  a  very 
dense  structure,  formed  of  white  fibrous  tissue  ;  and  to  it  are  attached 
the  muscles  which  move  the  eyeball.  This  coat  forms  four-fifths  of 
the  external  tunic. 

621.  The  Cornea  {Plate  XXXVI.,  B.  2.)  is  that  transparent 
elliptical  portion  of  the  external  coat,  situated  in  the  front  of  the  eye  ; 
it  fits  into  the  sclerotic,  somewhat  similar  to  the  glass  in  a  watch,  so 
forming  the  remaining  fifth  of  the  outer  envelope. 

622.  The  Choroid  coat  [Plate  XXXVI.,  B.  4.,  4.)  consists  of 
three  layers  ;  i.e.,  the  external — composed  principally  of  minute  veins; 
middle — a  plexus  of  small  arteries  ;  and  the  internal — a  dark  brown 
pigmentary  layer. 

623.  The  Iris,  [Plate  XXXVI.,A.  2.,  2.  and  B.  10.,  10.),  or  curtain, 
is  conected  with  the  choroid,  and  may  be  of  various  colourings  ;  in  the 
horse,  it  is  generally  dark  brown.  Tlie  opening  in  the  centre  of  the 
iris  is  called  the  pupil,  and,  in  horses,  is  of  elliptical  shape.  The 
muscular  fibres  of  the  iris  are  arranged  in  two  directions: — circular 


and  radiating  ;  the  former  contracting,  the  latter  dilating  the  pupil. 
Some  horses  have  a  white,  unpigmented  iris,  and  are  called  "wall- 
eyed," or  "  albinos." 

624.  The  Corpora  Nigra  {Plate  XXXVI. ,  A.  7.)  are  the  small 
black  bodies,  of  a  globular  shape,  to  be  observed  in  front  of  the 
papillary  openmg,  and  generally  seen  on  the  upper  fringe  of  the  iris; 
their  use  is  supposed  to  be  to  modify  the  rays  of  light. 

625.  The  Humours  of  the  eye  are— the  aqueous,  the  crystalliue,  and 
the  vitreous;  they  act  as  refractive  media.  The  aqueous  {Plate 
XXXVL.  B.  6.  and  12.)  is  in  front,  between  the  interior  surface  of 
the  cornea,  and  the  crystalhne  lens.  It  is  composed  chiefly  of  water, 
and  has  an  alkaline  reaction.  The  crystalline  lens  {Plate  XXXVL, 
B.  8.)  is  bi-convex,  more  flattened  in  front  than  behind.  It  is 
made  up  of  concentric  layers,  like  an  onion,  and  is  enclosed  in  a 
capsule.  It  is  situated  behind  the  iris,  having  the  aqueous  humour 
in  front,  and  the  vitreous  behind,  and  is  held  in  position  by  a 
suspensory  ligament.  It  is  transparent,  its  use  being  to  concentrate 
the  rays  of  light  to  a  focus.  The  vitreous  humour  {Plate  XXXVL, 
B.  7.,  7.)  occupies  the  posterior  chamber,  which  constitutes  about 
four-fifths  of  the  interior  of  the  sac.  It  is  an  albuminous  semi-fluid, 
of  a  jelly-like  consistency,  and  is  enclosed  in  a  structure  termed  the 
hyaloid  niemhyane. 

626.  The  Retina  {Plate  XXXVL,  B.  5.)  is  the  expansion  of  the 
optic  nerve.  It  is  composed  of  several  layers,  consisting  of  rods, 
cones,  &c.,  and  is  the  essential  part  of  the  organ  of  vision.  The 
optic  nerve  {Plate  XXXVL,  B.  16.,  16.)  enters  the  eyeball,  in 
company  with  the  opthalmic  artery  and  vein,  at  the  back  of  the  eye. 

627.  The  muscles  of  the  eye  are— the  Retractor,  Abductor, 
Adductor,  Depressor,  Levator,  and  superior,  and  inferior  Obliques. 
These  muscles  turn  the  eye  in  the  various  directions  required. 


62S.  The  Eye,  although  well  shielded  by  a  strong  bony  socket, 
cartilaginous,  muscular,  and  membranous  structures,  is  frequently 
subject  to  injury  and  disease. 

629.  The  Eyelids  are  sometimes  injured,  as  a  result  of  fighting, — 
more  particularly  in  dogs.  In  the  horse,  the  upper  lid  is  occasionally 
torn  by  hooks,  nails,  &c.  Should  the  piece  hang  down  over  the  front 
of  the  eye,  the  best  plan  is  to  cut  it  off,  and  treat  the  place  as  a  simple 
wound,  or,  if  practicable,  a  suture  or  two  may  be  put  in,  and  the 
wound  covered  with  collodion.  Warty  growths,  when  present,  can 
be  removed  with  the  scissors  or  the  knife.  The  eyelids  may  become 
inverted,  or  everted  ;  when  the  former  happens,  the  eyelashes  turn 
inwards  and  irritate  the  front  of  the  eye  ;  when  the  latter  occurs,  they 
turn  outwards.  Both  cases  cause  much  pain  and  annoyance,  and 
have  to  be  relieved  by  an  operation,  which  consists  of  cutting  a  piece 
out  of  the  lid.  The  succeeding  inflammation  should  be  treated  with 
the  following  soothing  eye  lotion  : — boracic  acid,  one  drachm  ;  wine 
of  opium,  two  drachms  ;  rose-water,  half-a-pint  ;  apply  with  a  soft 
sponge  night  and  morning.  If  great  pain  be  present,  a  solution  of 
cocaine,  or  extract  of  belladonna,  may  be  used.  The  animal  should 
always  be  kept  in  a  dark  place,  and  fed  on  a  cooling  diet. 

630.  The  Membrana  Nictitans,  or  Haw,  is  sometimes  subject 
to  irritation  and  inflammation,  but  is  more  prone  to  warty  growths,  and 
soft,  spongy,  and  cancerous  tumours.  The  warts  may  be  successfully 
cut  off  with  the  scissors,  but  in  removing  the  soft  tumours,  the  haw,  in 
some  cases,  has  to  be  excised  altogether.  After  the  operation,  the 
parts  should  be  dressed  with  the  boracic  lotion,  already  recommended. 
These  growths  are  more  frequently  seen  in  the  cow,  than  in  the  horse. 
Old-fashioned  farriers  used  to  cut  the  haw  out  for  an  imaginary 
complaint  in  pigs,  called  the  "  howks,"  which  was  really  indigestion  ; 
they  took  up  the  haw  with  a  needle  and  thread  and  cut  it  out  with  the 


631.  Conjunctivitis,  or  Simple  Opthalmia. — Inflammation  of 
the  external  coat  of  the  front  of  the  eye,  or  cornea,  extending  to  the 
lining  of  the  eyelids.  This  is  generally  the  result  of  an  injury,  such  as 
a  blow  from  a  stick  or  lash  from  a  whip,  but  extreme  hot  or  cold 
weather  will  also  produce  it,  more  particularly  in  sheep  and  lambs, 
during  the  cold,  irosly,  spring  months.  Bad  ventilation  and  drainage 
also  favour  its  occurrence  ;  but  perhaps  the  most  frequent  cause  is 
the  entrance  of  foreign  bodies,  such  as  sand,  hayseed,  chaff,  &c. 
Symptoms. — The  eyelids  are  more  or  less  closed  and  swollen,  tears 
flow  freely  down  the  side  of  the  face,  and  the  patient  cannot  bear 
exposure  to  the  light.  The  lining  of  the  lid  is  very  red  and  congested, 
and  the  front  of  the  eye  has  a  peculiar,  pale  blue,  milky  hue,  especially 
at  the  seat  of  the  injur}'.  Constitutional  disturbance,  may,  in  some 
cases,  be  present,  with  fever,  and  must  receive  attention  and  be 
combated  with  suitable  medicines. 

632.  Treatment  of  Simple  Opthalmia. — A  careful  and  minute 
examination  must  be  made,  and,  if  the  cause  is  due  to  some  foreign 
body,  which  is  not  buried  in  the  exudation  that  usually  follows,  it  may 
be  removed  with  a  straw,  a  feather,  or  the  corner  of  a  handkerchief  ; 
but  a  pair  of  forceps,  with  fine  rounded  points,  is  best.  Should  the 
eye  be  very  sensitive,  and  pulled  back  into  the  socket,  as  is  often  seen 
in  the  cow,  so  that  the  object  cannot  be  reached,  a  little  of  a  five  to 
eight  per  cent,  solution  of  cocaine  should  be  put  into  the  eye,  when,  in 
the  course  of  from  15  to  20  minutes,  the  offending  body  may  be 
removed.  On  no  consideration  should  alum  or  powdered  glass  be 
blown  into  the  eye,  as  is  too  frequently  done ;  these  are  highly 
dangerous,  and  cause  a  great  amount  of  pain  to  the  animal.  They 
are,  therefore,  to  be  strongly  condemned.  Bathing  the  eye,  three  or 
four  times  a  day,  with  cold  water,  and  then  applying  the  boracic  eye 
lotion  already  named,  is  all  that  is  necessary.  Sheep  and  lambs, 
when  affected,  should  be  removed  to  better  shelter,  and  the  eye 
sponged  once  or  twice  a  day  with  the  boracic  lotion.  These  cases,  if 
not  properly  attended  to,  may  result  in  ulceration  of  the  cornea,  and 
even  fungoid  growths  may  spring  up  ;  then,  more  heroic  treatment  is 
required,  and  touching  the  places  with  nitrate  of  silver,  every  second 


or  third  day,  has  a  beneficial  effect.  In  very  severe  cases,  the 
ulceration  extends  through  the  external  coats,  the  humour  then 
escapes,  and  the  eye  is  lost. 

633.  Periodic  Opthalmia. — This  differs  very  much  from  simple 
opthalmia,  in  attacking  the  internal  structures  of  the  eye,  usually  the 
anterior  chamber.  Formerly,  it  was  supposed  to  come  on  with  the 
changes  of  the  moon,  and  got  the  name  of  moon  blindness,  whilst,  on 
account  of  its  tendency  to  recur,  the  term  periodic  was  used.  It  is 
not  so  prevalent  as  it  used  to  be,  and  when  it  does  occur,  town  horses, 
as  a  rule,  are  the  sufferers.  Its  causes  are  not  well  understood,  but 
are  generally  considered  to  be  of  a  constitutional  character  ;  sudden 
changes  from  heat  to  cold,  bad  ventilation,  and  defective  drainage, 
are  also  blamed.  In  my  opinion,  one  great  cause  is  through  an  injury 
brought  about  by  the  horse  throwing  up  its  head,  in  a  low-roofed 
stable,  and  thus  hitting  itself  behind  the  ears,  or  it  may  arise  through 
the  infliction  of  a  brutal  blow  from  a  stick  in  that  region.  Some 
think  it  has  a  hereditary  tendency;  such,  however,  has  not  been  my 
experience.  Symptoms. — As  a  rule,  the  attack  is  sudden,  the  horse  is 
very  dull,  hangs  its  head,  and  has  one  or  both  eyelids  closed  ;  the 
upper  lid  has  a  flat  and  wrinkled  appearance,  owing  to  the  eye  being 
pulled  back  into  its  socket.  The  animal  cannot  bear  the  light,  and,  on 
examining  the  e3'e,  it  is  found  to  be  dim,  having  lost  its  lustre,  the 
front  chamber  appearing  of  a  yellowish  amber,  sometimes  a  reddish 
brown  colour,  and  the  pupil  can  scarceh'  be  seen.  Frequent  attacks 
implicate  the  crystalline  lens,  and  finally  end  in  cataract. 

634.  Treatment. — Put  the  animal  into  a  room)',  well-ventilated, 
but  darkened  loose  box,  keep  it  perfectly  quiet,  and  administer  mild 
doses  of  laxative  medicine,  say  two  ounces  epsom  salts,  and  half 
ounce  cream  of  tartar,  night  and  morning,  in  a  mash  of  bran,  or  as  a 
draught,  until  the  bowels  show  relaxation.  The  eye  should  be 
sponged  with  a  weak  solution  of  extract  of  belladonna,  two  or  three 
times  a  day.  This  treatment,  in  some  cases,  may  be  all  that  is 
required  ;  but  in  protracted  cases,  I  have  found  great  benefit  arise 
from  the  application  of  a  blister  on  the  side  of  the  cheek,  or  behind 


the  ears.  I  have  had  cases  in  bulls,  especially  young  ones,  where  the 
aqueous  humour  has  been  rendered  opaque,  in  fact,  nearly  milky 
white,  from  excessive  sexual  exertion.  The  animal  must  not  be  used 
in  the  meantime,  but  be  kept  perfectly  quiet,  in  a  dark  loose  box,  and 
the  eyes  bathed  for  15  to  20  minutes,  several  times  a  day,  with  cold 

635.  Cataract  is  a  pearly  white  appearance,  or  opacity,  of  the 
crystalline  lens,  or  its  capsule,  or  both.  It  may  result  from  external 
injury  to  the  eye,  or  from  frequent  attacks  of  inflammation,  or  periodic 
opthalmia  ;  again,  it  may  be  congenital,  and  may  appear  in  one  or 
both  eyes.  The  whole,  or  only  part  of  the  lens  may  be  affected,  and 
various  names  are  accordingly  given  to  it,  such  as  Lenticular  Cataract — 
when  the  lens  itself  is  the  seat  of  the  affection  ;  Capsular  Cataract — 
when  only  the  capsule  is  affected  ;  and  Capsttlo-Lejiticnlar — when  both 
are  implicated.  Old  dogs  seem  to  be  the  greatest  sufferers,  and  in 
these,  it  generally  comes  on  gradually.  In  the  human  subject,  the 
lens  can  be  removed,  and  suitable  glasses  substituted  ;  but  in  the 
domestic  animals,  treatment  is  of  little  use.  When  the  eye  is  injured, 
or  undergoing  severe  inflammation,  the  great  point  is  to  use  every 
endeavour  to  prevent  a  cataract  forming. 

636.  In  examinations  of  horses  for  soundness,  it  is  of  the  greatest 
importance  that  the  eyes  be  carefully  examined,  as  cataract  causes 
partial  or  complete  blindness.  The  horse  must  be  taken  into  a  dark 
place,  and  the  eye  examined  with  a  lighted  candle  ;  if  the  eye  is 
correct,  the  pupil  will  contract  gradually,  on  the  light  being 
presented  ;  a  clear,  deep,  black-blue,  liquid  appearance  will  be  seen 
beyond  the  pupillar  space,  and  the  image  of  the  light  from  the  candle 
be  reflected  in  three  distinct  places.  On  moving  the  candle  to  and 
fro,  the  reflected  lights  move  at  the  same  time,  but  if  cataract  be 
present,  the  pupil  remains  stationary,  and  a  pearly  white  substance  is 
seen,  filling  up  the  pupillary  opening. 

637.  Amaurosis. — This,  strictly  speaking,  is  not  a  disease  of  the 
eye  itself,  but  a  derangement  of  the  "optic  nerve,"  producing  partial, 


or  complete  loss  of  sight.  The  eye  appears  to  be  fuller,  brighter  and 
more  brilliant  than  usual,  and  at  the  first  glance,  it  seems  a  beautifully 
developed  eye.  When  it  occurs,  both  eyes  are  affected,  as  a  rule.  In 
the  majority  of  cases,  the  horse  carries  his  head  well  up,  and  steps 
very  high,  in  a  hesitating,  jerky  manner.  On  carefully  examining  the 
eye,  the  pupillary  opening  is  very  much  dilated,  and  instead  of  being 
elliptical,  it  is  nearly  circular,  very  little  of  the  iris  being  seen  ;  whilst 
on  being  subjected  to  the  rays  of  a  strong  light,  the  pupil  will  not 
contract.  Detection  of  amaurosis,  is  really  of  more  importance  in 
examination  for  soundness,  than  that  of  cataract. 

638.  Filaria  Oculi,  or  worm  in  the  eye,  is  extremely  rare  in  this 
country,  but  is  frequently  seen  in  hot  chmates,  e.g.,  India.  The  parasite 
is  the  strong ylus  filavia,  and  measures  from  half  to  one  inch  long  ;  it  is 
found  in  the  anterior  chamber  of  the  eye,  where  it  moves  about  freely, 
setting  up  irritation,  and  giving  to  the  aqueous  humour  a  peculiar 
milky  hue.  It  can  be  successfully  removed  by  casting  the  horse,  and 
cutting  into  the  eye  at  the  upper  edge  of  the  cornea,  so  liberating  the 
humour,  and  with  it,  the  offending  worm. 

639.  There  are  several  other  diseases  of  the  eye,  such  as  Nebula, 
Glaucoma,  Staphyloma,  Tuberculosis,  S'C,  but  as  they  are  of  rare 
occurrence,  I  will  not  dwell  upon  them. 

640.  Dislocation  of  the  Eyeball  is  mostly  seen  in  the  dog,  as 
a  result  of  fighting.  When  recently  done  it  is  readily  reduced,  by 
pressing  it  carefully  back  into  the  socket  with  the  thumbs,  pulling  tlie 
lids  forward  with  a  pair  of  forceps,  and  keeping  it  in  its  place  with  a 
bandage  and  a  pad  of  wet  lint.  When  it  has  been  displaced  for  some 
time,  and  has  become  swollen  and  congested,  it  should  be  bathed  well 
with  tepid  water,  or  an  infusion  of  poppy  heads  ;  and  it  may  be  necessary 
to  slit  the  eyelids  at  the  outer  corner,  before  returning  it  ;  then  it 
should  be  maintained  in  its  place  by  one  or  two  stitches  of  antiseptic 
thread,  all  being  covered  with  a  lint  pad  made  wet  with  boracic  lotion 
(par.  529)  and  secured  in  its  place  with  a  bandage.  In  some  cases, 
the  eveball  is  so  much  damaged  that  it  has  to  be  removed. 

THE    EAR. 

641.  In  the  horse,  the  ears  should  be  fine,  and  well  pointed  forward, 
and  when  at  work,  should  always  be  on  the  move,  first  backward,  and 
then  forward,  so  as  to  catch  sounds.  Each  ear  is  made  up  of  three 
distinct  portions,  i.e.,  the  External  Eav,  the  Middle  Ear,  and  the  Internal 

642.  The  External  Ear  is  made  up  of  three  pieces  of  cartilage  : — 

ist.~Conchal,  which  forms  the  point. 

2nd. — Annular,  ring-shaped  at  the  bottom. 

3rd. — Scutiform,  triangular  in  form,  and  which  acts  as  a  lever 
to  move  the  conchal. 

These  are  all  covered  internally  by  a  fine  skin,  containing  minute 
glands,  which  secrete  wax,  so  as  to  prevent  insects  and  other  foreign 
bodies  entering  the  ear. 

643.  The  Middle  Ear,  or  Tynipanuni,  contains  four  small  bones, 
named:  i. — Malleus  or  Hammer;  2. — Incus  or  Anvil;  3. — -Stapes  or 
Stirrup  ;  4. — Os-orhiculare  (the  smallest  bone  in  the  body). 

644.  The  Tympanum  cavity  is  separated  from  that  of  the  external 
ear  by  a  thin  membrane  known  as  the  Membrane  Tympania,  or  drum 
of  the  ear.  Sound  waves  produce  vibration  of  this  membrane. 
These  vibrations  are  communicated  to  the  chain  of  small  bones  above- 
mentioned,  and,  by  them,  to  the  internal  ear.  In  order  that  the 
pressure  on  the  two  sides  of  the  membrane  tympani  may  be  maintained 
in  an  uniform  condition,  the  cavity  of  the  tympanum  is  placed  in 
communication  with  the  pharynx  by  means  of  a  tube,  known  as  the 
Eustachian  Tube. 

645.  The  Internal  Ear  is  very  complex.  It  is  called  the  labyrinth, 
and  is  made  up  of  bony  and  membranous  parts.  The  bony  part 
contains:  T. — The  Vestibule;  2. — Semi-circular  Canals;  3. — Cochlea,  ov 
shell.  The  membranous  part  is  contained  within  the  bony  portion  and 
is  specially  adapted  for  hearing. 


646.  The  phenomena  of  hearing  are  very  interesting,  and  worth 
reading  up.  The  same  may  be  said  regarding  the  phenomena  of 
sight.  Fortunately,  we  have  very  few  diseases  of  the  ear  in  horses  ; 
they  may,  however,  get  torn  or  wounded,  and  are  prone  to  warty 
growths,  which  must  be  removed  by  operation.  Sometimes  we  have 
a  sinus  running  up  the  edge  of  the  ear,  the  bottom  of  which,  has  been 
found  to  contain  a  small  rudimentary  tooth. 

647.  Canker  of  the  ear,  is  mostly  seen  in  dogs  that  have  little  to 
do,  and  are  over-fed.  Heavy-eared  dogs,  as  spaniels  and  retrievers, 
seem  to  be  predisposed  to  it.  When  affected,  the  dog  holds  its  head 
rather  to  one  side,  every  now  and  again  shaking  it,  and  flapping  the 
ears,  which  it  scratches  with  its  feet.  On  examination,  a  nasty,  fcetid 
discharge  is  seen  in  the  hollow  of  the  ear.  Treatment. — Washing 
with  warm  water  seems  to  aggravate  and  extend  the  disease.  Wipe 
the  affected  part  as  clean  as  possible,  with  medicated  cotton  wool, 
then  put  a  few  drops  of  creasote,  or  oil  of  cloves  into  the  ear,  and  rub 
well  in  from  the  outside,  but  the  best,  and  most  radical  treatment,  is 
to  puff  into  the  bottom  of  the  ear  a  small  quantity  of  iodoform,  every 
third  day  ;  at  the  same  time,  giving  a  dose  of  castor  oil  and  syrup  of 
buckthorn,  and  changing  the  diet. 



648.  The  skin  (Plate  XXXVII. ,  10)  is  a  dense,  porous,  and  very 
sensitive  structure,  serving  to  cover  and  protect  the  body  from  external 
injury.     It  is  composed  of  two  layers  : — 

ist. — External— The  Cuticle,  or  Epidermis. 
2nd. — Internal — The    Dermis,    True     Skin,    or    Cutis 

The  skin  varies  in  thickness  in  different  parts  of  the  body.  It  is  fine 
and  soft  where  much  motion  is  required,  and  dense  and  thick  where 
the  parts  are  exposed — as  the  back,  shoulders,  &c. 

649.  The  Cuticle,  or  Epidermis,  is  composed  principally  of  scales, 
which  are  cast  off  when  done  with,  like  the  scales  from  the  body  of  a 
lish.  It  is  non-sensitive.  The  deepest  part  of  the  epidermis  is  known 
as  the  Rete   Mucosum,  and  it  is  to  it  that  the  skin  owes  its  colour. 

650.  The  Cutis  Vera,  dermis,  or  true  skin,  contains  the  sebaceous, 
fat,  or  oil  glands,  the  sudoriparous  or  sweat  glands,  the  hair, 
and  hair  follicles. 

651.  The  Sebaceous  Glands  (Plate  XXXVIL,  10,  E.)  secrete  an 
oil  which  pours  into  the  hair  follicles,  for  the  purpose  of  lubricating 
the  skin,  and  keeping  it  and  the  hair  soft. 

652.  Sudoriparous  or  Sweat  Glands  (Plate  XXXVIL,  10,  B.).— 
It  is  said  that  there  are  about  2,000  pores  in  one  square  inch  of  skin, 
for  the  purpose  of  perspiration,  an  action  which  is  both  insensible  and 
sensible.     The  quantity  of  sweat  varies  very  much,  according  to  the 


season,  condition  of  tlie  animal,  the  work  done,  &c.  About  14 
pounds  of  insensil:)le  perspiration  are  supposed  to  pass  off  every 
24  hours  from  a  horse,  ie.,  above  half-a-pound  every  hour,  showing 
that  the  skin  is  an  extensive  draining  organ.  The  water  excreted  by 
the  sweat  glands  exercises  a  protective  influence  over  the  external 
surface  of  the  body,  and  tends  to  equalise  the  temperature  of  the 
body.  Cleanliness  promotes  the  secretions  of  the  glands  of  the  skin, 
as  is  readily  observed  in  the  sleek  coats  of  well-kept  animals,  such  as 
hunters,  race-horses,  army  horses,  &c. 

653.  Hair  (Plate  XXXVII. ,  10,  C.  D.)—ln  the  lower  animals,  the 
body  is  covered  with  hair,  or  wool,  which  differs  very  much  in  texture, 
according  to  the  climate,  season,  and  the  breed  of  animal,  and  it  also 
varies  in  this  respect  on  different  parts  of  the  body.  A  hair  is  said  to 
have  a.  point,  shaft,  and  root;  the  latter  swells  out  into  a  bulb,  and  is 
fixed  in  the  hair  follicle, — a  depression  in  the  true  skin.  The  horse 
casts  its  coat  twice  a  year,  having  a  summer  and  a  winter  covering. 
Castration,  when  the  coat  is  being  shed  or  cast,  in  some  cases,  tends 
to  make  the  coat  rough. 

654.  Clipping  in  Winter. — In  late  autumn,  or  early  winter,  the 
coat  of  the  horse  becomes  very  long  and  rough.  Anyone  who  has 
driven  a  horse  in  this  state,  must  recognise  the  oppressive  effect  the 
long  close  coat  has  on  the  animal,  which  begins  to  puff  and  blow, 
needing  frequent  applications  of  the  whip,  while  perspiration  oozes  out 
of  every  pore.  A  horse  stabled  in  this  condition  takes  hours  to  dry, 
and  in  many  cases,  when  put  in  thus  at  night,  it  will  be  found  in  the 
morning  still  wet  and  cold.  This  necessarily  chills  the  surface  of  the 
body,  tending  to  drive  the  blood  from  the  skin,  and  to  produce 
congestion  of  the  internal  organs,  swollen  legs,  &c.  Clipping  makes  a 
wonderful  change — the  horse  becomes  an  entirely  different  animal, 
active  on  its  legs,  and  eager  in  its  movements  ;  the  depression  has 
gone,  the  whip  is  no  longer  needed,  and  any  little  perspiration  which 
may  arise  is  quickly  evaporated.  The  greatest  advantage  of  all, 
however,  is  that  the  coat  being  off,  the  animal  is  more  easily  dressed 
and   cleaned  ;    the  surface  capillaries    are   thus   stimulated   in    their 


circulation,  animal  heat  sustained,  and  the  internal  organs  kept  free 
from  congestive  disorders.  From  this,  it  will  be  seen  that  clipping 
acts  as  a  splendid  tonic,  fully  equal — in  fact,  superior — to  an  extra 
feed  of  corn  per  day. 

655.  Hoofs,  Horns,  and  Claws  are  appendages  pertaining  to  the 
skin.  The  hoof  or  horny  box,  protects  and  shields  the  sensitive  parts 
of  the  foot,  and  is  secreted  by  the  coronary  band  (pars.  168  and  169). 
Horns,  seen  on  the  sides  of  the  forehead  of  many  animals,  are 
modifications  of  the  skin  ;  they  differ  very  much  in  shape,  size,  and 
colour.  A  horn  has  a  base,  body,  and  point,  and  is  secreted  by  a  fine 
vascular  membrane,  which  covers  the  horn  core,  and  forms  a  circular 
pad  in  connection  with  the  skin  at  the  base.  The  rings  formed  at  the 
base  of  the  cow's  horn  are  looked  upon  by  many  as  an  indication  of  the 
age  of  the  animal  ;  the  first  ring  is  supposed  to  make  its  appearance 
about  the  age  of  three  years,  a  new  ring  being  formed  each  succeeding 
year.  These  rings  are  often  rasped  out,  and  rubbed  down  with 
sand-paper  and  oil,  to  give  the  animal  a  more  youthful  appearance. 
The  bony  projection,  or  horn  core,  is  made  up  internally  of  cavities, 
interspersed  with  thin  beams  of  bone,  which  give  to  it  both  strength 
and  lightness.  Claws  are  formed  in  a  manner  analogous  to  that  in 
which  hoofs  and  horns  are  produced. 

656.  Skin  Diseases  are  numerous,  and  of  great  variety,  and  may 
be  classed  under  three  heads  : — 

I . — Inflammatory. 

2. — Non-Inflammatory. 

3. — Parasitic. 


657.  Variola-Equina,  or  Horse-Pox,  is  a  specific,  vesicular, 
eruptive,  febrile  disease  of  the  inflammatory  type,  happily  of  rare 
occurrence  in  country  practice,  and,  although  of  a  constitutional 
character,  manifestations  of  the  malady  are  made  through  the  agency 
of  the  skin.  Symptoms. — The  horse  hangs  its  head  in  a  listless 
manner,  and  is  off  its  food,  while  the  skin  is  hot  and  dry.  In  the 
course  of  a  few  days,  small  vesicles  are  noticed  cropping  up  on  various 
parts  of  the  body  ;  each  of  these  contains  a  thin  fluid,  and  soon 
bursts  forming  a  scab,  which  in  tune  drops  off,  leaving  a  bare  spot. 
The  fever  has  to  be  combated  with  gentle  saline  medicines,  but 
purgatives  must  be  strictly  avoided.  Doses  of  from  one  to  two 
ounces  of  Epsom  salts  and  one  ounce  of  cream  of  tartar,  given  in  hay 
tea,  night  and  morning,  are  all  the  treatment  that  is  required.  When 
the  skin  is  very  itchy,  sponging  it  frequently  with  equal  parts  of 
sanitas  and  water,  has  a  very  soothing  and  cooling  effect. 

658.  Variola-Vaccina,  or  Cow-Pox,  is  a  somewhat  similar 
malady  affecting  the  cow,  which,  however,  is  now  very  rare.  It 
was  in  the  lymph  contained  in  the  vesicles  of  this  affection,  that  the 
immortal  Jenner  recognized  the  properties  of  a  protective  agent 
against  human  smallpox,  and  from  this  lymph  he  prepared  his 
vaccine.  The  vesicles  are  usually  found  on  the  udder  of  the  cow,  and 
accompanying  them  there  is,  as  in  the  horse,  a  considerable  amount  of 
fever  and  constitutional  disturbance.  Simple  alkaline  medicine,  good 
nursing,  and  easily  digestible  food,  constitute  all  the  necessary 

659.  Variola-Ovina,  or  Sheep-Pox. — A  vesicular  complaint, 
somewhat  analogous  in  its  symptoms  to  the  pox  of  the  horse  and  cow, 
also  affects  the  sheep,  but  is  happily  very  rare.  Here,  the  eruptions 
are  first  seen  on  the  inside  of  the  thighs  and  fore-arms.  The  affected 
animals  should  at  once  be  removed,  and  isolated.  Sheep-pox  is  under 
the  Contagious  Diseases  (Animals)  Act. 



66o.  Simple  Eczema,  is- an  inflammatory  eruption  of  the  skin, 
Avhich  often  affects  the  horse,  particularly  in  the  spring  and  summer 
months  when  at  grass  ;  it  is  characterized  by  the  formation  all  over 
the  body  of  miimte  vesicles  or  bladders  full  of  a  thin  fluid,  accompanied 
by  itching  and  irritation,  which  causes  the  animal  to  rub  itself  against 
anything  it  Comes  in  contact  with.  It  is  common  in  horses  imported 
from  other  countries,  and  somewhat  resembles  mange,  but  in  this  case, 
there  is  no  parasite  present.  Being  very  inoculative  to  other  animals, 
ail  harness,  clothing,  saddles,  brushes,  &c.,  used  on  an  affected  animal 
must  be  carefully  washed  m  some  disinfectant  fluid.  Although  the 
complaint  is  distinctly  inflammatory,  there  is  seldom  any  accompanying 
constitutional  disturbance,  and  the  first  thing  to  be  noticed  is  that  the 
hair  stands  up  on  end  in  minute  patches,  which,  on  closer  examination, 
are  found  to  denote  the  presence  of  small  pustules,  containing  fluid. 
These  soon  dry  up,  forming  a  scab,  which,  if  brushed  off,  leaves  a  bare 
place.  If  taken  in  time,  washing  the  body  with  Little's  phenyle, — one 
part  to  eighty  parts  cold  soft  water, — every  three  or  four  days,  and 
giving  tablespoonful  doses  of  bi-carbonate  of  soda,  every  night  and 
morning,  in  a  mash,  has  a  very  good  effect.  Chronic  cases,  however, 
have  to  be  dealt  with  by  stronger  treatment,  such  as  arsenical  prepara- 
tions internally,  and  iodine  applications  externally. 

66i.  Mallenders  is  of  an  eczematous  nature,  and  regarded  as  a 
sub-acute,  or  chronic  inflammation  of  the  skin  at  the  back  of  the  knee- 
joint,  with  a  thin,  irritative,  watery  discharge,  causing  the  hair  to  stick 
out,  and  eventually  fall  off",  leaving  a  scurfy  thickening  of  the  skin.  It 
is  a  complaint  common  in  cart-horses,  notably  those  that  have  thick 
gummy  legs,  and  especially  when  they  are  out  of  condition.  Treatment 
is  not  always  satisfactory.  The  general  condition  of  the  animal  must 
have  attention,  the  diet  must  be  changed,  and  a  mild  laxative  ball  given 
(say  three  drachms  each  of  aloes  and  bi-carbonate  of  soda),  followed 
up  by  tonic  diuretic  medicines,  and  dressing  of  the  parts,  twice  a 
week,  with  a  little  ten  per  cent,  oleate  of  mercury,  which  should  be 
well  rubbed  in.  Of  all  the  remedies  I  have  tried,  this  application 
seems  to  have  the  best  effect.  On  no  account  should  the  aff"ected 
parts  be  washed,  as  this  seems  to  irritate  them  and  to  encourage  the 
spreading  of  the  complaint. 


662.  Sallenders  is  a  complaint  identical  with  mallenders  ;  the  only 
difference  is  in  the  situation,  this  being  found  at  the  front  and  bend 
of  the  hock.  Lichen  is  a  somewhat  similar  complaint,  but  more  of  a 
papular  form,  and  affects  the  skin  of  the  back  part  of  the  legs,  old 
chronic  cases  are  known  as  "  rat  tails."  Treatment  for  these  is  the 
same  as  that  laid  down  for  mallenders. 

663.  Grease. — Strange  to  say,  in  this  part  of  the  country,  nearly 
all  cases  of  sudden  lameness  and  swollen  legs,  are  designated  as 
"shots  of  grease,"  whereas,  in  reality  no  such  thing  exists,  grease 
being  inflammation  of  the  true  skin,  of  an  eczematous  character, 
affecting  the  oil  glands.  Cart-horses  of  the  round  gummy-legged 
class  are  more  subject  to  it  than  those  of  the  light-legged  class,  while 
the  hind-legs  are  more  often  attacked  than  the  fore.  The  causes  are 
various  ;  some  horses  ha\e  a  natural  pre-disposition  to  it,  and  then 
anything  that  irritates  the  lower  part  of  the  limb  will  induce  the 
disease.  Sudden  chills  after  the  animal  has  been  heated  ;  washing 
and  not  drying  the  legs  ;  want  of  exercise,  with  too  stimulating  food  ; 
feeding  on  new  hay  or  oats  ;  standing  in  filthy  boxes,  &c.,  have  all  a 
tendency  to  produce  this  complaint.  Symptoms. — The  first  symptoms 
usually  noticed  are  swelling  of  the  legs,  and  stiffness  on  moving,  but 
there  is  not  that  acute  pain  present  which  is  characteristic  of  "  weed  " 
— often  misnamed  "  grease  "  (par.  449).  In  a  short  time  the  hair 
stands  on  end,  and  a  thin,  yellow,  oily  discharge  is  seen  oozing 
through  the  skin  ;  this  runs  down  the  limb,  and  irritates  the  parts  with 
which  it  comes  in  contact.  The  leg  is  very  painful  to  the  touch,  and 
in  the  hollow  of  the  heel,  and  back  of  the  fetlock  cracks  are  seen  in  the 
skin.  Treatment. — The  alkaUne  laxative  ball,  mentioned  under 
mallenders,  should  be  given,  followed  up  with  saline  and  iron  tonics. 
The  leg  should  be  washed  with  Little's  phenyle  (one  part  to  eighty 
parts  cold  water),  then  a  hay  bandage  should  be  rolled  round  the  limb, 
and  the  phenyle  wash  poured  down  it  five  or  six  times  a  day  ;  this 
should  be  continued  for  thirty-six  or  forty  hours.  The  after-treatment 
entirely  depends  on  the  progress  of  the  case. 

664.  Grapes. — Grease  often  ends  in  the  formation  of  troublesome, 


filthy-looking  outgrowths  round  the  pastern  joint,  resembling  a  bunch 
of  red  grapes,  from  which  there  is  a  nasty  foetid  discharge.  In  such 
cases,  the  phenyle  wash  should  be  made  stronger  (say  one  in  forty), 
and  when  the  parts  are  dry  they  should  be  dressed  with  powdered 
alum  or  blue  vitriol.  Burning  off  the  warty  excrescences  with  a  hot 
iron,  is  sometimes  necessary. 

665.  Mud  Fever  is  a  form  of  erythema  or  a  superficial,  patchy, 
inflammatory  eruption  of  the  skin,  affecting  more  particularly  the  legs 
of  clipped  horses  ;  but  it  may  also  affect  any  other  part  of  the  body 
splashed  with  mud.  It  is  most  common  in  winter-time,  when  the 
weather  is  very  changeable,  e.g.,  hard  frosts  bemg  suddenly  followed 
by  thaws  and  sloppy  weather,  and  vice-versa.  It  is  due  to  the  wet  mud 
having  been  allowed  to  dry  on  the  skin,  and  then  washing  it  off  on 
coming  into  the  stable  at  night,  without  drying  the  legs  afterwards. 
Washing  seems  to  irritate  the  parts,  and  it  is  much  better  to  allow  the 
mud  to  dry  on,  and  then  clean  it  off  gently  with  a  soft  wisp  of 
meadow  hay.  Symptoms. — The  first  thing  to  be  noticed  is  the 
swelling  of  the  legs  ;  the  animal  appears  stiff  and  is  not  inclined  to 
move  ;  the  hair  sticks  up  in  patches,  and  in  the  course  of  a  few  days, 
comes  off  very  readily  when  rubbed.  The  legs  usually  suffer  most, 
but  cases  occur  in  which  the  whole  body  is  more  or  less  affected. 
Treatment. — When  any  constitutional  fever  is  present,  put  the 
animal  into  a  good,  roomy  loose  box,  and  clothe  it  well  ;  the  legs, 
however,  must  not  be  bandaged,  but  kept  perfectly  dry.  The  aloes 
and  soda  ball,  as  recommended  (par.  661 ),  may  be  given  with  great 
advantage,  followed  up  with  some  suitable  alkaline  alterative  medicine. 
Should  the  legs  be  very  much  swollen  and  painful,  they  may  be 
bathed  for  about  thirty  minutes  with  warm  water,  then  immediately 
dressed  with  the  following  lotion  : — Sugar  of  lead,  halt  an  ounce, 
FuUer's-earth,  two  ounces,  add  water  up  to  one  quart  ;  to  be  applied 
with  a  piece  of  sponge.  Well-boiled  barley  and  bran  mashes  form 
the  best  diet.  All  oils,  and  greasy  dressings,  are  to  be  strictly  avoided, 
but  if  the  heels  are  very  much  cracked,  a  little  vaseline  may  be  applied. 
As  a  preventive,  the  legs  of  carriage-horses  and  hunters  should  never 
be  clipped. 


666.  Cracked  Heels  are  also  a  form  of  eczema,  and  consist  of 
inflammation  of  the  skin  and  sebaceous  or  oil  glands  in  the  hollow  of 
the  heels,  particularly  those  of  the  hind  legs.  The  cause  may  be  want 
of  condition,  through  feeding  the  animal  on  unseasoned  hay  or  corn  ; 
washing  and  not  drying  the  legs  thoroughly  ;  clipping  the  hair  out  of 
the  hollow  of  the  heels ;  and  standing  in  filthy  stalls,  or  boxes. 
Horses  with  white  legs  suffer  most,  possibly  from  the  extra  washing 
that  they  require.  Symptoms. — The  animal  is  seen  to  go  stiff  and  sore 
on  first  leaving  the  stable  ;  it  may  even  click  up  the  affected  leg  like  a 
horse  in  string-halt,  and  go  on  the  toe  for  a  step  or  two,  but  generally 
improves  in  action  after  going  a  short  distance.  The  pastern  joint  is 
found  to  be  swollen  and  painful,  and  there  is  soon  a  breaking  out  in 
the  hollow  of  the  heel,  with  a  bloody  discharge.  Treatment. — Should 
there  be  much  pain  and  fever  present,  then  the  soda  and  aloes  ball 
(par.  661 )  should  be  given,  and  a  poultice  applied  to  the  affected  heel. 
This  latter  can  be  most  effectually  accomplished  by  pulling  a  piece  of 
the  leg  of  a  pair  of  old  trousers  over  the  foot,  securing  it  round  the  top 
of  the  hoof  by  means  of  a  strap  ;  next  the  hollow  of  the  heel  should  be 
filled  in  with  bran  and  linseed  meal,  mixed  with  cold  water  to  the 
consistence  of  porridge,  to  which  should  be  added  a  tablespoonful  of 
carbolic  acid  or  phenyle  ;  then  the  bag  should  be  fastened  above  the 
pastern  joint,  with  a  bandage  over  all.  After  the  inflammation  is 
reduced,  the  following  lotion  should  be  applied  night  and  morning, 
viz.  :  two  drachms  each  of  sugar  of  lead,  and  sulphate  of  zinc,  mixed 
in  a  quart  of  cold  water.  In  chronic  cases  of  cracked  heels,  when 
there  is  little  or  no  swelling  present,  dressing  them  with  carbolized 
zinc  ointment  usually  sets  things  right  in  a  short  time  ;  they  should 
never  be  washed,  or  rubbed  with  a  cloth  ;  and  any  mud  on  them 
should  be  left  until  it  dries,  when  it  can  be  gently  rubbed  off  with  a 
wisp  of  meadow  hay.  If  neglected,  cracked  heels  may  ultimately 
terminate  in  troublesome  "  grapey  "  heels,  or   "  grapes  "  (par.  664). 

667.  Mechanical  Injuries  to  the  Skin,  such  as  chafing  of  the 
shoulder  and  back  from  badly-fitting  collars,  or  saddles,  produce 
respectively,  sore  shoulders  and  saddle-galls.  These  must  hav« 
immediate  attention  and  their  causes  removed.     The  sores  should  be 


bathed  with  clean  cold  water,  night  and  morning,  and  then  well 
covered  with  Fuller's-earth.  Should  the  skin  be  much  damaged, 
dressing  with  the  zinc  and  lead  lotion  (par.  666)  will  have  a  good  effect. 

668.  Scratches  and  Pricks  from  thorns  and  barbed  wire,  are  very 
common.  When  present,  the  thorns  must  be  carefully  removed,  great 
care  being  taken  not  to  break  them  in  under  the  skin,  as  they  very 
frequently  cause  a  great  deal  of  fever  and  pain,  more  particularly  when 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  a  joint  (par.  134).  When  the  parts  are  much 
swollen  and  painful,  bandages  should  be  applied  when  practicable,  that 
have  been  wrung  out  of  cold  water,  and  they  should  be  kept  constantly 
wet  till  the  pain  and  inflammation  has  abated,  after  which  dressing  the 
parts  with  the  zinc  and  lead  lotion  is  all  that  is  required. 

669.  Burns  and  Scalds  may  be  very  shght  or  very  severe  ;  in 
many  cases  they  cause  death,  from  the  extreme  exhaustive  nerve- 
irritation,  or  shock.  The  great  point  to  be  observed  in  the  treatment, 
is  to  exclude  all  air  from  the  affected  surface  with  any  suitable  medium 
which  IS  at  hand.  For  this  purpose,  nothing  is  handier,  nor  better, 
than  a  thick  coating  of  treacle,  over  which  a  quantity  of  cotton  wool, 
tow,  or  sheep's  wool,  should  be  placed,  and  secured  with  bandages. 
If  treacle  is  not  available,  a  pailful  of  good  thick  clay  and  water  may 
be  mixed  and  applied  over  the  damaged  surface  with  a  whitewash 
brush,  repeating  the  application  when  necessary  ;  this,  when  it  has 
dried  on,  gives  a  great  protection  from  the  air.  Any  febrile  symptoms 
which  may  arise,  must  be  treated  by  means  of  cooling  and  soothing 
medicines,  but  on  no  account  must  purgatives  be  used.  Should  the 
bowels  be  irregular,  small  doses  (say  five  to  eight  ounces)  of  hnseed 
oil,  repeated  every  eight  or  ten  hours  will  be  found  to  be  very 
serviceable.  Food  of  a  light  and  digestible  nature  ought  also  to  be 
given.  When  the  fever  and  acute  symptoms  abate,  the  raw  surfaces 
of  the  wounds  should  be  dressed  with  the  zinc  and  lead  lotion 
(see  Appendix).  Two  very  severe  cases  in  the  horse  have  occurred  in 
my  practice,  both  of  which  seemed  to  go  on  well  for  15  or  20  days, 
when  unfavourable  symptoms  suddenly  set  in,  and  the  animals  died. 
In  both  cases,  post-mortem  examination  revealed  ulceration  of  the 
stomach  at  the  pyloric  opening  into  the  intestines. 


670.  Warts,  Wens,  or  Angle-Berries  are  of  a  non-inflammatory 
character,  and  are  abnormal  growths,  or  enlargements,  of  the  scales 
of  the  outer  la3'er  ot  the  skin,  to  which  some  breeds  of  animals  are 
predisposed.  They  usually  occur  on  the  soft  thin  parts  of  the  skin, 
such  as  the  nose,  sheath,  thighs,  &c.  Sometimes  they  are  well-defined, 
with  broad  thick  necks  deep  through  the  skin,  or  are  even  encased  in 
a  sheath,  just  like  the  kernel  of  a  nut  in  the  shell.  In  many  cases  they 
become  very  troublesome,  on  account  of  their  persistence,  growing 
again  with  great  rapidity  after  it  is  thought  that  they  have  been 
successfully  removed.  Pulling  or  twisting  them  off  quickly  with  the 
fingers  usually  answers  best  ;  at  other  tinnes,  a  pair  of  strong  scissors, 
knife,  ecraseur,  or  hot  iron  may  be  used  m  their  removal.  A  dressing 
of  green  tar  should  be  applied  to  the  bare  surfaces  the  day  subsequent 
to  the  removal  of  the  warts.  Warts  and  tumours  are  often  found  on 
the  penis  of  the  horse  and  bull.  These  are  extremely  troublesome, 
and  when  large  interfere  with  the  act  of  urinating,  and  in  the  bull 
especially,  with  that  of  serving,  after  which,  bleeding  often  occurs 
Treatment. — In  the  horse,  the  penis  must  be  drawn  out  and  washed 
with  some  antiseptic,  nothing  being  better  than  phenyle  in  the 
proportion  of  one  to  eighty  of  water  ;  the  offending  growths  are  then 
removed  with  the  knife  or  scissors,  and  the  wounds  dressed  with 
tincture  of  iron.  (It  may  be  necessary  to  cast  the  animal  before 
operating).  In  the  bull,  the  penis  is  difficult  to  draw  out  even  when 
the  animal  is  cast.  My  method  of  procedure  is  to  allow  the  bull  to 
raise  himself  on  to  a  cow's  back,  when  with  a  loop  in  a  piece  of  broad 
tape  held  in  m}^  left  hand,  the  penis  is  seized  and  retained  until  the 
warty  excrescences  have  been  clipped  off,  and  the  parts  dressed  with 
tincture  of  iron.  These  growths  occasionally  involve  the  substance 
of  the  organ,  and  then  amputation  has  to  be  resorted  to.  The  cow 
also  suffers  very  much  from  these  excrescences,  and  as  they  materially 
afifect  the  health  and  thriving  of  the  animal,  they  should  be 
immediately  removed. 


671.  Horn  Overgrowths  and  Injuries. — The  horns  sometimes 
turn  and  curve  in  so  much,  that  the  overgrown  points  press  tightly  on 
the  forehead,  giving  the  animal  so  much  pain  that  it  ceases  to  feed 
and  thrive.  Such  cases  must  be  attended  to,  and  if  necessary,  the 
surplus  horn  must  be  removed  with  a  saw.  Again,  the  horns 
sometimes  stand  out  with  very  sharp  ends,  in  which  case  the  points 
have  to  be  cut  off  with  the  saw,  or  protected  with  wooden  balls,  to 
prevent  the  goring  and  wounding  of  other  animals.  When  the  horns 
are  very  large,  it  is  found  necessary  to  remove  them  by  an  operation 
termed  "dishorning;"  an  operation  regarded  by  many  as  very 
objectionable,  and  looked  upon  as  cruel,  but  it  is  not  more  cruel  than 
to  leave  them  on,  and  thus  enable  the  larger  animals  to  attack  and 
wound  their  smaller  and  weaker  companions.  As  the  horn  is  non- 
sensitive,  and  the  horn  core  nearly  so,  as  well  as  being  hollow,  there 
is  very  little  pain  accompanying  the  operation.  Occasionally  a  cow 
may  become  fixed  by  the  horn,  and  in  endeavouring  toiiberate  itself, 
the  horn  may  be  stripped  off,  without  injuring  the  horn  core  ;  when 
this  happens,  the  parts  must  be  dressed  with  carbolic  oil  and  tow  or 
cotton  wool,  and  above  this  should  be  a  layer  of  tar  and  tow,  all  being 
secured  with  a  light  bandage  which  should  be  fastened  to  the  other  horn. 
When  the  horn  and  horn  core  are  fractured,  the  rough  projections  and 
broken  fragments  of  bone  must  be  removed,  and  sawn  level,  the 
bleeding  stopped  with  a  hot  iron,  and  the  parts  dressed  as  above. 

672.  Abscesses  are  at  times  met  with  in  the  cavities  of  the  horn, 
arising  from  an  injury  done  lo  the  parts,  and  causing  extreme 
constitutional  disturbance.  The  animal  breathes  quickly  and  pants, 
the  eyes  are  injected,  perspiration  rolls  off  the  body,  and  tlie  pulse  is 
full  and  bounding.  The  most  noticeable  symptom  is  that  the  animal 
holds  the  head  low,  and  to  one  side,  giving  it  an  occasional  shake  ;  if 
pressure  be  put  on  the  root  oi  the  horn,  the  animal  may  bellow  out, 
and  fall  over  on  to  its  side,  as  if  in  a  fit,  rolling  its  eyes,  and  breathing 
in  a  heavy  and  spasmodic  manner.  Treatment — Bore  into  the  base 
of  the  horn  with  a  small  trephine  or  a  -J-inch  gimlet,  and  after  the  pus 
has  been  liberated,  roll  cold  water  bandages  round  the  horn,  keeping 
them  constantly  moist,  and  at  the  same  time  administer  a  good  dose 
of  purgative  medicine. 



1.  Tick,  infests  Dogs  and  Sheep. 

2.  Tick,  or  Ked  of  Sheep,  enlarged. 

3.  Sheep  Louse,  enlarged. 

4.  Pig  Louse,  do. 

5.  Cow  Louse,         do. 

6.  Horse  Louse,      do. 

7.  Ox  Warble  Fly. 

8.  Ox  Warble  Maggot. 

9.  Ox  Warble  Chrysalis. 
10.  Section  of  Skin. 

a.  Duct  of  Sweat  Gland. 

h.  Sweat  Gland. 

c.  Hair  Follicle. 

d.  Hair  Bulb. 

e.  Sebaceous  or  Oil  Gland 


673.  Mange  or  Scab  affects  the  horse,  cow,  sheep,  dog,  cat,  &c., 
and  also  the  human  being.  This  troublesome  disease  is  due  to  the 
presence  of  small  parasites  developed  from  eggs,  which  are  deposited 
in  vast  numbers,  on,  or  in  the  skin. 

674.  These  parasites  are  of  three  diff"erent  families,  viz.  :— 

ist.— Symbiotes— the  parasites  that  live  on  the  skin. 

2nd.— Dermatodectes— those  boring  into  the  skin. 

3rd. — Sarcoptes — those  burrowing  through  the  skin. 
These  differ  in  size  and  form  in  the  various  animals— as  may  be  seen 
by  the  illustrations  (Plate  XXXVII.)-^nd  they  also  differ  in  a  like 
respect,  accordmg  to  the  situation  they  occupy  on  the  skin  of  the 
various  animals.  Thus,  mange  must  be  considered  under  the  three 
heads  :— (i)  Superficial,  (2)  Middle,  and  (3)  Deep-seated.  From  this  fact 
It  may  be  easily  understood  how  some  attacks  of  mange  readily  yield 
to  treatment,  whilst  others  verge  on  the  incurable.  It  is,  therefore, 
necessary  to  ascertam  what  class  of  mange  has  to  be  dealt  with,  before 
suitable  treatment  can  be  adopted.  Mange  usually  attacks  the  horse 
in  the  region  of  the  mane,  head,  and  tail,  causing  much  irritation,  and 
discomfort  to  the  animal,  and  when  the  hook-hke  appendages  on  each 
parasite  are  considered,  it  is  not  a  matter  for  surprise.  Symptoms.— 
The  anmial  appears  dull,  and  is  much  inclined  to  rub  the  affected 
parts,  whenever  it  has  the  chance.  Rubbing  the  fingers  gently  over 
the  irritated  places  causes  the  animal  to  move  the  lips  and  muzzle 
with  an  expression  of  great  pleasure.  Close  examination  also  shows 
a  number  of  small  papules  containing  a  small  quantity  of  serous  fluid, 
which  soon  escapes,  forming  a  scab  or  crust. 

675.  Treatment.— All  animals  aff^ected  with  mange  should  be 
carefully  isolated,  since— as  will  be  quite  obvious  to  all,  from  its 
parasitic  nature— the  disease  is  a  highly  contagious  one.  The  animal 
must  be  carefully  washed  with  some  parasiticide.  Any  of  the 
non-poisonous  dips  may  be  used,  but  dip  containing  arsenic  must  not, 
on  any  account,  be  used  where  the  skin  is  at  all  excoriated  or  broken! 


Little's  phenyle— one  part  to  thirty  or  forty  parts  of  cold  water — has  a 
very  good  effect,  and,  in  bad  cases,  dressing  with  a  mixture  of  whale 
oil,  black  sulphur,  and  spirits  of  tar,  may  be  attended  with  good 
results.  Iodine  preparations  are  very  useful,  but  nearly  every 
practitioner  has  his  own  favourite  remedy.  The  stables,  boxes, 
clothing,  harness,  &c.,  used  by  the  infected  animals  must  also  be 
carefully  washed  and  constantly  disinfected.  For  the  Dog. — I  think 
nothing  is  better  than  the  application  of  a  mild  preparation  of  the 
green  iodide  of  mercur)' — say  thirty  grains  to  one  ounce  of  lard  or 
vaseline.  A  simple  wash  can  be  made  by  boiling  a  quantity  of 
foxglove  leaves  (digitalis),  which,  when  cold,  should  be  applied  to  the 
parts.  Should  any  constitutional  disturbance  be  present,  it  must  be 
attended  to,  and  the  bedding,  which  ought  to  be  of  pitch  pine 
shavings,  or  sawdust,  should  be  changed  every  three  or  four  days. 
Carbolic  acid,  strong  mercurial  ointments,  or  tobacco  wash,  should 
never  be  used  on  the  dog,  as  these  have  a  dangerously  depressing, 
and  sickening  effect. 

677.  Warbles.  (Plate  XXXVII.,  7.,  8.,  p;.— These  are  small 
elevations  or  tumours,  about  the  size  of  a  lady's  thimble,  found  on  the 
backs  of  cattle,  and  occasionally  on  the  horse,  between  the  shoulders 
and  loins.  They  may  vary  in  number  up  to  50  or  more,  and  cause 
great  loss,  not  only  in  the  value  of  the  hides,  but  to  the  flesh 
immediately  beneath  as  well.  The  tumours  contain  larvae,  developed 
from  the  eggs  deposited  there  by  the  ovipositor  of  the  female  Bot 
Fly,  or  Ox  Warble  Fly,  (Plate  XXXVII.,  7.,  8.,  9.)  in  the  months 
of  July  and  August,  and  they  make  their  appearance  between  the 
following  February  and  May,  or  perhaps  later.  According  to  the  late 
Miss  E.  A.  Ormerod,  L.L.D.,  the  Ox  Warble  Fly  "  is  two-winged, 
and  upwards  of  half  an  inch  in  length,  and  is  so  marked  that  it 
resembles  the  humble  bee  ;  with  a  yellowish  face,  body  between  the 
wings,  yellowish  in  front,  and  black  behind  ;  abdomen  whitish  at  the 
base,  black  at  the  middle,  and  orange  at  the  tip  ;  large  head  and 
brown  wings,  black  legs  and  lighter  feet."  The  female  fly  has  a  long 
telescopic  egg-laying  tube  for  burrowing  into  the  back  of  the  animal, 
which,  on  being  attacked,  shows  great  excitement,  rushing  wildly 
about    the  pastures   with    its   tail  extended,   and    slightly  depressed 


towards  the  tip,  but  it  is  not  until  the  spring  months — as  already 
stated — that  the  effects  are  seen,  in  the  shape  of  the  tumours  or 
warbles.  Light-coloured  animals  seem  to  be  the  animals  that  are 
more  particularly  attacked. 

677.  On  examination  of  the  skin  covering  the  warble,  a  dark 
opening  can  be  seen,  surrounded  by  a  small  quantity  of  frothy  matter. 
By  pressure  with  the  thumbs  on  each  side,  the  larva  can  be  squeezed 
out.  If  not  interfered  with,  in  due  time  the  slug  comes  out  of  its 
winter  shelter  of  its  own  accord.  This  is  accomplished  by  a  wriggling 
motion,  for  which  its  peculiar  spiral  shape— as  depicted  in  the 
illustration — is  specially  adapted.  It  then  falls  to  the  ground,  and  is 
converted  into  a  chrysalis,  and  hnally  into  the  perfect  msect,  ready  to 
recommence  the  cycle  of  life  in  the  summer  months.  As  these  cause 
a  great  loss  to  the  farmer,  as  many  as  possible  should  be  squeezed  out 
and  destroyed.  Washing  the  back  of  the  cow  with  a  strong  solution 
of  salt  and  water,  before  turning  it  out,  acts  as  a  good  preventive. 
Smearing  the  back  with  turpentine  and  tar,  or  carbolic  dressings,  has 
a  similar  effect  ;  as  has  also  the  old-fashioned  black  oil,  which  is 
prepared  by  mixing  sulphuric  acid,  turpentine,  and  linseed  oil  in 
certain  proportions  (see  Appendix) .  The  horse,  as  noted,  is  rarely 
affected,  but  when  it  is,  the  larvae  cause  larger  and  more  diffuse 
swellings  than  in  the  cow.  They  must  at  once  be  pressed  out,  and 
the  parts  dressed  with  Little's  phenyle  (i  to  30  solution).  For  further 
information  on  this  subject,  the  interesting  notes  and  writings  of  the 
late  Miss  Ormerod  will  be  found  in  the  Royal  Agricultural  Society's 
Reports  of  1887-88-89,  and  in  her  yearly  special  reports  (1894 
in  particular)  all  of  them  being  well  worth  reading. 

678.  Ringworm  is  said  to  be  due  to  a  small  vegetable  parasite  or 
fungus  infesting  the  skin  of  domesticated  animals,  said  to  be  com- 
municable by  them  to  man  and  vice-versa.  It  is  most  commonly  seen 
in  winter  amongst  young  cattle  folded  in  courts  or  boxes.  It  attacks 
the  face,  head,  and  neck,  and  gives  rise  to  round  patches,  devoid 
of  hair,  and  covered  with  a  greyish  yellow  scurf.  On  many 
occasions,  the  attendants  become  badly  affected,  having  acquired  it 
from  the  infected  animals.      Treatment — Dressing  with  a  mixture 


made  up  of  one  part  of  creosote,  and  eight  parts  of  olive  oil,  answers 
well,  as  also  do  preparations  of  iodine.  For  persistent  cases,  solutions 
of  corrosive  sublimate,  or  sulphate  of  copper,  have  good  effects,  as  has 
also  a  mixture  of  spirits  of  tar,  whale  oil,  sulphur,  and  hellebore. 
(See  Appendix.) 

679.  Fly  Maggots. — In  close  muggy  summer  weather,  sheep, 
particularly  in  the  vicinity  of  woods,  are  frequently  infested  by 
maggots,  the  result  of  being  "  blown  "  or  "  struck  "  by  the  blow  fly 
depositing  its  eggs,  and  the  larvae  developing  m  the  soft,  wet,  dirty 
parts  of  the  body,  especially  round  the  base  of  the  tail.  When  the 
animal  is  seen  to  be  affected  it  should  be  got  hold  of  at  once,  the  wool 
clipped  off"  if  necessary,  and  the  parts  dressed  with  corrosive 
sublimate  solution,  (one  drachm  dissolved  in  a  pint  of  water),  or  with 
Little's  phenyle,  (one  part  in  thirty  of  water). 

680.  This  latter  preparation  answers  well  in  many  cases  without 
clipping  off  the  wool  ;  whilst  a  bath  of  one  part  phenyle,  to  80  or  100 
parts  of  soft  water,  is  a  capital  dressing  for  Fleas  on  the  dog,  or 
Ticks  [Plate  XXXVII.,  Nos.  1  and  2)  on  the  sheep,  being  safe  to  use, 
and  also  improving  the  hair  and  wool. 

681.  Lice  (Plate  XXXVII. ,  Nos.  3,  4,  5,  6).— These  troublesome 
parasites  are  hatched  from  tiny  eggs,  and  seem  to  be  of  three  kinds  : — 
1st,  large  dark  brown  ;  2nd,  small  red  coloured  ;  and  3rd,  yellow. 
They  attack  the  cow  more  frequently  than  the  horse,  and  are  chiefly 
seen  during  the  winter  months  infesting  the  stall-fed  animal, 
particularly  if  in  a  poor  condition,  in  fact,  they  seem  to  be  the  great 
friends  of  poverty.  The  parts  the}-  most  frequent  are  the  head,  neck, 
brisket,  along  the  spine,  and  the  root  of  the  tail.  The  best  dressing  I 
have  found,  is  half  to  one  oz.  powdered  staves-acre  put  into  a  quart  of 
boiling  water,  and  left  to  stand  for  12  hours.  This  quantity  is 
sufficient  for  one  animal,  and  should  be  applied  to  the  infested  areas, 
repeating  the  wash  in  ten  days,  or  a  fortnight's  time.  A  tablespoonful 
of  soft  soap  added  to  the  mixture,  improves  it  very  much.  Mercurial 
ointments,  arsenical  sheep  dips,  and  tobacco  washes,  are  to  be  strongly 
condemned,  as  I  have  seen  large  numbers  of  cattle  poisoned  by  their 
use  in  such  cases. 















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682.  The  urinary  S3'stem  consists  of  the  Kidneys,  Ureters, 
Bladder,  and  Urethra,  and  by  these  organs  the  urine  is  extracted 
from  the  blood,  and  expelled  from  the  body. 

683.  The  Kidneys  (Plate  XV III.,  H.,  H.  and  Plate  X XXVIII. ,  A. 
1 .  and  2.)  are  reddish  brown,  glandular  bodies,  situated  in  the  under 
part  of  the  loins, — one  on  eac?i  side  of  the  back-bone.  They  are 
supported  and  held  in  position  by  their  vessels,  aided  by  a  quantity  of 
fat — the  suet — in  which  the}'  are  embedded.  The  right  one  lies  a 
little  farther  forward  than  the  left,  being  found  beneath  the  two 
last  pairs  of  ribs.  There  is  a  marked  difference  between  the  shape 
of  the  kidneys  in  the  horse  and  cow.  In  the  former,  the  right  is 
shaped  like  the  heart  of  playing  cards,  the  left  being  more  like  a 
bean  in  shape.  In  the  cow  they  are  more  elongated  and  distinctly 

684.  Structure  of  the  Kidney. — The  organ  is  made  up  of  tubes 
(uriniferous  tubes),  blood  vessels,  nerves,  and  connective  tissue  ;  the 
whole  being  invested  by  a  fibrous  capsule.  On  making  a  horizontal 
section  of  the  kidney,  it  is  found  to  consist  of  two  distinct  substances 
separated  by  a  well-defined  line,  which  is  dark  in  colour  and  known 
as  the  bonndaiy  layer.  The  external  portion  is  known  as  the  cortex  of 
the  kidney  ;  the  most  internal  part  being  the  medulla. 

685.  The  Cortex. — On  examination,  a  vast  number  of  little  red 
spots  called  the  Malpighian  bodies  are  seen  ;  each  of  these  consists  of  a 
tuft  of  capillary  blood-vessels  (given  off  from  the  renal  artery),  enclosed 
in  a  membranous  capsule,  known  as  the  Capsule  of  Bowman. 


686.  The  Medulla  is  paler  in  colour  than  the  cortex,  and  on  th.e 
whole  is  more  dense  in  its  structure.  It  consists  of  cone-shaped 
masses,  the  points  of  which  are  directed  towards  the  centre  of  the 
gland,  where  an  irregularly  shaped  cavity,  known  as  the  pelvis  or 
basin  of  the  kidney  is  found.  These  cone-shaped  bodies  are,  in 
reality,  bundles  of  uriniferous  tubes. 

687.  Briefly,  the  urme  is  secreted  by  the  Malpighian  bodies,  and 
certain  portions  of  the  uriniferous  tubes,  from  the  arterial  blood, 
supplied  by  the  renal  artery  ;  it  then  passes  through  these  uriniferous 
tubes  into  the  basin  of  the  kidney,  and  thence  into  the  ureters,  which 
convey  it  to  the  bladder. 

688.  Supra-Renal  Capsules. — These  are  two  httle  glandular 
bodies,  attached  to  the  front  borders  of  the  kidneys  ;  they  are  ductless, 
and  their  use  is  not  well  known. 

689.  The  Ureters  (Plate  XVIII.,  I. , I.  and  Plate  XXXVIII. ,  A.  3. ,3.) 
are  two  tubes  running  from  the  basin  of  each  kidney  to  the  bladder, 
and  as  before  stated,  their  function  is  to  carry  the  urine  from  the 
kidneys  to  the  bladder.  They  enter  the  bladder  obliquely  at  the 
upper  and  back  part,  and  in  this  way  a  kind  of  valve  is  formed,  by 
which  urine  is  prevented  from  flowing  back  from  the  bladder  into 
the  ureters. 

690.  The  Bladder  (Plate  XVIII.,  K.  and  Plate  XXXVIII.,  A.  4. 
and  B.  5.j  is  a  musculo-membranous  sac  or  bag,  found  in  the  pelvic 
cavity.  Its  function  is  to  receive  and  retain  the  urine  until  a  sufficient 
quantity  has  been  collected  for  expulsion.  In  this  way,  a  constant 
dribble  of  fluid  is  avoided.  Structurally,  it  is  made  up  of  three  coats, 
and  consists  of  a  fundus,  body,  and  neck,  and  it  is  held  in  position  by 
means  of  ligaments.  The  bladder,  when  distended  with  urine,  is 
pear-shaped,  and  extends  into  the  abdominal  cavity.  On  the  fundus 
a  scar  or  cicatrix  is  seen,  which  is  all  that  remains  of  the  urachus,  the 
tube  by  which  the  urine  is  carried,  by  way  of  the  umbilical  cord,  to 
the  placenta  during  foetal  hfe.  The  neck  of  the  bladder  passes  back- 
wards, and  terminates  in  the  urethra. 


691.  The  Urethra,  (Plate  XVIIL,  P.  and  Plate  XXXVIII.,  A.  5.), 
is  a  tube  which,  in  the  male  acts  as  an  excretory  duct,  for  both  the 
urinary  and  generative  systems,  and  is  contained  within  the  penis. 
In  the  female,  however,  it  has  only  one  use,  and  that  is  for  the  passage 
of  urine. 

692.  Urine.— This  is  a  fluid  which  may  be  either  acid  or  alkaline 
in  its  re  action,  according  to  the  class  of  animal  from  which  it  is 
excreted.  In  herbivorous  animals  it  is  alkaline,  and  of  a  rather 
muddy  appearance.  The  horse  excretes,  on  an  average,  about  eight 
to  ten  pints  of  urine  per  day,  but  the  quantity  and  quality  can  be 
greatly  altered  by  various  conditions.  These  are  chiefly,  variation  in 
food  and  work,  housing,  the  drinking  of  large  quantities  of  water,  and 
the  action  of  certain  drugs  and  medicinal  agents  such  as  nitre,  resin, 
turpentine,  juniper,  cantharides,  and  the  various  balsams. 


693.  The  male  organs  of  generation  are  the  Testicles,  Spermatic 
Cord,  the  accessory  glands  and  ducts,  the  Penis  containing  the 
Urethra,  the  Inguinal  Canals,  the  Scrotum  and  the  Sheath. 

694.  The  Testicles  (Plate  XVIII.,  M.,  M.J  are  two  oval  bodies 
situated  in  the  scrotum  and  attached  by  the  upper  border  to  the 
spermatic  cord.  The  testicles  are  the  organs  which  secrete  the  seminal 
fluid  containing  the  spermatozoa.  This  fluid  is  carried  by  one  of  the 
accessory  organs  or  excretor}^  ducts — the  Vas  Deferens — to  the 
reservoirs  near  the  neck  of  the  bladder  where  it  accumulates. 

695.  The  Spermatic  Cords  are  two  in  number  atid  are  made  up 
of  various  tissues  including  blood-vessels,  nerves,  muscular  fibre,  and 
the  Vas  Deferens  or  seminal  duct.  These  cords  pass  up  the  inguinal 
canal  and  hold  the  testes  in  position  in  the  scrotum. 

696.  The  Accessory  Organs  are  the  Epididymis,  Vas  Deferens, 
Vesicul(Z  Seminalis,  the  Ejaculatory  Ducts,  the  Prostate  and  Cowpers  Glands. 

697.  The  Penis  fPlate  XVIII.,  0.),  or  external  organ,  consists 
principally  of  erectile  tissue,  and  through  it  runs  the  urethra. 

698.  The  Urethra  (Plate  XVIII.,  P.  and  Plate  XXXVIII.,  A .  5.)  is  a 
canal  or  passage  which  runs  from  the  neck  of  the  bladder  to  the  anterior 
end  of  the  penis.  The  urine  passes  through  it,  and  it  also  acts  as  a  passage 
for  the  transmission  of  the  seminal  fluid  during  the  act  of  copulation. 

699.  The  Inguinal  Canals  are  the  short  passages  between  the 
abdominal  cavity  and  the  scrotum,  and  through  them  the  Vas 
Deferens,  blood  vessels,  and  nerves  pass. 

700.  The  Scrotum  is  the  purse  or  sac  which  holds  the  testes,  and 
is  placed  between  the  thighs  and  is  made  up  of  a  series  of  layers  of 

701.  The  Sheath  is  situated  in  front  of  the  scrotum  and  is  a  loose 
fold  of  skin  investing  the  front  and  free  portion  of  the  penis,  and 
having  its  anterior  end  open. 


702.  The  Female  Organs  of  Generation  consist  of  the  ovaries — 
right  and  left;  the  two  Fallopian  tubes;  the  uterus  or  womb;  and 

the  vagina,  or  passage  communicating  externally  with  the  vulva. 

703.  The  Ovaries  (Plate XXXVIII. ,B.  1 .,  1 .)  are  situated  behind  the 
kidnej-s  m  the  sub-lumbar  region  of  the  abdomen,  and  are  in  connection 
with  the  fimbriated  or  free  ends  of  the  Fallcpian  tubes.  They  are 
analogous  to  the  testicles  of  the  male,  as  in  them  is  formed  the  ovum 
or  egg,  which  is  the  essential  element  of  the  female  for  reproduction. 

704.  The  Fallopian  Tubes  (Plate  XXXVIII. ,  B.  2.,  2.;.— These 
canals  run  in  an  irregular  manner  from  the  ovaries  to  the  uterus. 
Their  anterior  extremities  are  fringed  and  free,  and  their  function  is  to 
seize  and  carry  the  ovum,  or  egg,  to  the  womb. 

705.  The  Uterus  or  Womb  (Plate  XXX VII I.,  B.  3.)  is  a 
musculo-membranous  structure,  lying  partly  in  the  abdominal,  and 
partly  in  the  pelvic  cavity.  It  is  sac-shaped,  and  made  up  of  a  body 
with  two  horns,  and  a  neck,  with  an  opening  known  as  the  os-uteri 
{Plate  XXXVIII.,  B.  4.).  It  has  three  coats,  viz.  :— i.  External- 
Serous.  2.  Middle — Muscular.  3.  Internal — Mucous.  The  middle 
or  mnscidav  coat  is  made  up  of  several  sets  of  fibres,  which,  by  their 
contractions,  assist  in  expelling  the  foetus,  at  the  time  of  birth. 

706.  The  Vagina  or  Passage  {Plate  XXXVIII.,  B.  6.)  is  composed 
ot  two  layers,  an  outer  consisting  of  muscular  and  connective  tissue, 
and  an  inner  of  mucous  membrane,  the  latter  being  arranged  in  folds, 
thus  enabling  the  passage  to  dilate  during  parturition. 

707.  The  Vulva  or  external  part,  made  up  of  two  lips,  is  situated 
immediately  below  the  anus,  and  is  that  portion  of  the  female  generative 
system  presented  to  view.  About  four  inches  from  the  outside  on  the 
floor,  is  the  opening  of  the  urethra  {meatus  urinavius — Plate  XXXVIII ., 
B.  7.)  or  duct  from  the  bladder.  In  the  virgin  animal,  a  corrugated  fold 
or  doubling  of  the  mucous  membrane  is  found — the  hymen. 



708.  Nephritis — Inflammation  of  the  Kidneys. — This  occurs 
in  three  forms,  viz.  : — acute,  sub-acute,  and  chronic  ;  and  generally  the 
two  last  named  forms  are  most  often  seen,  though  it  is  a  rather 
uncommon  disease  in  the  domestic  animals. 

709.  Symptoms. — At  the  onset  of  the  acute  form  in  the  horse,  the 
symptoms  very  much  resemble  those  of  colic,  or  inflammation  of  the 
bowels,  only  the  pain  is  not  nearly  so  violent  ;  the  animal  frequently 
lies  down  and  gets  up  again,  perspires  freely,  and  breathes  hurriedly  ; 
there  is  a  quick  pulse,  and  a  great  rise  of  temperature  ;  when  lying, 
the  patient  attempts  to  put  its  nose  on  to  its  loins,  while  if  standing, 
it  constantly  stretches  into  a  position  to  urinate,  and  small  quantities 
of  urine,  very  highly  coloured  and  occasionally  tmged  with  blood  are 
passed.  I  have  seen  cases  where  the  urine,  when  collected  in  a  vessel, 
and  allowed  to  stand  for  a  time,  coagulated.  In  the  sub-acute  and 
chronic  stages  very  little  pain  is  manifested,  but  the  animal  is  very 
dull,  has  a  tucked-up  belly,  a  staring  coat,  hurried  panting  breathing, 
a  quick  small  pulse,  and  a  high  temperature  of  from  105°  to  106^. 
If  these  cases  are  not  early  relieved,  they  may  tetminate  in  urcsmic 
poisoning  {par.  320),  or  m  the  formation  o(  abscesses  in  one  or  both  kidneys. 

710.  When  only  one  kidney  is  affected,  as  a  rule  the  other  has  to  do 
the  work  of  both,  and  becomes  hypertrophied  or  enlarged.  During 
the  time  the  sound  kidney  is  comporting  itself  to  the  double  duty,  all 
the  symptoms  of  uraemic  poisoning  are  manifested.  After  a  time, 
the  abscess  m  the  affected  kidney  may  become  encysted,  and  then 
the  animal  appears  to  get  well,  doing  its  work  Avith  only  one  kidney. 
Again,  the  abscess  may  burst,  and  its  contents  pass  along  in  the 
urine  to  the  bladder  ;  there  the  solid  portions  of  the  pus  or  matter  may 
coagulate,  and  passing  into  the  urethra,  block  up  the  passage,  so  that 
the  case  may  end  in  rupture  of  the  bladder,  from  the  continual  strain 
in  attempting  to  void  the  urine. 

711.  The  causes  of  inflammation  of  the  kidneys  are  various.  Some 
writers  hold  that  the  too  frequent  administration  of  fancy  condition 


balls  and  powders,  containing  potash,  balsams,  turpentines,  resins,  &c., 
is  a  cause,  but  if  this  were  so,  the  complaint  would  be  of  more  frequent 
occurrence  than  it  is.  Bad  food,  of  a  mouldy  and  heated  nature,  and 
too  severe  blisters  containing  cantharides  and  turpentine  may  in  some 
cases  be  blamed.  My  own  opinion  is  that  sudden  chills,  and  exposure  to 
mclement  weather, — for  instance,  an  animal  being  caught  by  a  flood, 
and  compelled  to  stand  for  hours,  nearly  up  to  the  belly  in  water,  or 
falling  into  and  remaining  for  some  time  in  a  quick  mire,  or  deep 
gutter,  where  the  water  rises  up  over  the  back  and  loins — are  more 
often  the  cause.  Cases  arising  from  these  latter  causes,  generally 
prove  fatal  in  from  15  to  24  hours. 

712.  Treatment. — As  the  complaint  is  not  readily  diagnosed,  great 
care  should  be  taken  not  to  administer  quack  medicines  of  a  turpentine 
or  balsamic  character  ;  for  although  they  may  answer  in  spasmodic 
colic,  the}'  are  extremely  dangerous  in  cases  of  kidney  affections. 
From  15  to  25  ounces  of  linseed  oil,  with  two  to  four  ounces  of 
laudanum  should  be  given  at  once,  and  to  relieve  the  kidneys  of  some 
of  their  work,  the  skin  should  be  excited  by  a  large  hot  poultice,  made 
of  maize  or  oatmeal,  put  into  a  flannel  bag  and  laid  over  the  loins ;  or 
b}'  a  blanket,  six  or  eight  ply  thick,  wrung  out  of  hot  water  and  laid 
over  the  back  with  dry  woollen  rugs  on  the  top,  and  a  waterproof 
covering  over  the  whole,  whilst  a  good  mustard  poultice  over  the  loins 
may  also  prove  beneficial.  A  newly-flayed  sheep-skin  may  also  be 
tried.  Warm  water  injections  should  be  given  every  four  or  six 
hours,  and  the  legs  be  well  bandaged  ;  while  hypodermic  injections  of 
pilocarpine  and  physostigmiiic  are  also  very  useful.  Fly  blisters,  however, 
must  not  be  used  on  any  account,  as  the  cantharides  and  turpentirie 
which  enter  into  their  composition,  act  strongly  on  the  kidneys ;  nor 
should  aloes  balls  be  given  for  the  same  reason.  When  the  active 
symptoms  have  been  relieved,  easily  digested  food  of  a  simple  character 
should  be  offered,  such  as,  linseed  jell}-  and  milk,  or  milk  and  water, 
and  well-boiled  barley  and  bran. 

713.  Hypertrophy,  or  enlargement  of  one  or  both  kidneys,  is  some- 
times met  with  on  making  post-mortem  examinations,  no  indications  of 
such  having  been  observed  during  life.     Some  cases  are  recorded  where 


the  kidney  has  weighed  from  50  to  112  pounds.  When  one  kidney  is 
abnormally  enlarged,  the  other  is  generally  atrophied,  or  much  smaller 
than  it  should  be ;  enlarged  kidneys  are,  as  a  rule,  very  soft  and  flabby. 

714.  Calculi  or  Stones  are  sometimes  found  in  the  basin  of 
the  kidneys  on  making  dissections  after  death  {par.  720).  Melanotic 
Tumours  are  also  occasionally  met  with,  more  particularly  in  the 
kidneys  of  grey  horses.  Haemorrhage  sometimes  occurs,  when  a 
quantity  of  clotted  blood  is  passed  with  the  urine  ;  but  this  may 
result  from  injury  or  disease  of  any  part  of  the  urinary  system.  The 
Symptoms  of  the  foregoing  diseases  of  the  urinary  organs  are,  however, 
not  well  pronounced,  and  the  cases  have  therefore  to  be  diagnosed  from 
negative  points. 

715.  Polyuria,  Diuresis,  Diabetes  Insipidus,  or  Profuse 
Staling. — In  the  horse,  this  complaint — considered  a  dietetic  disease — 
is  characterized  by  the  passing  of  enormous  quantities  of  urine ;  and  in 
one  case  as  much  as  38  gallons  is  recorded  to  have  been  passed  in  five 
hours.  Horses  in  towns  seem  to  suffer  more  from  this  malady  than  those 
in  the  country.  The  cause  in  many  cases  is  due  to  bad  food — such  as  mow- 
burnt  hay,  or  kiln-dried  oats,  ship-damaged  or  mouldy  corn  and  beans, 
or  to  drinking  an  excessive  quantity  of  impure  water ;  it  also  follows 
debilitating  diseases,  such  as  influenza,  strangles,  &c.  Symptoms. — 
The  animal  attacked  loses  flesh  very  fast,  is  very  dull  and  languid, 
has  the  belly  tucked  up,  a  staring  coat,  and  shows  great  weakness, 
manifested  by  the  plaiting  of  the  hind-legs.  The  patient  also  has  an 
unabating  thirst,  and  can  scarcely  be  satisfied  with  water — I  have  seen 
an  affected  horse  go  down  on  to  its  knees  and  drink  from  a  filthy 
gutter, — wdiile  the  appetite  is  very  irregular.  There  is  further  an 
almost  continuous  flow  of  urine  ;  in  some  cases,  the  penis  hangs 
pendulous,  while  clear  urine  continually  dribbles  from  it,  and  if 
not  speedily  relieved,  the  patient  dies  from  exhaustion  or  inanition. 
Treatment. — The  animal  must  first  be  taken  off  work.  Enquire  into 
the  quality  of  the  food,  and  if  it  be  found  faulty,  change  it  at  once  to  a 
good  sound  nutritious  diet  ;  next,  allay  the  thirst,  and  for  this  purpose 
nothing  has  such  a  radical  effect  as  one  drachm  doses  of  iodine,  given 
every  night  in  a  ball;   while  for  a  tonic,  25  to  30  drops  of  strong  hydro- 


chloric  acid  should  be  given  every  morning,  mixed  with  the  drinking 
water.  When  an  apprentice,  I  remember  horsekeepers  and  farmers  giving 
clay-water  to  their  horses  to  drink,  when  suffering  from  this  complaint, 
and  on  enquiring  why,  was  told  "  that  the  clay  stopped  up  the  little 
holes  in  the  kidneys,  and  prevented  the  urine  filtering  through  !  " 

716.  Suppression  of  Urine. — This  takes  place  when,  from  some 
cause  or  other,  the  urine  is  not  secreted  by  the  kidneys.  It  may  arise 
from  fever,  an  inflammatory  attack,  or  functional  derangement 
of  the  kidneys.  Symptoms. — The  animal  is  very  dull,  and  makes 
frequent  attempts  to  stale,  but  only  succeeds  in  passing  very  small 
quantities  of  urine  ;  on  examination,  (by  the  rectum),  the  bladder  is 
found  to  be  empty.  Before  any  treatment  is  adopted,  it  is  necessary 
that  the  real  cause  be  ascertained.  If  it  arises  from  the  effects  of 
inflammation  of  the  kidneys,  strong  diuretics  are  dangerous,  whereas, 
if  from  the  sluggish  action  of  those  organs  then  diuretics  may  be  given. 

717.  Retention  of  Urine. — This  is  very  different  from  suppression, 
as  in  this  case  the  urine  is  properly  secreted  by  the  kidneys,  and  passed 
along  the  ureters  to  the  bladder  in  the  natural  way,  but  is  not  ejected. 
There  are  many  causes  for  this  condition,  of  which  the  following  are 
the  chief: — Extreme  muscular  contraction,  or  spasm  of  the  neck  of 
the  bladder — strangury — due,  perhaps,  to  the  application  of  a  fly 
blister  to  any  part  of  the  body  ;  paralysis  of  the  muscles  of  the 
bladder  ;  enlargement  of  the  glands,  near  the  neck  of  the  bladder  ; 
the  presence  of  calculi  in  the  bladder,  or  in  the  urethral  passage  ;  or 
the  coagulation  of  the  solid  portions  of  pus  discharged  from  an 
abscess  in  the  kidneys,  or  bladder  {par.  710).  Examples  of  the  three 
last-named  have  come  under  my  own  observation.  Again,  another 
great  cause  of  retention  is  the  habit  which  a  horse  acquires  of  refusing 
to  stale  except  in  a  box,  or  stall,  with  straw  under  it.  On  coming  in 
from  a  long  journey,  the  urine  has  been  retained  such  a  length  of  time 
that,  even  when  anxious  to  urinate,  only  small  jets  of  the  fluid  are 
passed.  In  these  cases,  the  neck  of  the  bladder  becomes  inverted, 
and  the  body  of  that  organ  overlaps  and  presses  on  the  inverted 
portion,  thus  preventing  a  free  flow.  Symptoms. — The  animal  is  very 
uneasy,  groans,  has  colicky  pains,  draws  the  penis,  and  makes  frequent 


attempts  to  stale.  The  hind  legs  are  stretched  backwards,  and  held 
wide  apart,  while  the  tail  is  rolled  about  in  various  directions,  and 
perspiration  bedews  the  body.  Treatment. — The  hand  and  arm 
should  be  well  oiled  or  soaped,  and  carefully  introduced  into  the 
rectum,  and  the  dung  removed,  after  which  the  bladder  will  be  felt 
like  a  distended  bag  underneath  the  hand.  By  the  aid  of  gentle 
pressure  with  the  hand,  and  warm-water  injections  thrown  into  the 
rectum,  the  animal  may  then  urinate  ;  if  not,  the  urine  must  be 
removed  by  the  catheter. 

718.  Cystitis  or  Inflammation  of  the  Bladder  is  seldom  seen 
either  in  the  horse,  cow,  or  sheep,  except  after  cases  of  difficult 
parturition.  The  most  prominent  symptoms  are,  that  the  animal 
continually  passes  small  quantities  of  urine,  and  has  colicky  pains. 
Treatment. — Externally — Hot  applications  should  be  applied  to  the 
loins  according  to  the  rules  laid  down  for  inflammation  of  the  kidneys 
(par.  712).  Internally — Sedative  medicine  should  be  given  :  for  the 
horse  and  cow,  from  two  to  four  ounces  of  laudanum,  with  15  to  25 
ounces  of  linseed  oil ;  for  the  sheep,  two  to  four  drachms  of  laudanum, 
in  from  five  to  10  ounces  of  linseed  oil.  Warm- water  injections  should 
also  be  given  by  the  rectum. 

719.  Abscess  in  the  Bladder  sometimes  occurs,  in  the  cow,  from 
injury  done  to  that  organ  in  difficult  cases  of  calving,  more  particularly 
if  there  has  been  a  breech  presentation.  Symptoms. — The  symptoms 
are  continual  paining  and  straining,  with  dribbling  of  urine.  On 
examination,  (by  the  rectum),  a  swelling  is  felt,  and  on  further 
examination,  (by  the  vagina),  it  is  found  to  be  in  the  bladder.  The  neck 
of  the  bladder  is  usually  very  relaxed,  so  much  so,  that  the  fingers  can 
be  readily  passed  through  it,  and  the  abscess  can  be  felt  with  the  tips  of 
the  fingers  of  the  left  hand,  aided  by  the  right  hand  in  the  rectum.  The 
operation  for  the  liberation  of  the  pus  is  rather  tedious  :  first,  the 
catheter  is  passed  into  the  bladder,  to  act  as  a  director  for  the 
insertion  of  a  canula  ;  the  catheter  is  next  withdrawn,  and  a  trocar 
introduced  into  the  canula,  which  is  pressed  into  the  abscess  ;  then  the 
trocar  is  withdrawn,  and  the  matter  escapes  by  the  canula  ;  while 
pressing  the  abscess  with  the  right  hand  in  the  rectum  greatly  helps  the 


removal  of  the  matter.  The  operation  being  completed,  the  bladder  is 
washed  out  with  tepid  water  and  a  small  quantity  of  tincture  of  iron. 
Should  any  constitutional  disturbance  arise  it  must  be  combated  with 
fever  medicine,  and  if  necessary,  hot  water  blankets  or  porridge  poultices 
can  be  applied  to  the  loins  (see  Inflammation  of  the  Kidney,  par.  712). 

720.  Calculi  or  Stones  are  sometimes  found  in  the  bladder,  urethra, 
and  kidney  ;  they  may  form  in  the  kidneys  and  pass  down  the  ureters 
into  the  bladder,  or  they  may  accumulate  in  the  bladder  itself.  One  or 
more  stones  may  be  found  sticking  in  the  neck  of  the  bladder,  or  in  the 
urethra,  causing  retention  of  the  urine,  and,  if  not  removed,  may 
probably  cause  rupture  of  the  bladder.  The  horse  and  dog  are  most 
often  affected  with  these  troublesome  concretions.  Symptoms. — These 
are  somewhat  like  those  of  retention  of  the  urine.  In  some  cases  the 
animal  may  be  urinating  fully  and  freely,  when  all  at  once,  the  flow  is 
arrested — the  horse  making  frequent  attempts  to  stale,  groaning  and 
straining,  but  only  managing  to  pass  a  few  drops.  On  examination,  by 
the  rectum,  calculi  are  at  times  found,  crowding  around,  especially  in 
the  neck  of  the  bladder;  these  by  manipulation  with  the  fingers  in  the 
rectum,  may  be  displaced,  and  the  animal  relieved.  Sometimes  a  calculus 
gets  into  the  urethra,  where  it  sticks  a  few  inches  below  the  anus  ;  it 
can  be  seen  and  felt  at  the  point  of  stoppage,  the  parts  above  bulging 
out,  while  the  urine  trickles  down  the  thighs.  With  a  little  labour  the 
stone  may  be  worked  back  into  the  bladder,  the  action  being  assisted 
by  gently  passing  up  the  catheter,  or  it  may  get  so  far  down  near  the 
end  of  the  penis,  that  it  can  be  cut  down  upon  and  removed.  When 
calculi  in  the  bladder  of  the  horse  give  rise  to  pain  and  inconvenience, 
they  have  to  be  extracted  by  an  operation  called  lithotomy.  In  this 
operation,  the  animal  is  cast  and  tied  much  in  the  same  way  as  for 
castration  ;  the  passage  is  cut  into  below  the  anus,  and  with  suitable 
instruments,  the  stones  are  removed,  either  whole  or  crushed. 

721.  Bulls,  Rams,  and  Wethers,  when  too  largely  fed  on 
mangold-wurzels,  or  turnips  grown  with  superphosphate  alone,  suffer 
from  accumulations  of  white  crystals — the  animonic-magnesiuni-phosphates 
■ — in  the  bladder  and  urethral  passage.  When  a  bull  is  fed  to  an 
excess  on  mangolds,  it  invariably  proves  unfruitful.     I  think  this  is 


due  to  crystals,  which  have  lodged  in  the  barrel  of  the  penis,  being 
transmitted  along  with  the  semen  at  the  time  of  service,  interfering 
with  fruitful  conception.  I  have  frequently  gathered  these  concretions 
from  the  hairs  surrounding  the  sheath  of  animals  which  have  been  fed 
on  the  above-named  foods.  In  the  ram,  the  passage  and  vermifovm 
process  or  worm,  on  the  end  of  the  penis  is  often  entirely  blocked 
with  these  concretions.  When  thus  affected,  the  animal  suffers 
great  pain,  it  strains  and  presses  very  much,  the  hind  parts  swell 
up,  and  the  urine,  if  not  liberated,  gets  into  the  body,  producing 
uraemic  poisoning,  and  causing  death.  Treatment. — Cutting  in  at 
the  base  of  the  worm,  or  removing  it  entirely,  sometimes  gives  relief; 
the  latter  I  have  done  on  many  occasions,  both  in  the  ram  and 
wether,  and  it  in  no  way  affected  the  former  as  a  stock-getter. 
When  wethers  folded  on  turnips  suffer  from  this  complaint,  the  best 
preventive  is  to  place  over  the  field  branches  of  the  common  fir  tree — 
the  sheep  will  eat  the  bark  off  them  readily,  and  by  its  action  the 
formation  of  the  crystals  is  avoided. 

722.  Incontinence  of  Urine. — This  may  arise  from  a  common 
cold — catarrh — attacking  and  causing  irritation  of  the  lining 
membrane  of  the  urinary  organs,  or  from  loss  of  nervous  energy 
in  the  bladder  alone.  Both  conditions  give  rise  to  a  continuous 
dribble  of  urine,  which  must  be  treated  according  to  the  cause. 

723.  Paralysis  of  the  Bladder  arises  from  want  of  nerve  power 
in  the  organ.  It  may  be  the  result  of  local  or  general  paralysis,  milk 
fever,  injury,  or  over-distension  with  urine.  In  the  last  case,  the 
muscles  of  the  body  of  the  bladder  become  so  stretched  that  they  lose 
their  tone,  and  are  unable  to  contract  and  assist  in  expelling  the  fluid 
in  the  usual  way.  Although  the  urine  is  constantly  dribbling  away,  on 
examination  (by  the  rectum),  the  bladder  is  found  to  be  full  of  water, 
which  must  be  drawn  off  with  the  catheter.  If  the  complaint  is 
simply  due  to  loss  of  nerve  power  without  other  complications,  a  tonic, 
such  as  one  drachm  each  of  sulphate  of  iron,  and  nux-vomica,  should 
be  given  daily,  along  with  'a  liberal  and  nutritious  diet  ;  should  it, 
however,  occur  as  the  result  of  some  other  disease  or  injury,  special 
treatment  is  required. 



724.  Orchitis,  or  Inflammation  of  the  Testicle. — This  occurs 
in  the  male  species  of  all  our  domestic  animals,  but  generally  speaking, 
the  ram  is  the  greatest  sufferer.  It  arises  from  some  injury,  such  as  a 
kick,  and  as  a  result,  the  parts  undergo  inflammation,  which  is 
manifested  by  heat,  pain,  and  swelling,  the  pain  being  very  great  if 
the  animal  is  made  to  move  ;  there  is  also  a  great  amount  of  fever  and 
constitutional  disturbance  present.  Treatment. — When  the  animal 
is  in  high  condition,  blood-letting  has  a  decided  and  beneficial  effect  ; 
an  aperient  (such  as  linseed  or  castor  oil),  and  warm  water  enemas  are 
required,  followed  up  by  doses  of  nitrate  of  potash  in  the  drinking  water. 
The  parts  should  be  well  fomented  for  an  hour,  then  smeared  over  with 
the  extract  of  belladonna,  and  covered  up  with  cotton  wool.  The 
testicles  ought  then  to  be  supported  by  a  broad  bandage  secured  round 
the  loins,  behind  the  legs,  and  over  the  quarters,  and  for  this  purpose, 
a  long  netted  window  curtain  answers  best.  These  cases,  if  at  all 
severe,  may  end  in  dropsy  of  the  scrotum,  termed  hydrocele,  which 
has  to  be  relieved  by  tapping. 

725.  Injuries  to  the  Penis. — These  are  due  to  many  things,  the 
chief  of  which  are  the  following : — a  kick,  a  blow  with  a  whip  or  stick, 
and  a  mishap  while  jumping  a  stone  wall,  stake  or  wire  fence.  At  the 
seat  of  injury,  there  is  much  pain  and  swelling,  accompanied  by 
feverish  symptoms  generally.  Sometimes  the  swelling  is  so  great  that 
the  organ  hangs  loose  and  pendulous,  and  cannot  be  retracted  again 
into  the  sheath  ;  this  is  called  paraphymosis.  When  this  condition 
is  met  with,  scarification  must  be  resorted  to  ;  this  is  done  by  a  lancet, 
the  point  of  a  clean  penknife,  or  a  darning  needle  being  stabbed 
into  the  most  promment  parts  of  the  swelling.  Follow  up  with 
fomentations  for  40  or  60  minutes,  and  apply  the  suspensory  bandage 
as  recommended  for  inflammation  of  the  testicles  (par.  724).  As  a 
laxative,  give  a  draught  of  from  15  to  20  ounces  of  linseed  oil,  or  from 


two  to  three  ounces  of  Epsom  salts,  and  half  an  ounce  of  cream  of 
tartar  in  a  mash,  night  and  morning.  In  recent  cases,  this  treatment 
soon  sets  matters  right,  but  in  chronic  cases,  a  tonic  treatment  has  to 
be  adopted.  Swelling  of  the  penis  may  also  arise  from  protracted 
strangles,  influenza,  and  other  debilitating  diseases. 

726.  Excoriation  of  the  Penis. — This  is  mostly  seen  in  stallions, 
as  a  result  of  excessive  service  in  hot  weather,  particularly  when  the 
grooms  are  not  sufficiently  careful  to  wash  the  parts  well  with  cold 
water  immediately  after  service.  It  may  also  arise  both  in  the  stallion 
and  bull,  from  having  communication  with  a  female  suffering  from 
chronic  inflammation  and  ulceration  of  the  vagina  (vaginitis,  par.  798) 
or  from  whites  (leucorrhoea,  par.  746).  Treatment. — Take  the 
animal  off"  service,  and  wash  the  parts,  and  also  the  sheath,  night  and 
morning,  with  a  mixture  of  one  part  phenyle  and  80  parts  water. 
Afterwards  dress  with  the  following  lotion  : — Sulphate  of  zinc  two 
drachms,  fluid  sanitas  five  ounces,  cold  water  one  pint. 

727.  Sebaceous  Accumulations  in  the  Urethal  Sinus  (Plate 
XVIII.,  R.)  are  collections  of  solid  clay-like  matter  in  the  cavity 
round  the  opening  of  the  urethra,  at  the  point  of  the  penis  of  the 
horse,  which  occasionally  cause  lameness  in  one  or  both  hind  legs, 
In  four  cases,  in  my  practice,  the  animals  could  not  pull  their  hind 
extremities  forward,  but  stood  with  them  stretched  backwards,  as  if 
in  the  act  of  staling  ;  on  washing  the  penis,  and  removing  the  hard 
matter,  they  pulled  themselves  together  as  if  nothing  had  been  amiss. 
In  three  other  cases,  the  horses  had  a  peculiar  lameness  in  one  hind 
leg,  without  any  apparent  cause  ;  but  on  examining  and  removing 
the  collected  material  from  the  penis,  the  lameness  disappeared. 
Prevention. — Wash  the  parts  with  soap  and  warm  water  once  every 
five  or  six  months  and  remove  any  accumulation  that  may  be 

728.  Castration. — This  is  one  of  the  oldest  operations  on  record. 
The  main  object  of  its  performance  is  to  render  animals  more  docile, 
and  easy  to  manage,  and  although  it  has  a  marked  quietening  effect 


in  the  horse,  yet  the  stallion,  when  trained,  worked,  and  fed  in  the 
same  way  as  a  gelding,  generally  does  its  work  with  equal  ease  and 
docilit}^  Of  all  the  animals  subjected  to  the  operation,  the  best 
results  are  seen  in  the  bull — as  witness  the  calm,  quiet  appearance  of 
the  eye  and  head,  and  the  easy  comportment  of  a  big  three  or  four 
years  old  bullock,  compared  to  the  rugged  forehead  and  the  fierce  eye 
of  a  bull  of  the  same  age.  Although  castration  can  be  performed 
with  ease  and  success,  the  operation,  at  the  best,  is  not  one  of  a 
pleasant  nature  ;  but  when  the  safety  of  mankind  is  at  stake,  the  end 
justifies  the  means.  In  the  horse,  the  time  selected  for  castration 
is  when  the  animal  is  rising  one  year  old — in  the  spring  months,  April 
and  May, — ^just  before  it  is  turned  out  to  grass,  but  the  operation  can 
be  performed  at  any  age  and  at  any  time. 

729.  The  Horse. — At  the  present  day,  there  is  a  great  amount  of 
controversy  going  on  between  those  who  favour  operating  on  the  colt 
in  the  standmg  posture,  and  those  who  cast  and  secure  the  animal. 
The  use  of  chloroform  is  also  being  discussed,  but  generally  speaking, 
every  operator  has  his  own  particular  method.  An  old-fashioned,  yet 
I  think  the  best  way,  is  to  cast  and  secure  the  colt  ;  then,  before 
operating,  wash  the  penis  well  with  cold  water  and  carbolic  soap,  dry  it 
with  a  clean  rough  towel,  and  pour  into  the  sheath  a  little  carbolic  oil, 
smearing  some  of  it  also  over  the  bag  (scrotum)  ;  next  press  the  testicle 
tight  into  the  scrotum,  holding  it  firmly  there  by  the  left  hand,  then  by 
one  quick  sweep  of  a  sharp  knife,  make  a  bold  opening,  and  expose  the 
gland,  which  is  seized  and  pulled  gently  up  ;  the  clam  is  put  on  about 
from  one  and  a  half  to  two  inches  up  the  cord,  and  with  the  hot  iron 
— dead  red-heat  is  best — -the  non-vascular,  or  hinder  portion,  is  quickly 
cut  through,  and  liberated  from  the  clam  ;  next  the  spermatic  cord 
(or  string)  is  slowly  seared  through,  and  when  satisfied  that  the 
bleeding  has  stopped,  by  gently  opening  and  shutting  the  clam,  let 
the  parts  go,  and  treat  the  other  testicle  in  the  same  way.  This 
mode  of  operating,  with  an  ordinary  colt,  only  takes  from  eight 
to  twelve  minutes  to  cast,  tie,  wash,  castrate,  and  liberate,  and  owing 
to  the  success  attending  it,  I  am  very  partial  to  it.  Many  operators, 
however,  both  qualified  and  unqualified,  open  the  scrotum  with   the 


hot  iron,  and  are  very  successful.  Other  forms  of  operation  are  to 
remove  the  testicles  with  the  ecraseur,  demasculator,  or  by 
torsion  instruments.  I  have  tried  these  instruments,  but  do  not 
favour  them,  as,  in  some  cases,  bleeding  followed. 

730.  Some  operators  again  lay  open  the  scrotum  with  a  knife,  and 
fix  on  to  the  cord  a  clam  made  of  two  pieces  of  wood,  for  the  purpose 
of  stopping  bleeding  ;  this  is  one  of  the  methods  of  operating  in  the 
standing  position.  There  is  no  doubt  that  this  is  a  most  cruel 
proceeding,  whether  performed  lying  down  or  standing  ;  to  leave  a  pair 
of  wooden  clams  dangling  at  the  end  of  the  cord  for  several  hours,  to 
be  pulled  up  and  down  by  the  action  of  the  muscles,  into  the  raw  open 
wound,  must  be  highly  painful  and  irritating  to  the  unfortunate 
animal.  The  clam  should  only  be  used  in  cases  of  hernia  (rupture), 
and  should  then  be  put  on  over  the  skin.  With  reference  to  the 
standing  operation,  I  think  it  fool-hardy  on  the  part  of  the  owner  as 
well  as  the  operator.  Many  things  can  be  urged  against  it  ;  for 
instance,  when  the  ecraseur  is  about  half-way  through  the  cord,  the 
animal  suddenly  lies  down,  and  the  operator,  not  wanting  to  be  beat, 
sticks  to  the  instrument  and  so  drags  the  cord  too  far  out ;  one  case 
like  this  would  satisfy  me.  As  for  injuring  the  animal  in  casting,  the 
record  of  such  cases  is  extremely  small  ;  I  cannot  remember  a  single 
case  of  mine,  where  any  harm  resulted  from  casting  with  the  side-lines. 

731.  Crushing  the  testicle — (which  in  my  opinion  is  a  cruel 
operation),  scraping  the  cord  through,  tying  the  cord  with  silk  or 
antiseptic  thread,  and  tying  the  blood-vessel  alone,  are  all  practised, 
but,  as  already  stated,  I  prefer  casting  and  using  the  hot  iron. 

732.  The  Rig,  is  a  horse,  in  which,  one  or  both  testicles  have  failed 
to  come  down  into  the  scrotum.  In  ordinary  castration,  should  one 
testicle  only  be  down  at  the  tmie  of  operating,  I  make  it  a  rule  to  take 
it  away  so  that  the  other  may  develop,  and  subsequently  descend. 
With  a  few  exceptions,  this  has  taken  place,  removal  following  in  the 
ordinary  way.  Should  this  not  happen,  the  best  time  to  operate  on  a 
rig  is   when  it   is  rising   three   years    old.     Several    members   of  the 


veterinary  profession  ha\e  made  a  specialty  of  this  operation,  which 
they  perform  very  successfully,  but  the  great  secret  seems  to  be  in  the 
manner  in  which  the  animal  is  tied  for  the  operation.  Generally  the 
testicle  that  is  retained  in  the  abdominal  cavity  is  of  a  morbid  character. 

733.  The  Bull. — As  a  rule,  the  young  calf,  when  five  or  six  weeks 
old,  is  castrated  by  its  owner,  but,  when  asked  to  operate,  I  get  an 
attendant  to  cast  and  hold  the  animal  in  a  sitting  position  on  its  hind 
quarters,  with  a  strap  round  both  hind  shanks,  on  which  the  foot  is 
placed.  The  testicles  are  next  pressed  up  tight,  and  with  a  quick 
sweep  of  the  knife  a  good  opening  is  made  into  the  scrotum,  first  on 
one  side,  and  then  on  the  other,  making  both  cuts  into  one  at  the  end; 
next  get  hold  of  the  testicle,  cut  through  the  non-vascular  portion, 
and  either  draw  the  cord,  or  pull  it  tight,  and  cut  it  quickly  through. 
When  operating  on  the  bull,  from  six  to  twelve  months  old,  it  is  best 
to  have  the  animal  standing,  and  held  by  an  attendant  by  the  nose,  with 
the  right  side  against  a  wall,  door,  or  gate  ;  the  operator  stands  on  the 
left,  behind  the  hind  quarters,  and  grasping  both  testicles  at  once, 
makes  a  clean  cut  with  the  knife,  first  on  one  side,  then  on  the  other, 
round  the  end  of  the  scrotum  ;  the  non-vascular  portion  is  next 
severed,  then  the  clams  are  applied  to  the  vascular  part  of  the  spermatic 
cords  of  both  testicles,  about  two  or  three  inches  above  those  organs, 
and  both  are  slowly  seared  through  at  once  with  the  hot  iron. 

734.  The  Pig. — x\n  attendant  usually  holds  it  firmly  by  the  hind  legs 
with  the  back  towards  the  operator  ;  the  testicle  is  pressed  up  behind, 
close  to  the  tail  root,  and  cut  down  upon  with  a  sharp  knife ;  the 
testicle  is  then  pulled  up,  and  the  cord  laid  over  the  sharp  edge  of  the 
knife  and  cut  quickly  through. 

735.  The  Lamb. — Shepherds  are  generally  the  best  and  most 
fortunate  operators  on  this  animal,  cutting  through  the  skin  of  the 
scrotum  with  a  knife,  and  drawing  the  testicle  and  cord  out  with 
their  teeth.  The  operation  on  an  Aged  Ram  is  most  successful  when 
the  bag  is  divided  with  the  hot  iron,  and  the  testicles  are  seared  off 
with  the  same. 


736.  After  Treatment  for  Castration. — If  the  colt  has  been 
indoors  before  the  operation,  keep  it  in  a  box  till  the  parts  are  healed. 
If  out  at  grass,  bring  it  in,  and  keep  indoors  until  the  day  after  the 
operation  ;  after  which,  if  the  weather  be  fine,  let  it  out  daily  for  a  few 
hours.  As  a  result  of  castration,  swelling  to  a  greater  or  lesser 
extent  occurs  ;  this  drops  down  into  the  sheath,  and  if  left  alone 
for  five  or  six  days,  usually  disappears.  Should  the  sheath  be  very 
big  and  pendulous,  stabbing  with  a  small  lancet,  a  darning  needle,  or 
the  point  of  a  clean  penknife,  allows  the  escape  of  the  collected  serum. 
Precautions. — Before  operating,  it  is  of  the  utmost  importance  to 
ascertain,  that  there  is  no  cold,  influenza,  strangles,  or  the  like, 
amongst  the  animals  on  the  farm,  or  even  on  the  neighbouring  farms. 
Furthermore,  the  operator  must  see  that  his  hands  and  person  are 
thoroughly  clean  and  aseptic,  as  it  is  highly  dangerous  to  operate  after 
removing  cleansings,  making  post-mortems,  and  the  like.  The  owner 
should  also  take  every  care  that  the  box  is  thoroughly  cleaned  and 
disinfected,  and  the  bedding  should  be  of  clean  straw.  Often  when 
blood-poisonir.g  follows  the  operation  the  operator  is  blamed,  when 
the  real  cause  is  the  dirt  and  filth  in  the  box  in  which  the  animal  has 
been  placed.  Complications. — There  are  many  matters  of  a  serious 
nature  that  may  arise  after  castration,  particularly  in  the  horse,  even 
when  the  operation  has  been  performed  with  skill  and  dexterity, 
and  without  any  fault  on  the  part  of  the  operator,  such  as 
haemorrhage  (bleeding) ;  protrusion  of  the  omentum  (net) 
or  bowels  ;  septicaemia,  peritonitis,  tetanus,  abscesses, 
scirrhous    cord,    etc. 

737.  Bleeding  may  take  place  immediately  after  the  operation, 
but  by  walking  the  animal  about,  and  dashing  a  few  pails  of  cold 
water  under  the  tail  matters  will  probably  be  set  right  ;  when  the 
hemorrhage  comes  on  a  few  hours  after,  the  opening  must  be  plugged 
with  tow  well  saturated  with  tincture  of  iron  and  water.  This  plug 
should  be  removed  in  12  or  24  hours,  and  the  opening  re-dressed 
if  necessary.  Bleeding  more  often  happens  in  the  young  bull  than 
in  the  horse,  and,  in  some  cases,  it  is  necessary  to  cast  the  animal 
again,  get  hold  of  the  cord,  and  tie  a  ligature  round  it. 


738.  Protrusion  of  the  Omentum  or  Net. — This,  like  bleeding, 
may  occur  at  the  time,  or  a  few  hours  after  the  operation  ;  but  the 
protruding  part  can  be  cut  off  with  a  knife,  or  the  scissors,  close  up 
to  the  body,  without  any  bad  effects  following.  This  I  have  done 
several  times. 

739.  Escape  of  the  Bowels  through  the  incision  is  however  very 
dangerous,  and  generally  due  to  the  animal  having  had  Scrotal  Hernia 
or  Rupture.  Should  the  bowels  escape  immediately  the  animal  gets 
on  to  its  feet,  they  must  at  once  be  secured  in  a  large  bed  sheet,  which 
is  then  tied  up  round  the  loins,  brought  under  the  tail  and  over  the 
quarter;  the  horse  should  then  be  re-cast,  and  the  protruding  bowel 
returned,  and  the  opening  secured  by  a  wooden  clam. 

740.  Septicaemia  or  Blood-poisoning  may  result  from  the  animal 
not  being  in  a  fit  condition  for  the  operation,  also  from  the  use  of  dirty 
instruments,  or  from  the  operator  having  unclean  hands,  or  from  dirty 
and  filthy  surroundings  {par.  736). 

741.  Abscesses. — These  may  form  in  the  scrotum  after  castration, 
and  give  rise  to  a  great  amount  of  trouble.  Hot  fomentations  must 
be  used,  and  the  parts  opened  when  ready,  that  is  when  the  swelling 
is  soft  and  doughy  to  the  touch.  This  complication  is  more  frequently 
seen  in  bulls  than  in  horses. 

742.  Scirrhous  Cord. — This  is  a  thickening  of  the  end  of  the  cord, 
which  sometimes  follows  after  castration  ;  it  is  generally  of  a  hard 
nature,  in  which  small  abscesses  may  gather,  burst,  and  become  very 
troublesome.  As  to  its  origin,  there  is  no  well -defined  cause.  The 
best  and  most  radical  treatment  is  to  cast  the  animal  and  dissect  the 
diseased  portion  out,  though  some  cases  recover  under  the  administra- 
tion of  two  drachms  of  iodide  of  potassium,  given  daily  for  two  to  three 

743.  Peritonitis,  or  inflammation  of  the  covering  of  the  bowels 
(par.  313),  and  Tetanus  (par.  610)  may  also  supervene. 



744.  Ovarian  Diseases. — The  ovaries  of  the  mare  and  cow  may 
become  enlarged,  diseased,  or  affected  with  dropsy  ;  happily,  however, 
such  cases  are  uncommon  in  these  animals.  When  present  they  are 
extremely  difficult  to  diagnose,  as  it  is  only  by  negative  symptoms 
that  their  presence  can  be  determined  even  by  an  expert. 

745.  Ovariotomy,  commonly  called  spaying,  is  an  operation 
frequently  performed  on  heifers  and  she-pigs  in  many  districts,  par- 
ticularly in  the  midland  counties.  It  is  analogous  to  the  castration  of 
the  male,  and  the  benefits  claimed  to  be  derived  from  it  are  : — -The 
convenient  housing  together  of  both  sexes,  and  the  tendency  of  spayed 
animals  to  speedily  lay  on  fat,  and,  if  milking,  to  give  a  larger 
and  longer  supply.  The  operation  is  also  the  best  preventive  for 
mares  and  cows  that  are  continually  coming  into  season. 

746.  Leucorrhoea  or  Whites. — This  complaint  generally  aff"ects 
old  animals — the  cow  particularly — and  is  characterized  by  the  discharge 
from  the  vagina  of  a  glairy,  milky-looking,  often  bad-smelling  fluid, 
which  is  sometimes  so  extensive  as  to  run  down  the  thighs  and  tail.  It 
may  arise  from  too  long  retention  of  the  after-birth  or  cleansing,  or 
from  chronic  inflammation  of  the  vagina  or  womb.  The  parts  are  in 
a  very  relaxed  condition,  and  the  hand  can  be  readily  passed  up  the 
vagina  to  the  neck  of  the  womb,  which  is  generally  found  to  be 
thickened,  and  open  enouf;h  to  allow  the  passage  of  two  or  three 
fingers.  After  an  attack  of  this  kind  an  animal  seldom  breeds  again. 
Treatment. — Wash  the  womb  out  every  second  or  third  day  with 
two  ounces  of  tincture  of  iron,  or  tincture  of  iodine,  mixed  in  one 
gallon  of  cold  water,  previously  boiled  ;  also  give  iron  tonics  with 
nux-vomica,  or  preparations  of  arsenic. 

747.  Pustulant  Irritation  of  the  Vagina. — In  extremely  hot 
weather  both  the  mare  and  cow  are  liable  to  suffer  from  this  afi'ection. 


in  which  there  is  a  great  itching  of  the  parts,  a  discharge  of  glairy 
fluid,  slight  s\yelling  of  the  external  parts,  and  constant  whisking  of 
the  tail.  When  a  mare  or  cow  is  affected  in  this  way  the  male  should 
have  no  connection,  as  it  might  contract  the  same  complaint,  for  it  is 
inoculative,  and  yet  in  many  cases  the  male  can  convey  the  complaint 
from  one  female  to  another,  without  himself  showing  any  signs  of 
derangement.  The  malady  is  such  that  it  can  be  conveyed  by  an 
affected  animal  rubbing  its  hind-quarters,  or  by  whiskmg  the  tail 
against  the  external  parts  of  another  animal,  so  that  the  tail  of  an 
affected  animal  should  also  be  looked  after,  washed  and  disinfected. 
The  Treatment  is  the  same  as  noted  in  pavs.  799  and  800. 

748.  Genital  Exanthema,  commonly  known  as  the  "disorder," 
is  very  contagious  and  inoculative,  and  affects  both  male  and  female. 
When  it  makes  its  appearance  in  the  male,  numerous  vesicles  or  small 
blebs  are  noticed  on  the  penis,  which  finally  burst  and  form  little  ulcers. 
In  the  female  the  external  parts  of  the  genital  organs  are  swollen  and 
inflamed.  The  passage  internally  is  studded  with  small  ulcers  and 
spots  of  matter,  causing  an  irritative  discharge  from  the  parts. 
There  is  a  great  deal  of  itching,  the  tail  is  constantly  on  the 
move,  and  great  inclination  to  urinate,  but  constitutional  disturbance 
is  seldom  seen.  In  the  mare  it  at  times  assumes  an  epidemic 
form,  showing  all  the  symptoms  of  a  slight  attack  of  pink  eye 
(par.  522).  The  animal  drops  off  its  food,  becomes  very  stiff 
and  dull,  with  swollen  eyelids  and  limbs.  These  symptoms  are 
noticed  in  from  seven  to  ten  days  after  service,  and  their  duration 
is  about  three  or  four  days.  Should  the  mare  have  a  sucking  foal 
following  her,  it  as  a  rule  contracts  the  complaint  in  about  30  to 
40  hours  after  the  symptoms  appear  in  the  mother.  Treatment — 
Washing  the  parts  of  the  male  with  one  part  of  Little's  phenyle  or 
Jeyes'  fliiid  in  80  parts  of  cold  water  once  a  day,  and  injecting  this 
mixture  into  the  passage  of  the  female,  washing  also  the  external 
parts  with  it,  is  all  that  is  required.  Small  doses  of  cooling  medicine, 
such  as  two  table-spoonfuls  of  Epsom  salts  and  one  table-spoonful  of 
cream  of  tartar  may  be  given  every  night  for  a  week.  (For  further 
Treatment  see  par.  800. J 



749.  Obstructions  in  the  Vagina.— False  Membranes  and 
Cords  are  often  formed  in  the  vagina  by  a  doubling  of  the  lining 
membrane.  They  may  run  from  side  to  side,  or  from  roof  to  floor, 
and  before  parturition  can  take  place  they  have  to  be  cut  with  a  knife, 
or  broken  down  with  the  fingers.  They  usually  cause  some  pain,  the 
animal  getting  up  and  lying  down  as  if  m  colic  ;  but,  as  a  rule,  no 
constitutional  disturbance  results.  Long-necked  Tumours  are  not 
infrequently  found  in  the  passage  ;  these  have  to  be  either  twisted  or 
cut  off.  Abscesses  are  also  sometimes  formed  in  the  waUs  of  the 
vagina,  generally  in  the  lower  part,  between  the  floor  of  the  passage 
and  the  roof  of  the  bladder,  but  they  are  also  found  in  the  sides  or  in 
the  roof.  They  may  result  from  bruises  caused  during  parturition, 
especially  in  breech  presentations,  cr  from  injuries  done  by  mischievous 
boys  pushing  sticks  up  the  passage.  The  most  prominent  symptom  is 
continual  straining.  An  examination  must  be  made  and  the  abscess 
opened,  as  described  under  abscess  in  the  bladder  (par.  719)  ;  but  this 
should  only  be  done  by  the  expert  practitioner. 

750.  Protrusion  of  the  Vagina.— The  vagina  is  frequently  found 
protruding  or  everted  to  the  extent  of  eight  or  ten  inches.  This  is  most 
often  seen  in  cattle  that  have  been  on  board  ship,  and  it  is  sometimes 
very  troublesome  in  summer  weather  when  they  are  out  at  grass,  for  if 
it  happens  once,  it  has  a  tendency  to  recur  about  every  three  weeks.  If 
the  vagina  remains  out  too  long  it  becomes  swollen  and  congested,  and 
before  it  can  be  returned,  it  has  to  be  pricked  in  several  places  with  a 
lancet,  and  the  congested  fluid  pressed  out ;  it  should  then  be  anointed 
with  carbolic  oil,  returned,  and  kept  m  its  place  by  stitches  of  leather  or 
tape,  put  through  the  skin  close  to  the  rump  bone  with  a  packing  needle, 
and  carried  across  to  the  other  side,  but  on  no  account  must  the  stitches 
be  put  through  the  lips  of  the  vulva.  Aged  cows  that  have  had  a  number 
of  calves  are  very  subject  to  this  protrusion,  it  being  usually  noticed  five 
or  six  weeks  before  calving,  but  only  while  the  animal  is  lying  down,  as 
it  recedes  on  rising.  The  best  preventive  of  this  is  to  heighten  the 
the  floor  behind  the  animals  with  firm  green  turf,  which,  by  raising 
the  hind-quarters,  mechanically  prevents  the  protrusion.  As  a  rule  it 
is  rarely  seen  after  calving. 



1.  I.     Chorion,  Outer  Covering  of  Placenta,  showing  Cot\'ledons 

by  which  it  is  attached  to  the  Womb. 

2.  2.     Allantois,  or  Water  Bag — the  Middle  Coat  of  the  Placenta. 

3.  Amnion  or  Slime  Bag — the  Coat  next  the  Foetus. 

4.  The  Umbilical  Cord  or  Navel  String. 

5.  The  Bladder. 

6.  Large  Intestine. 

7.  Small  Intestine. 


751.  The  Average  Periods  of  Gestation  are  : — 

Mare — 11  months,  but  varies  from  10  to  12  months. 

^      Cow — Nine  months,  also  varies. 

Sheep — ^  _.  ,  . 

_  '  i-ive  months,  or  irom  20  to  22  weeks. 

Goat —    i 

Pig— Four  months,  or  from  15  to  17  weeks. 

Bitch — Nine  weeks,  or  from  58  to  65  days. 

Cat — Eiglit  weeks,  or  from  50  to  60  days. 

752.  For  impregnation,  the  ovum  of  the  female  must  meet  the 
spcnnatozoii  contained  m  the  spermatic  fluid  of  the  male  ;  to  do  so  it 
usually  travels  from  the  ovary  to  the  womb,  by  the  action  of  the 
fringes  of  the  Fallopian  tubes,  which  grasp  the  ovum,  and  convey  it 
along  one  of  these  tubes  into  the  womb.  Impregnation  may  also  take 
place  in  the  Fallopian  tube  itself.  When  impregnation  occurs,  a 
series  of  changes  begin  in  the  womb.  The  segmentation  of  the  ovum, 
and  development  of  the  foetus  and  its  membranes,  are  of  too  complex 
a  nature  to  be  dealt  with  in  this  lecture,  but  the  placenta  or  cleansing 
is  deserving  of  a  short  description. 

753.  The  Foetal  Membranes  (Placenta  or  Cleansing — Plate 
XXXIX.,  Nos.  1  to  4),  are  three  in  number,  namely,  tlie  Amnion, 
Allantois,  and  Chorion. 

754.  The  Amnion  or  Slime  Bag  is  thin  and  transparent,  and  in  it 
floats  the  fcetus,  surrounded  by  slime.  The  Allantois  or  Water 
Bag  is  situated  outside  of  the  amnion,  and  between  it  and  the  chorion. 
The  Chorion  is  situated  next  the  womb,  and  is  the  vascular  coat. 
A  marked  difference  is  seen  in  the  attachment  of  this  coat  in  the  mare, 
as  compared  to  those  of  the  cow  and  sheep.  In  the  latter  there  are  a 
large  number  of  cotyledons  or  rosebuds,  consisting  of  ramifications 
of  fcetal  blood-vessels,  which  are  intimately  connected  with  similar 
structures  on  the  womb.     In  the  mare,  however,  the  attachment  is 


brought  about  by  villi, — small,  sprout-like  projections, — which  are 
found  all  over  the  outside  of  the  placenta,  and  are  received  into 
corresponding  depressions  in  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  womb. 

755. — The  foetus  is  connected  with  the  placenta  by  means  of  the 
umbilical  cord  or  navel  string  (Plate  XXXIX,  4),  which  is  made 
up  of 

I. — The  Umbilical  Vein,  carrying  pure  blood  from  the  placenta 

to  the  feet  us. 
2. — Two  Umbilical  Arteries,  conveying  venous  blood  back  to 

the  fcetal  membranes. 
3, — The  Urachus,  a  tube  which  connects  the  allantois  with  the 
The  blood  of  the  mother  does  not  circulate  in  the  body  of  the  foetus 
directly  ;  the  offspring  being  nourished  b}^  the  aid  of  the  villi  on  the 
outer  coat  of  the  placenta,  which  absorb  nutrient  material  from  the 
blood  of  the  parent  supplied  to  the  womb. 

756. — Abortion,  Slinking,  Slipping,  or  Casting  the  Calf. — Of 

all  the  diseases  that  infest  the  stock  of  the  farm  and  fold,  that  of 
abortion  may  be  looked  upon  as  the  most  serious.  This  malady  has 
been  known  from  time  immemorial,  reference  being  made  to  it  in 
Biblical  History,  for  according  to  Genesis,  31st  chap.,  verse  38,  Jacob 
seems  to  have  known  the  secret  of  its  prevention  ;  it  is,  therefore,  a  great 
pity  he  did  not  leave  it  behind  him  for  our  benefit  in  these  latter  da3'S. 
Abortion,  however,  is  not  very  common  in  the  Mare,  and  when  it  does 
occur  it  is  generally  the  result  of  an  accident.  Sheep  are  more 
susceptible  to  its  baneful  influence,  but  nothing  to  the  same  extent  as 
Cows,  among  which  the  causes  of  abortion  are  numerous.  A  solitary 
case  may  occur  from  some  injury,  such  as  the  animal  being  caught  in 
a  gate  or  doorway,  or  by  a  goad  from  another  beast ;  from  indigestion 
and  distension  of  the  stomach  with  gas,  causing  pressure  on  the  gravid 
uterus,  and  displacement  of  some  of  the  placental  attachments  ;  from 
urticaria  and  specific  diseases,  such  as  "foot  and  mouth"  disease; 
also  from  bleeding,  the  administration  of  poisonous  drugs,  &c. 


757-  When  the  complaint  rages  in  the  epizootic  form,  and  attacks 
stock  on  various  farms  for  miles  around,  it  is  then  that  its  baneful 
effect  is  most  bitterly  felt.  Most  of  the  abortion  outbreaks  that  have 
occurred  in  my  district  have  been  cases  where  a  farmer  changed  his 
holding,  sold  off  his  cattle,  and  then  purchased  from  other  farm  sales 
and  auction  marts  a  new  stock  of  in-calf  cows,  most  of  them  three-parts 
gone  in  calf;  and  then  from  injury  caused  by  galloping,  or  by  mountmg 
on  each  other's  backs,  one  or  more  of  them  has  aborted.  Again,  from 
being  tied  up  on  the  wrong  side  m  a  strange  byre  amongst  strange 
companions,  a  cow  of  a  fretful  nature  becomes  so  unsettled  that  it 
casts  its  calf,  with  the  result  that  most  of  the  others  do  the  same,  more 
especially  if  the  animal  commencing  it  has  come  from  an  infected  herd. 
The  introduction  of  a  newly  aborted  animal  into  a  byre,  or  pasture, 
containing  in-calf  animals  is  often  the  means  of  spreading  the 
complaint,  while  allowing  a  cow,  even  at  full  time,  to  calve  in  a 
byre  amongst  others  that  are  pregnant  is,  in  my  opinion,  one  of  the 
chief  causes  of  outbreaks  of  abortion  amongst  cows. 

75S.  Ergot  of  Rye,  eaten  b}'  the  cows,  has  been  named  as  a  great 
producer  of  the  malady,  but  I  have  never  yet  been  able  to  trace  an 
outbreak  to  this  source.  The  complaint  is  as  frequent  in  winter  as  in 
summer,  and  if  ergot  is  a  cause  it  is  difficult  to  imagine  how  a  cow 
fed  on  roots,  straw,  cake,  corn,  and  hay,  can  get  a  sufficient  quantity 
of  ergot  to  produce  abortion.  That  the  epidemic  form  is  highly 
contagious  there  can  be  little  doubt,  and  it  is  now  thought  by  many 
to  be  due  to  a  micro-organism.  This  may  be  so,  but  I  am  not  yet 
convinced  that  the  germ  enters  the  gravid  uterus  by  means  of  the 
vaginal  passage,  because  it  is  well  known  that  the  neck  of  the  womb, 
during  gestation,  is  hermetically  sealed  against  external  influences. 

759.  The  abolition  of  abortion,  in  my  opinion,  is  of  as  great 
importance  as  the  abolition  of  tuberculosis,  and  ought  to  be  legislated 
for  by  the  Government.  An  Act  of  Parliament  should  be  passed 
making  criminal  the  exposure  for  sale  of  an  aborted  animal,  or  the 
sending  out  to  grass,  amongst  other  pregnant  cows,  of  an  animal 
that  has  slipped  its  calf,  until  a  slated  interval  has  passed.      Formerly 


it  was  the  general  custom,  when  an  animal  cast  its  calf,  to  prepare 
it  for  the  fat  market;  this  is  done  by  many  yet,  but  on  some  farms  the 
animals  are  now  kept  back  fur  a  certain  period  and  again  served,  and 
in  the  course  of  from  two  to  four  years,  the  complaint  dies  out.  The 
latter  is  a  much  better  plan  than  fattening  off  and  replacing  with  stock 
from  an  unknown  and  perhaps  worse  affected  place. 

760.  Prevention.— As  the  causes  are  various,  so  are  the  measures  for 
prevention  ;  while  nearly  every  district  has  some  pecuhar  old-fashioned 
fad  of  its  own— such  as  burying  the  aborted  calf  under  the  doorstep  of 
the  byre,  or  keeping  a  male  goat  amongst  the  stock,  &c.  Immediately 
a  cow  shows  signs  of  parting  with  its  calf,  it  should  be  put  into  a  box 
and  left  there  to  calve  by  itself,  in  fact,  no  coiv  should  he  allowed.,  under  any 
circnmstances,  to  calve  amongst  other  pregnant  animals,  and  for  this  reason, 
every  stock-breeder  should  have  at  his  disposal  one  or  more  nursery 
boxes  for  this  purpose.  When  an  animal  casts  its  calf  the  utmost  care 
should  be  taken  to  keep  it  from  contact  with  any  others  that  are 
pregnant,  whilst  the  byres  should  be  cleansed  down,  and  washed  with 
lime-wash  and  carbolic  acid,  once  every  two  months.  Little's  phenyle, 
in  the  proportion  of  one  to  80  of  water,  should  be  sprinkled  over  the 
tail  and  hind-quarters  of  the  other  animals  with  a  watering  can,  night 
and  morning  ;  chlorate  of  potash,  or  pure  carbohc  acid,  in  doses  of 
from  two  to  four  drachms,  should  be  given  them  every  other  day, 
every  alternate  fortnight,— from  the  third  month  after  service  to 
the  seventh,— in  a  mash  of  bran.  Caution.— Irritating  germicidal 
mixtures  should,  however,  not  be  injected  into  the  vagina  of  a  pregnant 
animal,— though  they  are  often  recommended,— as  they  cause  great 
pain  and  straining,  and  are  more  hkely  to  bring  about  abortion  than 
to  prevent  it. 

761.  Imperforate    Hymen,  known  as  Impervious    Os-Uten.— 

In  the  virgin  heifer,  in  perfect  health,  the  vagina  is  very  much 
corrugated  and  constricted  immediately  in  front  of  the  neck  of  the 
bladder,  but  beyond  its  external  opening.  In  this  complaint  the 
vaginal  passage  is  entirely  obliterated  by  these  corrugations.  Strange 
to  say,  this  lesion  is  mostly  seen  in  white  heifers  ;   I  have  operated  on  a 

A.     Cow— Commencement  of  Parturition,  showing  water  bag. 

B.     Imperforate  Hymen,  showing  trocar  in  position  (pars.  761  and  762). 


large  number,  but  have  only  met  with  it  in  one  coloured  animal — a  light 
roan  heifer.  The  animal  rarely  shows  any  indications  of  the  complaint 
until  it  has  been  served  ;  then  the  symptoms  are  developed  m  a  period 
varying  from  12  hours  to  6  weeks,  the  principal  portion  of  the  cases 
occurring  in  from  12  to  20  days,  when  the  patient  is  noticed  to  erect 
its  tail,  and  strain  and  press,  as  if  about  to  calve.  Any  faeces  which 
may  be  in  the  rectum  is  forcibly  ejected,  and  in  severe  cases  the 
rectum  is  turned  out,  and  bloody  mucus  is  discharged  from  the  vagina. 

762.  After  learning  the  history  of  the  case,  the  operator  should  oil 
his  hand,  and  introduce  it  gently  into  the  rectum.  Immediately  the 
hand  is  passed  through  the  anus,  a  tense,  more  or  less,  distended  body 
is  felt  beneath  the  floor  of  the  bowel.  By  passing  the  hand  further 
forward,  this  bladdery  distension  is  found  to  extend  mto  the  cavity  of 
the  belly.  Understanding  what  is  amiss,  he  should  withdraw  the  hand 
and  pass  the  fore-finger  of  the  left  hand  into  the  vaginal  passage, 
when,  immediately  m  front  and  above  the  neck  of  the  bladder,  the 
obstruction  will  be  found,  and  a  roughening  felt,  a  result  of  the 
penetration  of  the  male  organ  in  the  act  of  serving.  Treatment — 
For  relief,  an  operation  is  necessary.  A  trocar  and  canula  (the  latter 
being  10  inches  long  and  f  of  an  inch  in  diameler— Plate  XLIX., 
fig.  11),  is  passed  up  along  the  vagina  and  guided  by  the  fore-finger 
of  the  left  hand  (the  point  of  the  trocar  being  withdrawn  into  the  tube) 
until  the  roughening  in  question  is  reached,  when  both  are  forced 
through  the  obstruction  into  the  bladdery  tumour  {Plate  XL.,  B). 
The  trocar  is  then  withdrawn,  the  fluid  passing  through  the  canula, 
while  its  escape  is  very  much  assisted  by  passing  the  hand  into  the 
rectum.  The  parts  are  next  washed  out  with  a  gallon  or  two  of  tepid 
water  containing  one  ounce  of  tincture  of  iron.  I  have  also  operated 
upon  animals  that  have  not  been  served  ;  (one  case  being  that  of  a 
white  heifer,  nine  months  old),  the  fluid  in  these  cases  is  like  dirty 
milky-whey  with  a  very  fcetid  smell,  while  in  those  who  have  been 
served  the  fluid  is  of  a  dirty  brown  colour,  with  a  "  stink  "  resembling 
that  of  a  decayed  cleansing. 


763.  Plate  XLI.,  fig.  I,  shows  the  natural  presentation  seen  in 
the  domestic  animals,  the  nose  being  between  the  knees,  and  the 
fore-feet  protrudmg  through  the  vulva.  At  a  cow's  first  calving, 
all  the  pelvic  ligaments  may  be  well  relaxed,  yet  in  some  cases  there 
is  a  constricted  band  round  the  vulva  or  outer  opening  for  about  an 
inch-and-a-half,  with  little  or  no  relaxation  of  the  parts.  The  owner 
or  attendants  usually  seize  hold  of  the  two  fore-feet,  and  pull  until 
the  shoulders  and  the  head  of  the  foetus  are  jammed  tightly  in  the 
passage,  when,  owing  to  the  constricted  condition  of  the  vulva,  the 
head  recedes,  and  is  pressed  back  against  the  shoulders,  rendering 
delivery  more  difficult,  but  at  last,  by  main  strength,  the  foetus  is 
forcibly  extracted,  causing  extensive  laceration  of  the  vaginal  passage 
and  fatal  haemorrhage.  In  these  cases  the  hand  ought  to  be  introduced 
into  the  passage,  and  the  head  of  the  foetus  and  its  surroundings 
carefully  examined;  a  strong  cord  should  be  passed  over  the  head, 
behind  the  ears  of  the  calf,  and  brought  along  each  side  of  the  calf's 
face,  the  ends  being  knotted  outside.  Thus  a  loop  is  formed  {see  Plate 
LXL,  fig.  7),  when,  by  traction  on  this  cord,  and  manipulation  with 
the  other  hand,  the  head  is  delivered,  and  by  carefully  ^xAVmg  first  one 
leg  and  then  the  othev,  the  foetus  is  extracted. 

764.  Plate  XLI.,  fig.  2,  represents  a  case  of  dropsy  of  the  belly 
of  the  calf.  The  presentation  is  natural,  and  though  there  seems  to 
be  plenty  of  room,  all  the  force  which  the  owner  or  attendants  can  use 
fails  to  accomplish  delivery.  By  passing  the  hand  over  the  head, 
neck,  and  shoulders  of  the  foetus,  the  cause  of  the  obstruction  is  found 
in  the  distended  belly  of  the  calf.  Some  practitioners  press  a  large 
trocar  through  the  breast  or  between  the  ribs  of  the  calf,  whichever  is 
the  easier  of  access.  For  my  own  part  I  prefer  passing  the  ordinary 
parturition  hand  knife  {Plate  XLIX.,  fig.  2)  between  two  ribs  of  the 
foetus,  when  it  and  the  water  come  away  readily. 


f^  Fig.  I,  par.  763. 

Fig.  2,  par.  764. 


Fig.  3,  par.  765. 



Fig.  4,  par.  766. 

Fig.  5.  par.  767- 


765.  Plate  XLII.,  fig.  3,  represents  the  liead  presented  with  the 
feet  back  and  down.  In  some  cases  the  head  may  be  pressed  back  and 
the  feet  got  up,  especially  in  the  mare  and  ewe,  but  in  the  majority  of 
cases  it  is  necessary  to  dissect  the  skin  back  and  cut  the  head  off  by 
the  first  joint  of  the  neck  fatlo  axoid  articulation)—  \ymg  the  skin  firmly 
round  the  end  of  the  bone,  and  leaving  the  end  of  the  cord  outside — 
then  by  pressing  the  neck  back  into  the  womb  and  getting  up  the  feet, 
delivery  is  accomplished. 

766.  Plate  XLII.,  fig.  4,  shows  a  very  common  but  troublesome 
presentation.  In  this  we  have  both  fore-legs  protruding,  while  the 
head  is  bent  back,  with  the  nose  pointing  forward  behind  the  elbow. 

767.  Plate  XLII.,  fig.  5,  is  a  somewhat  similar  presentation  to 
the  last,  but  the  nose  is  pointed  backwards  towards  the  flank. 

768.  Plate  XLIII.,  fig.  6. — The  fore-legs  in  this  case  are  presented 
as  in  figs.  4  and  5,  but  the  head  is  turned  over  on  to  the  back  of  the  foetus. 
These  cases  are  generally  made  more  difficult  by  the  attendants  seizing 
the  fore-legs  and  pulling  them,  without  examining  the  position  of  the 
head.  The  feet  should  be  got  hold  of  with  cords,  and  the  head  secured 
either  by  putting  a  hook  {Plate  XL IX.,  6)  into  the  eye-socket  [Plate 
XLII. ,5)  or  the  angle  of  the  jaw,  or  by  fastening  a  strong  cord  round  the 
under  jaw  ;  the  foetus  must  then  be  pressed  back  into  the  womb,  and 
the  head  manipulated  into  position.  A  great  deal  of  trouble  is  caused 
by  persons  tinkering  with  cases  too  long  before  sending  for  veterinary 
aid  ;  for,  when  all  the  natural  waters  have  been  expelled,  and  the 
uterine  pains  exhausted,  the  uterus  will  be  found  to  have  contracted 
on  the  foetus  as  tight  as  a  glove  on  a  lady's  hand.  When  a  case 
like  this  is  met  with,  the  best  mode  of  procedure  is  to  make 
eight  to  ten  quarts  of  linseed  jelly,  strain  it  through  a  cloth, 
and  with  Read's  patent  enema  syringe,  pump  it  into  the  womb 
over  the  body  of  the  foetus.  The  linseed  jelly  not  only  distends 
the  womb  and  floats  the  foetus,  but  acts  as  a  lubricant  in  place 
of  the  natural  waters.  If  the  head  cannot  be  got  into  position  after 
this  (which  is  often  the  case),  the  finger  knife  or   large  embryotomy 

knife  {Plate  XLIX.,  fi^s.  1  and  7)  must  be  introduced  and  carried  as 
far  on  to  the  shoulder  as  possible,  and  then  the  skin  should  be  cut 
and  divided  down  the  whole  length  of  the  limb  to  the  fetlock.  Previous 
to  cutting,  a  cord  ought  to  be  fixed  round  the  pastern  joint,  which  an 
assistant  should  pull  steadily  outward.  The  skin  is  next  detached  from 
the  shank-bone  and  secured  by  a  small  cord  ;  then  with  the  fingers  the 
skin  is  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  limb,  up  and  well  over  the 
shoulder,  as  far  as  can  be  reached.  The  knife  is  again  introduced, 
and  the  muscles  between  the  shoulders  and  the  body  (pectorals)  are 
divided.  Strong  traction  is  then  applied  to  the  rope  round  the  fetlock 
or  above  the  knee,  when  the  limb  generally  comes  away.  The  head  may 
then  be  got  into  position,  but  if  this  is  not  yet  possible,  the  other  fore- 
limb  must  be  removed  in  like  manner,  when  the  foetus  loses  its  support, 
and  drops  into  the  bottom  of  the  womb,  thus  allowing  the  head  to  be 
got  round  by  means  of  hooks  and  cords,  after  which  delivery  follows. 

769.  Plate  XLIII.,  fig.  7. — Both  fore-legs  are  presented,  and  the 
head  is  thrown  back  on  to  the  hind-quarter — a  very  common  occurrence 
in  the  mare, — the  bones  of  the  face  of  the  foetus  being  developed  to 
correspond  with  the  convexity  of  the  quarter.  The  feet  are  usually 
seen  outside  the  vulva,  but  only  the  tips  of  the  ears  can  be  reached. 
In  this  case  the  operator  should  waste  no  time  in  trying  to  turn  the 
head  round,  but  proceed  at  once  to  remove  the  fore-legs,  and  turn  the 
head  as  already  described  in  the  preceding  case.  This  last  presentation, 
in  the  mare,  I  consider  one  of  the  most  formidable  to  be  met  with. 

770.  Plate  XLIII.,  fig.  8,  represents  the  foetus  on  its  back,  with 
the  ears  and  back  of  the  head  presented,  and  the  feet  back.  This  is 
most  readily  put  right  by  casting  the  patient,  rolling  it  on  to  its  back, 
elevating  the  quarters  with  trusses  of  straw,  and  bringing  the  head  of 
the  fcetus  round  by  hooks  or  cords  {Plate  XLIX,  figs.  5  and  6),  when 
the  feet  may  be  placed  in  position  by  the  hands  or  secured  with  ropes. 

771.  Plate  XLIV.,  fig  g,  is  a  presentation  with  the  hind-legs 
coining  in  proper  position  for  delivery,  and  this  may  take  place  without 
any  inconvenience  to  mother  or  offspring,  but  in  many  cases  where 
the  foitus  is  large  it  dies  in  the  birth. 

PLATE  XL  III.     '^^^^^f^'^^^^^^^'dj.Jl^^A^' 

Fig.  6,  par.  768. 

Fig.  7,  par.  769. 

Fig.  8.  par.  770. 


g.  9,  par.  771. 

10,  par.  772. 

Fig.  II,  par.  772. 


772.  Plate  XLIV.,  fig.  10,  is  a  case  where  the  points  of  the  hocks 
are  presented  at  the  brim  of  the  pelvis.  Dehvery  may  be  accomplished 
(as  is  shown  in  Plate  XLIV.,  fig.  11,  and  Plate  XL  V.,  fig.  12)  by 
repelling  the  foetus  into  the  womb,  and  pressing  its  quarters  against 
the  spine  of  the  mother,  steadying  it  there  by  the  repeller  or  crutch 
{Plate  XLIX.,fig.  10),  while  the  disengaged  hand  works  the  foot  by 
pressing  the  toes  into  the  hollow  of  the  heel,  bringing  it  round  over 
the  brim  of  the  pelvis  of  the  mother  and  into  the  passage.  Both  limbs 
having  been  manipulated  in  this  fashion,  delivery  ensues. 

773.  Plate  XLV.,  fig.  13,  shows  the  tail  and  breech  presented 
and  pressed  tight  on  to  the  brim  of  the  pelvis.  In  the  cow,  dehvery 
may  be  managed  as  described  in  Plate  XLIV.,  fig.  10,  but  in  the  mare, 
if  the  points  of  the  hocks  of  the  foal  cannot  be  reached— which  is 
generally  the  case— the  only  operation,  with  safety  to  the  mother,  is 
to  remove  a  hind-leg  of  the  foetus  by  cutting  from  the  stifle,  through  the 
hip  joint,  to  the  rump  bone  (isclihim),  liberating  the  head  of  the  femur — 
not  an  easy  task— and  to  this  attaching  a  cord,  which  is  pulled  outwards 
by  an  assistant,  while  the  operator  with  a  knife  cuts  through  the  muscles 
on  the  inside  of  the  thigh.  The  leg  is  thus  extracted  thigh  foremost. 
After  this  the  abdomen  of  the  foetus  must  be  opened,  and  the  contents 
of  the  belly  and  chest  puhed  away.  Then  break  through  the  large 
openings  on  the  floor  of  the  right  and  left  sides  of  pelvic  bones 
(obtnyatoy  foramina)  ;  through  these  openings  pass  a  stout  rope  in  the 
form  of  a  loop,  and  while  the  operator  presses  the  remaining  hind  limb 
against  the  wahs  of  the  empty  abdominal  cavity  of  the  foal,  this  cord 
must  be  steadily  and  forcibly  pulled,  and  delivery  will  take  place. 
Sometimes,  however,  both  hind-legs  have  to  be  removed. 

774.  Plate  XLV.,  fig.  14,  and  Plate  XLVL,  fig.  15,  show  all 
four  feet  presented  in  the  passage,  the  latter  also  showing  head  turned 
back  on  the  side  or  quarter.  These  cases  are  of  frequent  occurence  in 
the  mare,  and  each  can  be  made  either  a  very  easy  operation  or  a  most 
difficult  one.  It  is  the  latter,  if  some  one  has  pulled  the  fore-feet  outside 
the  passage  as  far  as  the  knees,  while  the  head  is  beyond  reach  and 
pressed    back    into   the    uterus    (as  in    Plate  XLIIL,  fi.g.   7).      This 


presentation  is  rendered  more  difficult  through  having  the  hind-feet  in 
the  passage.  But,  if  seen  early,  or  before  any  interference  has  taken 
place  (as  shown  in  Plate  XLV.,  fig.  14),  the  case  may  readily  be 
adjusted  and  delivery  accomplished  in  a  very  short  time  by  attaching 
strong  cords  to  the  pasterns  of  the  hind  limbs,  and  while  the  cords  are 
pulled  alternately  by  assistants,  the  operator  presses  the  fore-feet  back 
into  the  womb.  The  hind-quarters  thus  come  into  the  passage,  and, 
by  careful  and  steady  traction,  delivery  is  soon  over.  When  the 
fore-legs  are  jammed  in  the  passage  (as  in  Plate  XLVL,  fig.  15)  then, 
for  the  safety  of  the  mother,  press  the  hind-feet  back  over  the  brim  of 
pelvis,  remove  the  fore-legs  (as  described  under  Plate  XLIL,  figs.  4 
and  5  and  Plate  XLIII.,  fig.  6),  and  bring  the  hind-feet  forward  (by 
the  cords  attached  prior  to  their  being  repelled)  ;  the  operator  then 
presses  the  breast  of  the  foetus  back  into  the  uterus,  while  assistants 
pull  it  away,  hind-legs  first. 

775.  Plate  XLVI.,  fig.  16,  represents  a  case  with  the  back  of  the 
head  and  neck  presented,  the  fore-legs  bent  back  and  the  pastern  joints 
doubled  round  the  thighs,  while  the  hind  pasterns  are  pressed  against 
the  brim  of  the  pelvis  of  the  mother.  The  fcetus  is  as  rigid  as  if  all 
the  joints  were  anchylosed.  In  a  case  which  occurred  in  the  practice 
of  the  late  Mr.  Fisher,  M.R.C.V.S.,  Whitehaven,  and  after  many 
attempts  had  been  made  to  straighten  the  head  (resulting  in  failure)  it 
was  at  last  cut  off,  and  a  strong  cord  was  fixed  round  the  neck,  close 
down  to  the  breast — yet  the  body  of  the  foal  could  not  be  stirred  ; 
then  the  upper  shoulder  was  with  great  difficulty  next  cut  off,  and 
a  cord  being  passed  round  the  humerus,  with  strong  pulling  the  leg 
came  away.  The  sternum  (breast- bone)  was  then  detached  on  each 
side  with  the  knife,  and  extracted  ;  the  first  four  ribs  were  removed  by 
passing  the  knife  between  the  ribs  up  to  the  backbone,  and  twisting 
them  off;  the  contents  of  the  chest  and  belly  were  torn  out,  and  the 
remaining  fore  leg  and  the  two  hind-feet  were  pressed  towards  the 
spine  of  the  eviscerated  feetus,  while  assistants  pulled  on  the  neck- 
cord,  and  extraction  followed.  The  operation  lasted  four  hours,  and 
the  mare  afterwards  did  well. 


Fig.  12,  par.  772. 

/       Fig.  13,  par.  773. 

Fig.  14,  par.  774. 


15.  par.  774. 

Fig.  16,  par.  775. 

Fig.  17,  par.  776. 


776.  Plate  XLVI.,  fig.  17,  is  a  transverse  presentation,  where  the 
foetus  is  lying  crosswise  in  the  womb,  with  the  points  of  the  hocks 
presented  towards  the  os-utcyi,  and  the  quarters  pressing  to  the  off-side 
of  the  mother,  with  the  hind-feet  pressed  firmly  against  the  near  side  ; 
the  point  of  the  tail  within  reach,  but  the  feet  and  pastern  joints 
cannot  be  touched.  The  best  mode  of  procedure  in  this  case  is  to 
cut  through  the  ham-string  {tendo-achiUis)  above  the  pomt  of  each  hock, 
bringing  the  latter  outwards  with  the  hook  {Plate  XLIX.,  fig.  6),  put 
a  loop  of  good  strong  cord  round  the  joint,  press  the  front  of  the 
shank-bone  against  the  front  of  the  tibia,  or  leg  bone,  and  pull  the 
hind-legs  into  the  passage,  when  extraction  of  the  foetus  follows. 

777.  Plate  XLVII.,  figs.  18  and  19,  represent  twins.  It  is 
necessary  in  all  cases  of  parturition,  before  any  cords  are  attached  or 
any  pulling  attempted,  that  a  careful  and  minute  exploration  and 
examination  be  made,  more  particularly  so  in  cases  of  double  or  triple 
birth,  in  order  to  make  perfectly  certain  that  the  legs  seen  or  felt  belong 
to  the  head  and  neck  of  the  foetus  presented. 

778.  Plate  XLVII.,  fig.  20,  represents  a  case  of  a  monstrosity, 
in  which  the  hind-legs  are  doubled  over  the  shoulder,  and  the  fore-legs 
under  the  chin,  while  the  walls  of  the  belly  are  reflected  over  the 
hind-legs,  with  the  bowels  floating  loose  in  the  womb  of  the  mother. 
When  the  bowels  are  presented  first,  after  careful  examination,  they 
must  be  removed  ;  then  with  a  knife  (horse  shoeing  knife  for  preference) 
cut  through  the  back  bone  at  the  most  convenient  point  and  extract 
the  portion  readiest  to  hand  by  passing  in  the  large  hook.  When  the 
head  and  feet  are  first  presented  the  case  is  more  serious  ;  sometimes 
one  or  both  of  the  fore-legs  may  be  extracted,  and  by  putting  a  cord 
round  the  head,  with  strong  pulling,  the  back-bone  may  be  broken 
through.  After  removing  the  front  portion,  the  rest  is  got  away  with 
hooks,  while  the  viscera  follows.  Sometimes  these  monstrosities  are 
double-headed,  and  when  the  heads  are  presented  they  are  very 
difficult  to  manipulate.  When  the  hind-legs  are  presented  first  there 
is  a  chance  of  the  foetus  being  got  away,  providing  the  mother  is  well 
developed,  big-boned,  and  has  plenty  of  room.  The  monstrosity 
shown  in  Plate  L.  was  removed  through  a  breech  presentation. 


779.   Plate  XLVIII.,  fig.  21,  represents  torsion  of  the  vagina,  or 
twist  in  the  neck  of  the  womb.       1  have  had  several  of  these  (three  in 
the  mare);  but  except  in  the  first  case  (a  cow,  which  was  killed),  I  have 
never   found  a  complete  twist,   but  only  a  partial  one.     The  animal 
may  show  signs  of  parturition,  paddling  with  the  feet,  screwing  the 
quarters,  and  whisking  the  tail ;  while  the  pelvic  ligaments  and  vulva 
are    relaxed,    but    there    are    no    pronounced    labour    pains.       On 
introducing  the   hand  into  the  passage,  about  three-quarters  of  the 
way  up,  a  distinct  corded  thickening  is  felt  on   the  lower  part  of  the 
passage,  running  from  right  to  left  or  vice-versa,  resembhng  half  a  screw. 
After  passing  the  hand  over  the  screw-like  parts  a  pouch    is  found 
just  in  front  of  the  neck  of  the  womb  {os-utei'i).     On   reaching  the 
womb  the  fcetus  may  be  felt.    If  lying  in  the  position  represented  in  the 
figure,  the  head   and   feet   must  be  secured  with   ropes  and  hooks, 
brought  gently  forward,  and  jammed  as  far  into  the  passage  as  possible. 
In  some  cases,  when  this  is  done,  the  animal  drops  suddenly  on  to  its 
side,  and  thus  undoes  the  partial  twist,  the  result  being  ready  delivery. 
In  other  cases  the  patient  has  to  be  cast  and  rolled  ;  if  the  twist  is  to 
the  left,  the  operator  must  get  a  firm  hold  of  the  foetus  and  press  it  to 
the  right  or  vice-versa,  when  the  animal  is  directly  on  its  back,  then 
steady  traction  being  put  on  the  ropes,  the  uterus  may  suddenly  right 
itself,  and  delivery  is  accomplished. 

780.  Constriction  of  the  Os-uteri,  in  the  cow,  is  known  in 
Cumberland  as  "  horny  Iyer."  On  introducing  the  hand,  the  neck  of 
the  womb  is  found  closed  up,  is  very  hard,  and  will  only  admit  of  one 
finger  ;  when  the  pains  are  very  strong,  a  good  dose  of  opium  (two  or 
three  drachms  suspended  in  hot  water),  or  from  six  to  eight  drachms 
chloral  hydrate  should  be  given,  while  the  os-utevi  ought  to  be  smeared 
with  a  drachm  of  extract  of  belladonna  ;  the  patient  should  be  kept 
perfectly  quiet  and  left  alone,  when  in  the  course  of  from  12  to  24  hours 
it  may  calve  all  right.  Sometimes  a  cartilaginous  ring  round  the  neck 
of  the  womb  is  met  with,  through  which  the  hand  cannot  be  passed  ; 
this  ring  has  a  kind  of  flange,  from  about  three-quarters  to  one  inch  in 
breadthi  and  about  one-eighth  to  a  quarter  of  an  inch  m  thickness. 
.     This  must  be  cut  on  the  upper  portion,  and  also  on  each  side.     Smear 


Fig.  i8,  par.  777. 

■j:i,.-;t»"  -^ 

Fig.  19,  par.  777. 

Fig.  20,  par.  778. 


Fig.  21,  par.  779. 

Fig.  22,  par.  795. 

Fig.  23,  par.  578. 


well  with  extract  of  belladonna;  give  a  good  sedative  (opium  or  chloral) 
and  wait  patiently.  But  sometimes  relaxation  does  not  take  place  ; 
then  delivery  has  to  be  accomplished  by  cording  the  feet  and  head, 
bringing  them  into  the  passage,  and  by  taking  plenty  of  time  and 
care,  it  may  be  successfully  managed. 

781.  The  Caesarean  Section. — This  operation  may  be  performed 
where  the  offspring  is  alive  and  of  more  value  than  the  mother.  I 
have  been  successful  on  many  occasions  in  saving  the  lives  of  foals, 
calves,  lambs,  and  pigs,  but  at  the  sacrifice  of  the  mothers. 

782.  Retention  of  the  Foetus  is  sometimes  seen  in  cattle.  At 
the  end  of  the  period  of  gestation,  the  cow  shows  all  the  signs  of  • 
approaching  parturition,  the  udder  is  distended,  the  teats  pointed,  &c., 
but  there  are  no  direct  labour  pains,  and  the  animal.,  though  feeding, 
loses  flesh  ;  in  a  few  months  after,  it  begins  to  pass  various  bones  by 
the  rectum.  In  other  cases  the  foetus  may  become  mummified,  and 
its  presence  not  discovered  till  after  slaughter. 

783.  Eversion  of  the  vagina  with  the  os  constricted,  is 
occasionally  met  with  in  ewes  in-lamb  in  frosty  weather,  giving  rise  to 
severe  straining  pains.  In  such  cases  apply  extract  of  belladonna,  and 
return  the  vagina  to  its  position,  keeping  it  there  with  stitches  across 
the  vulva,  till  the  os  dilates,  give  also  eight  to  ten  ounces  of  linseed  oil, 
with  four  drachms  of  laudanum.  If  the  weather  is  mild,  these  cases 
may  do  well,  but  if  the  frost  continues,  they  generally  terminate  in 
inflammation  and  gangrene. 

784.  Inertia  of  the  Uterus  is  where  the  uterus  and  vagina  are 
intensely  dilated,  or  in  a  soft  flabby  condition,  with  the  foetus  lying  in 
a  natural  position,  yet  no  attempt  to  expel  it  is  made  by  the  mother.  I 
have  had  most  success  in  such  cases  by  simply  introducing  the  hand 
into  the  v/omb,  seizing  hold  of  the  foetus,  and  drawing  it  slowly  and 
gently  into  the  passage.  Extraction  is  generally  effected  without  any 
assistance  from  the  mother. 

785.  Placenta  Praevia. — Cases  are  met  with  in  the  cow  and  ewe 
where  the  greater  portion  of  the   after-birth  comes  away  prior  to  the 


birth  of  the  offspring.  This  is  very  troublesome,  and  has  to  be  cut  or 
torn  away  before  delivery  can  be  accomplished.  I  remember  one 
case  where  the  whole  of  the  cleansing  came  away  from  the  cow  before 
the  calf.  Great  care  has  then  to  be  used  in  manipulating  the  fcetus 
into  proper  position  for  delivery. 

786.  Hydrops-uteri,  or  dropsy  of  the  womb  before  parturition. 
This  is  often  seen  in  the  cow  and  sheep,  and  occasionally  in  the  mare. 
As  the  animal  nears  the  end  of  its  period  of  gestation,  the  belly  gets  to  a 
big  size,  oppressing  the  patient,  rendering  it  very  weak  and  languid,  and 
also  causing  wasting  of  the  flesh.  For  support,  a  good  broad  bandage 
should  be  rolled  and  secured  round  tlie  body,  and  good,  nutritious 
food  given  ;  then  wait  patiently  until  parturition  sets  in,  when,  as  a  rule, 
an  enormous  quantity  of  water  comes  away,  accompanied  by  a  small 
ill-nourished  foetus.  In  extreme  cases,  tapping  the  womb  on  the  right 
side  with  a  iine  trocar  and  canula  has  to  be  resorted  to. 

787.  Abnormal  Conceptions  are  recorded,  where  the  young  ones 
were  developed  in  one  of  the  horns  of  the  womb,  or  in  the  belly 
outside  of  the  womb  altogether  (extra  uterine  conception).  In 
company  with  Mr.  J.  Young,  M.R.C.V.S.,  Bromsgrove,  and  Mr.  Jos. 
Hewson,  M.R.C.V.S.,  Carlisle,  I  saw  a  case  of  the  former  in  a 
Clydesdale  mare.  The  vagina  and  neck  of  the  womb  were  relaxed 
and  open,  the  womb  dilated  to  a  considerable  extent,  but  nothing  in 
the  shape  of  a  fcetus  could  be  found  inside.  On  the  right  side, 
about  ten  or  twelve  inches  from  the  neck  of  the  womb,  was 
a  constricted,  rigid  ring ;  on  passing  the  hand  through  this, 
the  stifle  of  the  foetus  could  be  touched  with  the  ends  of  the 
fingers  at  full  stretch  ;  the  bod}'  of  the  foal  could  be  distinctly  felt 
through  the  walls  of  the  vagina  and  womb  ;  the  horn  of  the  uterus 
being  doubled,  the  head  of  the  foal  was  in  the  pelvic  cavit}',  and  its 
nose  close  to  the  anus  of  the  mother.  After  many  hours'  hard  work, 
we  failed  to  effect  delivery,  and  the  mare  was  destroyed.  The  position 
of  the  foal,  and  the  doubling  of  the  horn  of  the  womb,  indicated  a 
breech  presentation.  Some  years  prior  to  the  foregoing  occurrence,  I 
had  a  similar  case  in  a  black-polled  cow,  but  the  calf  was  lying  in  the 




1.  Finger  Knife. 

2.  Hand  Knife,  with  cord  for  wrist  (favourite  instrument,  also  used  for  Post- 

pharyngeal Abscesses). 

3.  Finger  Knife. 

4.  Sharp  Hook,  for  Pigs  and  Lambs.     Length  15  inches. 

5.  Short  Hook,  with  cord,  for  Foal  and  Calf.       Length  of  Hook,  3^  inches 

Cord,  4  feet  6  inches. 

6.  Long  Hook.     2  feet  6  inches  ;  ^  inch  diameter. 

7.  Long  Knife.     2  feet  6  inches  ;  j^  inch  diameter. 

8.  Long  Large  Hook  Knife.     2  feet  6  inches  ;  ^  inch  diameter, 
g.     Long  Small  Hook  Knife.     2  feet  6  inches  ;  J  inch  diameter. 

10.  Crutch.     Length,  2  feet  6  inches  ;  J  inch  diameter. 

11.  Trocar  and  Canula,  used  in  Imperforate  Hymen  {pars.  761  and  762). 


opposite  direction,  with  its  tail  next  the  anus  of  the  mother,  and  could 
be  distinctly  felt  through  the  walls  of  the  womb.  I  attended  the  case 
for  three  days,  during  which  tims  I  made  numerous  attempts  at 
delivery,  but  failed,  and  the  cow  had  to  be  slaughtered.  In  all  cases  of 
difficult  labour,  although  a  great  amount  of  patience,  perseverance, 
and  manual  labour  is  required,  success  mainly  depends  on  the  judicious 
use  of  both  hands  and  instruments  [Plate  XLIX.),  or,  as  the  late 
Professor  Williams  tersely  used  to  put  it : — "  Difficult  calving  and 
foaling  are  accomplished  by  the  exercise  of  the  brain."  Lord 
Bacon  has  well  summed  up  the  relationship  between  science  and 
practice  in  the  following  sentence  : — 

"Neither  the  naked  hand,  nor  the  understanding,  left  to  itself,  can  do  much  ; 
the  work  is  accomplished  by  instruments  and  helps,  of  which  the  need  is  not  less  for 
the  understanding  than  the  hand." 

788.  Retention  of  the  Placenta,  or  Afterbirth. —This,  in  the 
mare,  ought  never  to  be  allowed  to  remain  more  than  from  six  to  ten 
hours  after  the  birth  of  the  foal,  more  particularly  when  the  mare  is 
on  dry  food,  in  the  stable,  as  it  often  brings  on  laminitis  (inflammation 
of  the  feet — founder — [pars.  201  and  799)  ;  in  some  seasons  this 
complaint  almost  resembles  an  epidemic.  It  may  be  avoided  by  the 
timely  removal  of  the  membranes,  which  must  be  carefully  done,  as  the 
smallest  piece  left  is  quite  sufficient  to  cause  a  great  deal  of 
constitutional  disturbance,  and  in  some  cases,  septic  poisoning  and 

789.  The  Cow,  on  the  other  hand,  can  retain  the  fcetal  membranes 
from  six  to  eight  days,  with  little  or  no  constitutional  derangement. 
I  have  attempted  their  removal  at  times  varying  from  six  hours  after 
calving  until  the  eighth  day,  and  I  find  at  the  fifth  or  sixth  day  they 
may  be  sometimes  successfully  taken  away.  I  generally  inject  into 
the  uterus  eight  or  ten  quarts  of  tepid  water,  containing  a  small  portion 
of  Little's  phenyle,  or  sanitas ;  then  on  introducing  the  hand,  by 
gentle  traction  and  twisting  of  the  membranes,  they  can  be  removed. 
I  have  a  great  objection  to  cutting  small  pieces  off  the  portion  of  the 
membranes  that  may  be  hanging  outside,  and  have  still  more  objection 
to  farmers  hanging  a  horse-shoe,  or  other  weight,  to  them.     When  the 



animal  is  feeding,  milking,  and  chewing  the  cud,  I  recommend  leaving 
the  placenta  alone  until  the  sixth  or  seventh  day  in  winter,  or  the  fifth  or 
sixth  day  in  summer,  (rolling,  however,  the  membranes  which  are 
outside  into  a  knot,  to  be  out  of  the  milker's  way,)  and  then  taking  them 
away  as  described  above.  After  removing  the  placenta  from  the  mare 
and  cow,  I  generally  inject  into  the  womb  five  or  six  quarts  of  tepid  water 
containing  one  ounce  of  tincture  of  iron,  which  is  a  good  antiseptic. 
Notwithstanding  the  decayed  and  fcetid  condition  of  the  membranes, 
I  have  never  yet  seen  a  cleansing  struck  with  fly  or  maggot. 

790.  Dropping  from  Retention  of  the  Second  Cleansing. — 

Cases  are  met  with  where  the  afterbirth  comes  away  all  right  a  few 
hours  after  calving,  but  in  the  course  of  from  two  to  six  days  the  animal 
is  found  lying  down  and  unable  to  rise,  yet  it  feeds,  chews  the  cud,  and 
milks  fairly  well ;  the  breathing  is  quick  and  heavy,  and  the  temperature 
is  normal,  but  still  the  patient  cannot  get  up.  The  vulva  is  puckered 
up  and  quite  dry,  and  no  discharge  is  seen  from  the  passage.  This 
condition  is,  by  many,  considered  to  be  milk  fever,  but  the  loss  of  power 
is  through  reflex  nervous  action,  and  is  really  due  to  the  too  sudden 
closing  of  the  neck  of  the  womb,  behind  which  the  discharge  or  second 
cleansing  collects  and  is  retamed.  Treatment — Give  a  good  dose  of 
opening  medicine,  say  one  pound  of  Epsom  salts  and  two  ounces  of 
ginger  in  a  quart  of  treacle  gruel,  to  which  add  one  pint  of  linseed  oil, 
and  further  apply  a  strong  mustard  poultice  over  the  loins  and  clothe 
the  body,  when,  in  the  course  of  24  hours  the  animal  wnll  probably 
discharge  from  the  womb  a  quantity  of  bloody,  shmy  fluid,  after  which 
it  becomes  all  right.  At  times  the  retention  of  the  second  cleansing 
sets  up  septic  fever. 

791.  Septic  Fever  attacks  animals  more  particularly  in  the  early 
spring  months,  when  east  winds  prevail.  About  three  or  four  weeks 
after  calving,  the  cow  is  noticed  to  be  losing  flesh  and  getting  into  a 
low  and  debilitated  condition,  with  tucking  up  of  the  belly,  falling  off" 
in  milk,  having  little  or  no  appetite,  and  only  occasionally  chewing  the 
cud,  while  the  bowels  are  constipated,  the  dung  bemg  hard  and  dark 
coloured,  the  lips  of  the  vulva  are  also  puckered  up,  and   of  a  dirty 


Par.  778. 


yellow  appearance,  and  the  patient  has  a  peculiar  fusty  smell.  In 
some  cases  it  is  associated  with  parturient  bronchitis  or  pneumonia 
(pay.  534).  Treatment. — Antiseptic  tonic  medicines  are  necessary, 
such  as  sulphite  of  soda,  iron,  quassia,  and  vegetable  cordials  (sec 
Appendix)  given  in  treacle  gruel,  with  the  addition  of  a  quart  of  beer 
or  half-a-pint  of  spirit;  small  doses  of  linseed  oil  should  also  be  given 
every  other  day,  and  the  appetite  tempted  with  different  kinds  of  food, 
such  as  sliced  mangold  and  potato,  sprinkled  over  w^ith  a  little  salt, 
though  grass  or  other  green  foods  answer  the  best.  Frequent  washing 
out  of  the  womb  in  these  cases  is  very  objectionable,  for,  in  my  opinion, 
it  retards  recovery. 

792.  Post-Partum  Haemorrhage,  or  flooding  after  calving,  is 
mostly  seen  at  the  first  calving,  and  is  generally  due  to  too  hast}^  and 
rough  usage  (see  Parturition,  Plate  XLI.,  fig.  1).  This  dangerous,  and 
often  fatal  haemorrhage,  requires  prompt  attention  ;  the  animal  must 
be  kept  perfectly  quiet,  and  cold  water  sheets  applied  to  the  loins  and 
quarters  ;  if  the  bleeding  is  profuse,  a  cotton  bed-sheet  must  be  put 
into  a  pail  of  cold  water — to  which  has  been  added  one  ounce  of 
tincture  of  iron — -and  after  being  wrung  partly  out,  it  should  be  packed 
carefully  and  quietly  into  the  vaginal  passage,  and  left  there  for  three 
or  four  days,  or  until  it  comes  away  by  itself;  at  the  same  time 
five  or  six  eggs  beaten  up  in  half-a-pint  of  whiskey  or  brandy,  in  one 
pint  cold  water,  should  be  given  every  five  or  six  hours.  In  many 
cases,  after  the  bleeding  has  stopped,  the  animal  will  go  on  doing  well, 
feeding,  chewing  the  cud,  milking,  &c.,  for  about  twelve  or  fourteen 
days,  when  the  bleeding  may  break  out  again,  and  before  anything 
can  be  done,  the  patient  bleeds  t6  death.  The  greatest  care  and 
watchfulness  is  therefore  needed  from  the  tenth  to  the  twentieth  day. 

793.  Rupture  of  the  Womb  (mostly  seen  in  the  mare). — -This 
may  occur  from  the  strong  labour  pains  of  the  mare,  forcing  the  foot 
of  the  foetus  through  the  walls,  or  the  womb  may  be  torn  and  ruptured 
in  manipulating  a  mal-presentation  of  the  foetus,  when  the  bowels  of 
the  parent  sometimes  protrude.  These  cases  are  usuall}'  fatal. 
Again,  one  of  the  fore-feet  of  the  foetus  may  be  so  forced  through  the 


roof  of  the  womb  and  the  floor  of  the  rectum,  as  to  come  out  at  the 
anus  ;  or  the  anus  and  vulva  from  the  same  cause  may  be  made  into 
one  common  opening.  Extensive  sloughing  usually  takes  place  in 
these  cases. 

794.  Eversion  of  the  Uterus. — This  is  not  of  very  frequent 
occurrence  in  the  mare,  but  often  happens  in  the  coav,  ewe,  and  sow. 
When  it  happens  in  the  mare,  if  the  animal  is  in  a  standing  position, 
immediately  the  womb  is  in  sight,  every  care  should  be  taken  to  keep 
her  on  her  feet.  The  womb  must  then  be  supported  by  a  large 
table-cloth,  held  by  two  assistants,  one  on  each  side,  and  the  patient 
led  on  to  a  good  incline,  with  its  hind  feet  on  the  top,  and  for  this 
purpose  a  manure  heap  answers  weh.  An  attendant  should  stand  by 
with  a  jug,  pouring  warm  water  and  milk  continuously  over  the 
everted  organ,  and  attempts  must  be  made  to  return  it  as  quickly,  yet 
as  carefully  as  possible.  If  the  patient  is  lying,  it  should  be  kept  down 
and  its  legs  tied,  for  if  it  makes  an  effort  to  get  up,  the  weight  of  the 
everted  organ  drags  the  animal  back  on  to  its  hips,  and  the  womb  is 
in  great  danger  of  being  burst  or  so  damaged  that  the  patient  rapidly 
bleeds  to  death.  Before  attempting  reduction  the  uterus  must  be 
lifted  by  means  of  a  large  cloth,  into  a  vessel  containing  warm  water 
and  milk;  the  hmd  quarters  of  the  mare  should  be  elevated  by  means 
of  pulleys,  and  bags  of  chaff  or  bundles  of  straw  packed  under  the 
quarter  ;  the  neck  of  the  uterus  must  then  be  pressed  back,  and  the 
body  carefully  kneaded  in,  particularly  at  its  lower  side.  As  soon  as 
the  body  of  the  organ  is  within  the  pelvic  bones,  the  hand  must  be 
placed  on  the  everted  end  of  the  horn  of  the  womb,  and  pressed  gently 
forward,  thus  returning  the  horn  to  its  proper  position.  If  the  point  of 
the  horn  is  not  properly  returned  the  whole  uterus  is  soon  expelled  again. 

795.  Eversion  of  the  Uterus  in  the  Cow  (Plate  XLVIIL, 
Jig.  22).— The  same  course  must  be  adopted  as  in  the  mare,  except  when 
standing,  in  which  case,  before  attempting  to  return  the  organ,  the 
foetal  membranes,  if  attached,  must  be  removed  ;  the  hind-quarters 
can  be  elevated  by  putting  a  few  barrow-loads  of  farm-yard  manure 
under  the  hind-feet,  or  by  arranging  bundles  of  straw  on  each  side,  in 


case  the  animal  lies  down.  If  the  animal  is  lying  down,  proceed  in  the 
same  way  as  for  the  mare.  Cases  are  frequently  met  with  where  the 
womb  has  been  out  for  five  or  six  hours,  causmg  the  mucous  membrane 
to  become  much  congested,  jelly-like,  and  very  stiff,  from  infiltration 
of  fluid  in  the  sub-mucous  tissue.  Before  attempting  reduction  in 
these  cases,  the  uterus  should  be  scarified  in  several  places,  with  the 
point  of  a  lancet,  and  kneaded  and  pressed  with  the  hands  to  make  it 
pliable.  Pressure  should  never  be  applied  when  the  animal  is  straining — 
always  yield  to  it.  After  reduction,  if  five  or  six  quarts  of  tepid  w^ater, 
containing  one  ounce  of  tincture  of  iron,  be  mjected  into  the  womb, 
it  acts  as  a  good  antiseptic,  and  causes  the  uterus  to  contract,  closing 
up  any  lacerations  which  may  have  been  caused  in  reduction.  Stitches 
may,  or  may  not  be  put  across  the  vulva,  or  a  truss  may  be  put  on  to 
prevent  recurrence.  Should  the  animal  strain  and  press  a  great  deal 
after  the  operation,  the  best  sedative  is  to  drive  it  into  a  pond,  letting 
it  stand  up  to  the  knees  for  15  or  20  minutes,  and  allowing  it  to  drink 
the  water  if  so  inclined.  A  good  sedative  draught,  composed  of  one 
to  two  wine-glassfuls  of  laudanum  and  one  pint  of  linseed  oil,  may  also 
be  administered.  In  some  cases  the  womb  is  torn  to  such  a  degree  that 
it  has  to  be  cut  off — a  formidable  operation,  yet  successful  cases  are 

796.  Eversion  of  the  Bladder  also  occasionally  happens.  It  is 
easily  known  by  its  bluish-green  colour,  and  the  constant  dribbling  of 
water  down  the  thighs,  while  a  portion  of  the  bladder  is  seen  hanging 
outside.  On  careful  exammation  of  the  parts,  the  meatus  uvinaviiis 
(neck  of  the  h\d.dder— Plate  XXXVIII.,  B  7)  is  found.  By  gentle 
pressure  it  can  be  readily  returned,  but  it  is  very  difficult  to  keep  in  its 
place,  though  on  driving  the  animal  about,  and  dashing  a  few  quarts 
of  cold  water  agamst  the  vulva,  it  will  usually  retain  its  position. 

797.  Rupture  of  the  Bladder  I  have  met  with,  where  the  mare 
had  began  foaling  during  the  night  without  assistance,  and  it  always 
has  terminated  fatally. 

798.  Vaginitis,  or  Inflammation  of  the  Vagina,  like  inflamma- 
tion of  the   womb,   is    mostly   due  to  damage    done   during  difficult 


parturition.  Treatment.— Irrigate  the  passage  with  sanitas  and 
water,  or  phenyle  and  water,  and  give  fever  medicine  as  recommended 
for  metritis  (par.  799),  but  should  there  be  a  great  amount  of  swelling 
externally,  and  extensive  swelling  and  inflammation  internally,  the 
hand  must  not  be  introduced,  as  it  does  much  more  harm  than  good. 

799.  Metritis,  or  Simple  Inflammation  of  the  Womb,  is  rarely 

seen  except  after  difficult  parturition,  when  it  may  result  from  too  long 
retention  of  the  foetus  after  the  labour  pains  have  set  m,  or  from  extreme 
force  having  been  exercised  in  extraction  of  the  young  one.  The 
inflammation,  as  a  rule,  commences  in  the  lining  membrane  of  the 
womb,  but  soon  extends  to  the  walls  of  that  organ.  It  generally  makes 
Itself  manifest  within  a  few  hours  after  parturition,  and  is  usually 
of  a  very  fatal  character.  The  Symptoms  in  the  Mare  are  at  first 
slight  cohcky  pains,  the  animal  walking  round  the  box,  and  sniffing 
the  ground.  Finally,  the  patient  stands  quiet,  with  hanging  head, 
dilated  nostrils,  quick  breathing,  and  in  high  fever— the  temperature 
going  up  to  106°  and  107°  F.,  accompanied  by  a  quick  and  small 
pulse,  loss  of  appetite,  great  depression,  and  the  secretion  of  milk  is 
totally  suspended,  while  a  foetid  chocolate  coloured  fluid  is  discharged 
from  the  womb.  Occasionally  the  inflammation  leaves  the  womb- 
metastasis— and  goes  to  the  feet,  producing  laminitis  or  founder 
(par.  201).  Treatment.— Inject  into  the  womb,  once  a  day,  four 
to  six  quarts  of  water  that  has  been  boiled  and  allowed  to  cool  down 
to  90°  F.,  and  to  which  has  been  added  a  teacupful  of  Condy's  fluid  or 
sanitas.  Give  also  one  to  two  ounce  doses  of  hyposulphite  of  soda 
night  and  morning.     For  further  Treatment  see  pav.  800. 

800.  Septic  Metritis  in  the  Mare  occasionally  occurs,  and  may 
be  due  to  some  septic  matter  having  gained  admission  into  the  system 
from  impure  water  or  food,  but  more  often  by  inoculation,  arising  from 
some  peculiarity  of  the  stalhon,  in  whose  system  the  septic  material 
seems  to  hang  about  for  months,  or  even  years,  without  being 
perceptible,  yet  is  transmitted  at  time  of  service  to  the  mare,  in  whom 
it  remains  latent,  only  to  make  itself  manifest  at  the  time  of  parturition. 
As  a  rule  the  mare  shows  no  signs  of  illness  until  a  few  hours  after 


foaling,  yet  the  morbid  poison  must  have  estabhshed  its  action  on  the 
foetus,  which  may  be  expelled  before  its  time,  or  it  may  go  up  to  or  over 
the  full  period  of  gestation.  In  such  cases  the  foal,  although  seemingly 
fully  developed,  is  usually  still  born,  or  it  dies  within  a  few  seconds 
after  birth.  The  placenta  or  after-birth,  is  expelled  immediately  after 
foaling,  and,  as  a  rule,  is  of  an  unhealthy  drab  or  grey  colour.  Within 
20  or  30  hours  after  parturition  the  mare  commences  to  be  ill,  and 
shows  somewhat  similar  symptoms  to  simple  metritis  {pav.  799). 
Treatment — First  inject  the  womb  as  in  par.  799,  and  give  small 
doses  of  aperient  and  antiseptic  medicine,  such  as  hyposulphite  of 
soda,  in  two  ounce  doses,  every  eight  hours,  dissolved  in  water,  and 
given  as  a  drench, — supplemented  with  one  drachm  doses  of  sulphate 
of  quinine,  dissolved  in  ten  drops  of  strong  hydrochloric  acid,  given 
every  eight  hours  in  cold  hay  tea  to  drink,  or  in  one  pint  of  cold  water 
as  a  drench.  Good  nutritive,  and  easily  digestible  food — green  food  if 
it  can  be  procured — must  be  given.  Sometimes  these  cases  become 
complicated,  and  turn  into  pyaemia,  when  large  abscesses  form  in 
various  parts  of  the  body.  After  a  case  of  septic  metritis  all  in-foal 
mares  on  or  near  the  premises  should  at  once  be  removed  to  other 
quarters  which  are  not  less  than  two  miles  distant ;  while  the  buildings 
and  utensils  should  be  thoroughly  washed  and  disinfected.  Mares 
recovering  from  this  malady  should  not  be  put  to  breeding  for  at 
least  12  months. 

Sot.  Simple  Metritis  in  the  Cow  shows  the  following  Symptoms, 
viz.  : — Great  dullness,  prostration,  quick  breathing,  fever,  straining, 
swelling  of  the  external  genital  organs,  and  discharge  of  a  dirty 
brown,  blood-coloured  fluid,  from  the  passage.  Treatment. — If, 
on  careful  manual  examination,  no  rupture  or  rent  in  the  womb  is 
discovered,  wash  it  out  by  means  o:  an  enema  syringe,  with  warm 
water  and  fluid  sanitas,  or  phenyle,  in  the  proportion  of  one  to  80  of 
water.  Internally,  give  15  to  20  ounces  of  raw  linseed  oil,  and  if  much 
pain  be  manifested,  add  from  half  to  one  wine-glassful  of  laudanum, 
or  15  drops  of  Fleming's  tincture  of  aconite.  As  a  fever  medicine,  two 
to  three  ounces  of  Epsom  salts,  and  three  drachms  of  nitrate  of  potash 
in  a  mash  of  bran,  or  in  water  as  a  draught,  may  be  given  every  eight 


hours.  Warm  water  enemas  thrown  into  the  rectum,  and  porridge 
poultices  appUed  to  the  loins,  also  have  a  soothing  effect. 

802.  Simple  and  Septic  Metritis  in  Sheep. — The  simple  form 
of  metritis  is  rarely  seen  in  the  sheep,  but  in  cold,  frosty,  spring 
weather,  lambing  ewes  often  suffer  extensively  from  septic  metritis, 
which,  by  its  severity,  causes  great  loss  to  stock-owners.  Sheep  show 
similar  symptoms  to  those  described  in  the  cow — great  prostration, 
and  a  dirty  brown,  coffee  coloured  discharge  running  from  the  womb, 
and  trickling  down  the  legs,  being  the  prominent  characteristics.  This 
disease  is  highly  contagious,  and  immediately  it  makes  its  appearance 
all  the  pregnant  ewes  must  be  at  once  removed  from  the  place  of 
infection,  and  be  attended  to  by  another  shepherd.  Treatment. — 
Wash  the  parts  night  and  morning  with  a  lotion  made  of  one  table- 
spoonful  of  phenyle  and  one  pint  of  cold  water,  which,  after  being  mixed, 
should  be  made  warm  by  the  addition  of  one  pint  of  hot  water.  Give 
internally,  twice  a  day,  one  drachm  doses  of  chlorate  of  potassium 
and  five  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid  in  half-a-pint  of  cold  water. 

803.  Pelvic  Haematomata,  or  Blood  Tumours,  are  found  in  the 
pelvic  cavity  of  the  cow  and  sow  ;  they  are  generally  caused  by  injuries 
to  the  parts  in  cases  of  difficult  parturition.  Symptoms.— A  few  weeks 
after  calving  the  animal  commences  to  strain  as  if  in  labour,  and  urine 
dribbles  from  the  vulva.  The  patient  has  a  very  irregular  appetite, 
and  a  tucked  up  belly.  On  examination  of  the  parts,  (made  by 
introducing  the  hand  into  the  rectum,)  a  doughy  swelling  is  felt,  either 
at  the  bottom  of  the  bowel  or  on  the  sides.  Treatment. — The  clotted 
blood  must  be  removed  by  cutting  into  the  tumour  through  the  side  of 
the  vagina  ;  after  which  dress  the  parts  with  antiseptics  and  tow. 

804.  Mammitis,  or  Inflammation  of  the  Mammary  Glands 

or  Udder  (sometimes  called  Garget). — All  animals  of  the  female  sex 
are  subject  to  this  complaint.  It  is  occasionally  seen  in  the  mare, 
involving  one  or  both  sides  of  the  udder,  and  may  appear  a  week  or 
two  before  foaling,  but  more  often  happens  afterwards,  especially  if 
the   mare  is  in  good  condition   and  has  lost   its  foal.     Sometimes    it 


occurs  when  the  animal  is  not  pregnant,  usually  in  animals  with 
gummy  legs  that  are  predisposed  to  weed  or  grease.  It  may  also 
arise  from  a  bad  wound  in  the  leg  or  foot,  the  irritation  from  which 
extends  up  the  inside  of  the  hind-leg,  thus  implicating  the  udder.  It 
causes  a  great  amount  of  constitutional  fever,  the  udder  being  hard 
and  painful,  while  the  patient  walks  with  a  stiff,  straddling  gait. 
Treatment. — If  the  fever  be  very  high,  the  head  hanging,  with  quick 
breathing,  and  dilated  nostrils,  great  relief  results  from  bleedmg  to 
the  extent  of  from  four  to  six  quarts,  and  after  this  by  giving  15  to 
20  ounces  of  linseed  oil,  and  from  one  to  two  ounces  of  spirits  of 
nitre,  with  a  tablespoonful  of  saltpetre  in  the  drinking  water  ;  the 
udder  should  also  be  fomented  with  hot  water  three  or  four  times  every 
twenty-four  hours,  and  the  teats  drawn  at  the  same  time,  after  which 
they  should  be  well  dried  with  a  soft  cloth,  and  a  little  carbolic  oil 
applied.  Sometimes  the  udder  gathers  and  bursts  in  several  places  ;  the 
case  then  becomes  troublesome.  When  this  happens  the  foal  (if  there 
is  one)  should  be  taken  from  the  mother  and  brought  up  by  hand. 

805.  Inflammation  of  the  Udder  in  the  cow  is  very  common, 
when  one  or  more  of  the  quarters  may  be  involved.  It  is  said  by 
many  writers  to  be  mostly  seen  after  calving,  and  to  be  due  to 
overstocking.  This, however, has  not  been  my  experience;  cases  arising 
from  these  causes  being  rare  in  my  practice.  There  are  many  causes 
of  mammitis,  such  as  derangement  of  the  digestive  system,  sore  warty 
teats,  vesicular  eruptions,  as  from  foot  and  mouth  disease,  &c.,  kicks 
and  injuries  to  the  udder,  irregular  milking,  stricture  and  obstruction 
of  the  teats,  and  the  too  frequent  and  injudicious  introduction  of  the  teat 
syphon.  The  greatest  number  of  cases,  are,  however,  seen  amongst 
grazing  cattle  in  extremely  hot,  dry  weather,  when  the  animals, 
irritated  by  the  warble-fly  depositing  its  eggs  on  their  backs, 
gallop  about  the  fields  and  then  plunge  into  a  pond  or  river,  standing 
there  for  hours  up  to  the  belK'  in  cold  water  ;  or,  when  a  few  intensely 
hot  days  are  followed  by  a  heavy  splash  of  rain.  The  two  last  named 
conditions  seem  to  make  the  malady  spread  like  an  epidemic  ;  and  I 
have  seen  them  give  rise  to  as  many  as  12  to  15  cases  in  one  day. 
Cows  that  are  supposed  to  be  stripped  dry  of  milk,  and  put  out  to  graze 


and  fatten,  suffer  most  from  this  form  of  the  malady.  The  affection  is 
usually  fully  established,  before  being  noticed,  then,  on  examination, 
and  drawing  of  the  teats,  the  gland  is  found  full  of  curdled  matter. 
Treatment — For  this  class  of  cases  splitting  the  teat  with  a 
bistoury,  or  cutting  it  off,  half-way  up,  gives  the  quickest  relief, 
and  forms  the  best  exit  for  the  pus.  The  latter  operation  may  seem 
cruel,  but  really  it  is  more  cruel  to  leave  the  matter  pent  up  in  the 
gland,  and  to  irritate  the  parts  by  squeezing  it  out  of  the  teat  four  or 
five  times  a  day  ;  besides  the  teat  is  of  little  consequence  when  the 
animal  is  being  prepared  for  the  fat  market.  The  udder  should  be 
rubbed  night  and  morning  with  carbolic  oil,  and  if  there  is  a  great 
deal  of  fever  and  general  disturbance  the  animal  must  be  treated  with 
cooling  medicines,  such  as  two  ounce  doses  of  hyposulphite  of  soda 
or  four  ounces  of  Epsom  salts,  and  half  an  ounce  of  saltpetre,  along 
with  a  few  ounces  of  aromatic  cordials,  (see  Appendix — Carminatives) 
which  ma}'  be  given  night  and  morning,  in  treacle  gruel  until  the 
bowels  respond. 

806.  When  the  dairy  cow  is  affected,  one  or  more  of  the  quarters 
may  be  attacked,  either  before  or  after  calving  ;  the  udder  becomes 
hard  and  painful  with  the  teats  pointed,  and  these,  on  being  pressed, 
yield  a  quantity  of  curdled  milk  and  watery  fluid.  If  the  inflammation 
is  not  arrested  at  this  stage,  the  complaint  may  go  on  until  matter  is 
formed,  or  abscesses  form  and  burst  in  various  parts  of  the  udder, 
giving  rise  to  great  trouble.  Again,  the  gland  may  become  hard  and 
indurated,  or  even  gangrenous.  There  is  no  complaint  that  will,  in 
such  a  short  time,  produce  so  much  constitutional  disturbance  and 
high  fever,  and  cause  the  animal  to  lose  flesh  so  fast,  as  an  acute 
attack  of  inflammation  of  the  udder.  The  disease  is  occasionally  also 
accompanied  with  stiffness  or  lameness  of  the  hmd-legs.  Treatment. — 
When  first  observed,  and  before  matter  is  formed,  the  affected  quarters 
must  be  fomented  with  hot  water  for  from  forty  or  sixty  minutes,  four 
times  in  the  twenty-four  hours.  Immediately  after  the  hot  fomentations, 
the  parts  must  be  washed  well  with  cold  water  for  five  minutes,  and 
then  rubbed  perfectly  dry  with  a  soft  cloth,  after  which  apply  equal 
parts  of  carbolic  oil  and  liquid  extract  of  belladonna  ;   cover  up  with 


cotton  wool  and  support  with  a  bandage  round  the  loins  and  over  the 
quarters.  Or  immediately  the  quarter  is  found  to  be  hard  and  inflamed, 
all  the  water}^  fluid  must  be  drawn  off  through  the  teat,  and  the  quarter 
should  be  treated  with  an  injection  of  iodide  of  potassium,  every 
twelve  hours,  as  in  milk  fever  (par.  579).  To  be  successful  in 
preventing  the  formation  of  pus,  energy,  perseverance,  and  patience 
are  required  ;  if,  however,  matter  should  form,  it  must  be  liberated, 
as  already  shown.  Constitutional  disturbances  are  to  be  treated  with 
the  fever  medicines,  as  recommended  for  the  grazing  cow  (pay.  805). 

807.  Induration.— When  the  udder  becomes  hard,  applications  of 
20  per  cent,  oleate  of  mercury,  or  iodine  mercurial  ointment  must  be 
rubbed  well  into  the  parts  every  third  day,  and  two  drachms  of  iodide 
of  potassium,  dissolved  in  a  pint  of  cold  water,  should  be  administered 
internally  daily  for  six  or  eight  days.  If  gangrene  or  mortification 
sets  in,  the  case  usually  runs  its  course  in  a  few  days,  the  udder 
becomes  a  dark  purple  colour,  and  the  animal  dies  of  blood-poisoning, 
or  the  glands  may  slough  and  drop  off  (pay.  817). 

808.  Blind  Teats. — Numerous  cases  are  met  with  where  the 
animal  has  milked  all  right,  and  been  perfectly  correct  up  to  the  time 
of  drying,  prior  to  having  its  next  calf;  but  after  calving,  one  or  more 
of  the  teats  are  found  "  blind,"  and  on  examination,  a  small  hard  knot 
is  felt  at  the  end,  or  in  the  middle  of  the  passage  of  the  teat.  The 
milk  may  be  liberated  with  a  syphon,  but  owing  to  the  instrument 
having  to  be  introduced  night  and  morning,  local  inflammation  is 
generally  set  up  and  the  quarter  lost.  Such  cases  cause  a  great  deal 
of  unpleasantness  and  litigation,  when  the  animals  have  changed 
owners  between  the  time  of  drying  and  calving.  The  cause  seems  to 
be,  that  a  portion  of  milk  has  been  secreted  after  the  last  milking,  the 
watery  portions  of  which  have  become  absorbed,  leaving  a  small  piece 
of  curded  milk  in  the  teat,  which  becomes  organised  into  a  small  knot, 
thus  blocking  up  the  passage.  In  these  cases,  when  the  teat  syphon 
is  used,  the  instrument  should  be  boiled  for  five  or  ten  minutes, 
thoroughly  disinfected  before  introduction  into  the  teat,  and  well 
cleaned  after  use,  or  inflammation  will  be  set  up  in  the  gland  and  the 
quarter  lost. 


Sog.  Paralysis  of  the  Milk  Secreting  Cells. — I  have  known 
cases  where  a  heavy  milker,  that  has  been  noted  for  its  larcre  milk  and 
butter  giving  qualities,  previous  to  calving,  having  an  udder  which 
was  congested  and  much  enlarged,  yet  after  calving,  there  was  an 
entire  absence  of  milk  in  the  gland.  Sales  of  animals  so  affected  often 
cause  unpleasantness  between  buyer  and  seller. 

8io.  Relaxed  Teats. — Occasionally  the  teats  lose  tone,  and 
become  unable  to  retain  the  milk,  which  runs  off  immediately  it  is 
secreted.  The  best  treatment  for  this  is  to  paint  the  ends  of  the 
teats  after  each  milking  with  flexible  collodion,  or  to  apply  a  suitable 
indiarubber  ring  round  the  teat. 

8ii.  Inflammation  of  the  Udder  in  Sheep. — The  ewe, 
particularly  in  frosty  weather,  suffers  very  much  from  inflammation 
of  the  udder,  especially  when  the  teats  are  chapped  and  sore. 
The  derangement  can  also  be  produced  when  the  young  lambs  are 
affected  with  stomatitis  pustulosa  (par.  237),  and  Aptha  or  Thrush 
(par.  238),  and  the  inside  of  their  mouths  are  ulcerated,  and  there-from 
irritation  and  inflammation  is  set  up  in  the  teats  and  udders  of  the 
mothers.  The  udder  is  much  swollen  and  painful  to  the  touch,  and 
on  pressing  the  teat  a  quantity  of  straw-coloured  watery  fluid  escapes. 
Treatment. — Good  nursing,  drawing  the  teats,  and  rubbing  the 
affected  parts  with  the  carbolic  oil,  are  recommended.  Hot 
fomentations,  if  the  parts  are  not  thoroughly  dried  with  a  soft  cloth 
when  finished,  only  aggravate  the  complaint.  If  the  case  runs  on  to 
gangrene,  the  udder  becomes,  first  red  in  colour,  next  purple,  and 
finally  black  ;  and  to  guard  against  this,  a  careful  examination  should 
be  made  twice  daily.  The  lambs  must  be  taken  off,  the  ewe  isolated, 
and  carbolic  oil,  or  Stockholm  tar  smeared  over  the  gland,  the  latter 
being  preferable.  If  the  animal  be  left  alone,  it  is  astonishing  to  see 
how  soon  nature  can  assert  her  influence,  the  physiological  action  of  the 
healthy  parts  throwing  off  the  diseased  portions  ;  and  in  the  space  of 
a  few  weeks,  the  remains  of  the  gland  hang  from  the  belly  in  the 
form  of  long  fingers  of  flesh,  which  can  be  removed  by  the  clam  and 
hot  iron,  the  ecraseur,  or  ligature. 


Synopsis    of     Diseases,    their    Recognition     and 
"  First  Aid"   Treatment. 

ii2.  Abortion. 

Casting  the  foetus  ;  premature  birth. 

Accidental,  from  injury;  also  infectious. 
Isolate  aborting  animal,  disinfect  both  animals  and  premises. 
Give  animals  carbolic  acid  and  chlorate  of  potash  as  preventives. 

313.  Abscess. 

Circumscribed  swelling  containing  matter  or  pus. 
Hot  and  cold  water  dressings ;  poultices,  and  blisters. 
Open  with  knife  when  ready. 

514.  AcARi — Mites. 

Parasites  causing  skin  irritation  and  itching,  like  mange  and  scab. 
Wash  with  solution  of  phenyle  or  carbolic  preparations. 

315.  Actinomycosis. 

Wooden  tongue,  caused  by  the  ray  fungus  ;  affects  tongue  and  jaw. 
To  be  scarified  and  dressed  with  iodide  preparations. 

5i6.  Acidity  of  the  Stomach. 
Sour  stomach. 
Give  alkalies. 
Bicarbonate  of  soda,  potash,  lime  or  chalk, 

317.  After  Pains. 

Heaving  or  straining  after  parturition. 
Give  dose  of  laudanum,  chloral  hydrate,  and  mild  laxatives, 

3i8.  Amaurosis. 

Blindness  ;   paralysis  of  optic  nerve,  with  dilated  pupil. 


Sig.  Angle  Berries. 
Remove  with  knife,  hot  iron,  or  ligature  ;  dress  antiseptically. 

820.  Anthrax, — Charbon. 

Splenic  apoplexy  ;  blood  disease  due  to  anthrax  bacillus. 

Attack  and  death  sudden. 
Plug  all  external  openings,  as  nostrils,  &c. 
Bury  deep  without  opening  carcase. 
Isolate  and  disinfect  premises.      Report  to  police. 

821.  Aphtha. 

Thrush  ;  vesicles  or  blebs  in  the  mouths  of  calves  and  lambs. 
Dress  with  boracic  acid  lotion,  or  chlorate  of  potash  solution. 

822.  Apoplexy. 

Brain  derangement. 

Cerebral,  associated  with  stomach  staggers. 
Parturient  apoplexy. 
Give  chloral  hydrate  and  bromide  of  potassium. 

823.  Arthritis. 

Inflammation  of  the  joints. 
Rest  ;  hot  and  cold  applications  ;  blisters. 

S24.  Ascitis. 

Dropsy  of  the  abdomen. 
Broad  bandage  round  the  body. 
Give  saline  purgatives  (salts),  iron  tonics  and  diuretics. 

825.  Asthma. 

Broken  wind  ;  spasm  and  rupture  of  bronchial  tubes. 
Steam  nostrils  with  medicated  watery  vapour. 

826.  Atrophy. 

Attention  to  diet,  with  iron  tonic  preparations. 

827.  Azoturia. 

Blood  derangement. 
Attack  sudden  ;  profuse  sweating. 
Discharge  of  bloody-coloured  urine  ;  great  pain. 
Bleeding  and  dose  of  physic. 

828.  Blackleg,  or  Black-Quarter. 

Lameness  ;  crackling  swellings  on  parts  aftected. 
Affects  young  stock,  mostly  under  two  years  old. 
Change  of  diet ;  use  salt  and  seton  as  preventives. 


829-  Bleeding  from  Wounds. 

Ligatures,  pressure,  styptics,  or  application  of  hot  iron. 

830.  Bog  Spavin. 

Distension  of  the  synovial  sac  in  front  of  hock  joint. 
Pressure,  blistering,  and  firing. 

831.  Bone  Sp.'Win. 

Bony  enlargement  on   the  front  and  inner  section  of  the  lower  part  of 
hock  joint. 
Rest  ;  cold  applications  ;  blisters,  and  firing. 

832.  BoTs  IN  Horses. 

Larva  of  botfly  in  stomach. 
Turpentine  and  linseed  oil. 
Salt  and  iron  ;  green  food. 

833.  Braxy  IN  Sheep. 

Wet  and  dry  blood  disorder. 
Change  diet ;  give  salt. 

834.  Broken  Knees  in  Horses. 

Wash  and  dress  with  antiseptics 
Apply  cold  water  bandages. 
Caustic  lotions  ;  dry  dressings. 

835.  Bronchitis. 

Acute  and  chronic  inflammation  of  bronchial  tubes. 
Place  in  well- ventilated  box  ;  give  nitrate  water  to  drink. 
Steam  nostrils  with  medicated  watery  vapour. 

836.  Bruises. 

Cold  and  hot  water  applications  ;  embrocations. 

837.  Brushing. 

Striking  one  leg  with  the  other ;  faulty  action  and  bad  shoeing. 
Cold  water  bandage  to  injured  part ;  attention  to  shoeing. 

838.  Burns  and  Scalds. 

Protect  part  from  the  air. 

Apply  treacle,  or  equal  parts  lime  water  and  oil. 

Cover  with  cotton  wool. 

839.  Calculi,  Intestinal. 

Dustballs  in  large  intestines. 
Laudanum  and  chloral  hydrate  to  relieve  pain. 
Strong  purgatives  to  be  avoided. 


840.  Calculi,  Urinary. 

Gravel — dogs,  sheep. 
Operation  necessary. 

841.  Canker  in  Horse's  Foot. 

Degenerate  horn  on  sole  of  horse's  foot. 
Dress  with  powdered  alum  or  sulphate  of  copper,  carbolic  acid,  formalin,  &c. 
Keep  thoroughly  dry. 

842.  Canker  of  Ear. 

Fostid  discharge  from  lining  of  dog's  ear. 
Wipe  clean  with  cotton  wool. 
Do  not  wash  ;   dress  with  iodoform. 

S43.  Capped  Hock,  Knee  and  Elbow  in  Horse. 
Collection  of  fluid  underneath  the  skin. 
Hot  and  cold  applications  ;  stimulating  lotions  and  pre^ure. 

844.  Cataract. 

Opacity  of  the  crystalline  lens,  in  horses  and  old  dogs. 
Treatment  of  little  avail. 

845.  Catarrh. 

Cold  in  the  head,  bowels,  or  bladder. 

Irritation  of  mucous  membranes,  with  watery  discharge. 
Steam  head  with  medicated  watery  vapour. 
Give  chlorodyne  and  small  doses  of  linseed  oil. 

846.  Choking. 

Obstruction  in  the  gullet. 
Try  to  remove  with  hand,  or  pass  the  probang. 
When  left  side  (cow)  much  distended,  puncture  with  trocar  or  knife. 

847.  Colic. 

Gripes,  spasm  of  intestine,  two  kinds,  flatulent  and  spasmodic. 
Give  linseed  oil  and  laudanum,  with  either  spirits  of  nitre,  or  turpentine. 

848.  Chorea. 

Involuntary  spasmodic  movement  of  the  muscles. 
Give  nerve  sedatives — chloral  and  bromides. 
If  in  dogs  from  distemper,  give  Fowler's  solution. 


Inflammation  of  the  outer  covering  of  the  eyeball. 
Remove  irritant ;  bathe  with  tepid  water  ;  apply  boracic  acid  lotion. 


850.  Constipation. 

Torpidity  of  bowels. 
Mild  laxatives;  warm  water  and  gl^xerine  injections. 

851.  Corns  in  Horses'  Feet. 

Bruise  of  sensitive  sole,  inner  heel. 
Rest  ;   remo\-e  shoe,  and  put  on  poultice  made  of  cold  water  and  bran. 
Bar  shoe,  or  indiarubber  bar  pad. 

852.  Cough. 

A  forcible  expulsion  from  the  respiratory  organs  due  to  many  causes. 
Give  equal  parts  of  chlorodyne  and  glycerine. 

853.  Crib-Biting  and  Wind-Sucking. 

Feed  on  the  ground  ;  iron  stable  fittings  ;  put  on  muzzle. 

854.  Curb. 

Sprain  of  ligament  or  tendon  back  of  hock  joint. 
Rest ;  hot  or  cold  applications  ;  blistering  and  firing. 

855.  Debility. 

Stimulating  tonics,  with  easily  digested  food. 

856    Diabetes  Insipidus. 

Great  thirst ;  passing  large  quantities  of  urine. 
Peculiar  to  the  horse. 
Iodine  preparations. 
Good,  nutritious  diet. 

857.  DiARRHCEA. 

Scouring  ;  profuse  discharge  of  Huid  fasces. 
Small  doses  of  linseed  oil  and  laudanum,  and  tincture  of  ginger  or  spirits. 
Well  boiled  gruel  and  milk,  or  linseed  jelly,  to  drink. 

858.  Dislocations. 

Bring  bones  into  natural  position  ;   splints  and  bandages. 

859.  Distemper  in  Dogs. 

Febrile  disease  common  to  young  dogs. 
Keep  warm  ;  give  mild  dose  of  castor  oil  and  buckthorn. 
Hyposulphite  of  soda  and  quinine. 

860.  Dropsy. — (sec  Ascitis). 



86i.  Dysentery. 

Fluid  discharge  of  faeces  mixed  with  blood. 
Give  carbolic  acid  or  crsosote,  or  oil  of  cloves  in  glycerine  or  linseed  oil. 
Well  boiled  gruel  and  milk  or  linseed  jelly  to  drink. 

862.  Eclampsia. 

Reflex  nervous  affection  about  period  of  parturition. 
Give  chloral  hydrate  and  bromide  of  potassium. 

863.  Eczema, 

Skin  affection. 
Wash  with  izal,  phenyle,  sanitas,  or  chinosol  solutions. 

864.  Elephantiasis  in  Horses. 

Chronic  thickening  of  hind  shanks. 
Iron  tonics,  with  diuretics  ;  cold  water  bandages. 

865.  Emphysema. 

Subcutaneous  air  swelHng  underneath  the  skin  due  to  wounds. 
Puncture  with  point  of  sharp  knife,  and  apply  pressure. 

866.  Enteritis. 

Inflammation  of  the  bowels. 
Give  linseed  oil,  laudanum,  chloral  hydrate,  hypodermic  of  morphia. 
Hot  applications  to  belly. 

867.  Epilepsy. 

Fits  in  dogs. 
Keep  animal  steady  ;  douche  head  well  withhold  water. 
If  from  worms,  give  worm  medicine. 

868.  Epistaxis. 

Bleeding  from  the  nostrils. 
Apply  cold  water  to  head  ;  plug  nostrils  with  cotton  wool. 
Give  tincture  of  iron  in  water